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PRICE TWOPENCE. 



No. i.] [J AN - ist,i864. 

A FULL EXPOSITION 

OK 

THE TABERNACLE; 
THE HOLY GARMENTS, 

AND TEE 

Garments for Glory & Beauty; 
THE CAMP, 
And the Service of the Levites. 

#ENRY WILLIAM SOLTAU, 

"author of the holy vessels of the tabernacle, 

THE SCARLET LINE, &C, &C. 



A SERIES OF DRAWINGS WHICH HAVE BEEN ALREADY DESIGNED 
WILL, IT IS HOPED, BE ENGRAVED. SO AS TO FORM A SEPARATE 
VOLUME OF ILLUSTRATIONS, WHEN THE LETTERPRESS SHALL HAVE 
BEEN COMPLETED. 




LONDON: 

Messrs. Morgan 5c Chase, 3, Amen Corner, Paternoster Row,W.C. ; 
W. Yapp, 70, Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square, W. 



Ford, Shapland. & Co., Printers, Tichborne Court, 280, High Holborn, London. 



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or 






THE TABERNACLE 






THE 






Priestly Garments, 






AND 






THE PRIESTHOOD. 






HFWRY W ^Of T ATT 

XlUflM X\. X VY . OUL1 jfiU, 

AUTHOR OF THE HOLT VESSELS, THE SOUL AND ITS DIFFICULTIES, 
THE SCARLET LINE, &C, &C. 






LONDON: 

Morgan 8c Chase, 40, Ludgate Street, E.C.; W. Yapp, 
70, Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square. VT. 







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FORD & SHAPLAND, 

PRINTERS, 

6, Whetstone Park, Lincoln's-Inn-Fields, and Tichborne Court, 
280, High Holborn, London, W.C. 




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CONTENTS. 



»4GB 

Introduction I 

Division of the tribe of Levi 3 

The Vail •. 5 

The Colours 7 

The Riband of Blue ........ 9 

The rent Vail . . . . . . . . . 28 

The Pillars of the Vail 35 

The Curtains of the Tabernacle 36 

The Loops and Taches . 44 

The Curtains of Groats' Hair 47 

The Coverings 63 

The Covering of Badgers' Skins 65 

The Door of the Tabernacle 69 

The Boards and Bars of the Tabernacle . . . . • 75 

The Atonement Money 8z 

The Use of the Atonement Money . . . . 95 

The Silver Trumpets " 103 

The Floor of the Tabernacle 1 1 1 

The Court of the Tabernacle 11S 

The Gate of the Court 117 

Pins and Cords 135 

Cords . - 141 

Materials 144 

The Principal Workmen 151 

The Sabbath 160 

The Free Gifts for the Tabernacle 170 

The Liberal Offerings 180 

THE PRIESTHOOD 187 

The Priests 189 

The Garments for Glory and Beauty 191 

The Ephod 198 

The Ephod Girdle 200 

The Onyx Stones, Ouches and Chains . . . . 20 1 

The Breastplate . : 203 

The Sardius . . . 209 

The Topaz 212 

The Carbuncle 214 

The Emerald .215 

The Sapphire 217 

The Diamond 220 



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CONTENTS. 



PACE 

TheLigure . 222 

The Agate 223 

The Amethyst 226 

The Beryl 229 

The Onyx 232 

The Jasper 239 

The Memorial 248 

The Urim and the Thummim . . . . . 251 

The Robe of the Ephod . . . . . . . 256 

The Golden Bells and Pomegranates 261 

The Mitre 266 

The Golden Plate 270 

The Embroidered Coat 281 

The Girdle 289 

The Garments for Aaron's Sons 295 

Girdles . 297 

The Bonnets 302 

The Linen Breeches 304. 

The Rearing up of the Tabernacle 314. 

The Cloud 317 

The Consecration of the Priests 337 

The Anointing Oil 345 

The Bullock for a Sin-offering 363 

The Ram for the Burnt-offering 367 

The Ram of Consecrations 371 

The Food of the Priests 393 

The Eighth day Service 403 

The Law of the Burnt-offering 414 

The Day of Atonement 423 

The Holy Linen Garments 427 

The Offerings for Sin 428 

Sprinkling the Blood upon the Mercy^seat . . . . 43 1 

Sprinkling the Incense Altar 442 

The Scapegoat 450 

The Burnt-offering 465 

Concluding Address 467 



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INTRODUCTION 



An exposition of the truths shadowed forth in the 
vessels of the Tabernacle has been elsewhere attempted.* 
k is now the purpose of the author, (if the Lord will,) 
to continue the subject in a series of papers embracing 
the typical import of the building, its curtains and cover- 
ings, with its courts and surrounding encampment ; 
concluding with an investigation of the priestly gar- 
ments, and the analogies and contrasts between the 
Aaronic and Melchizedek priesthoods. 

In entering on a subject of such vast extent and deep 
importance, including, as it [does, striking types of the 
Lord himself, His sufferings and glories; embracing 
also, the future as well as the past ; he who writes may 
well tremble under a feeling of solemn responsibility. 
He needs especially the help and sustainment of the 
Holy Spirit, and the prayers of those who are particu- 
larly interested in this portion of God's Word, and who 
desire that truth, unmixed with error, may be elicited, 
for the edification of the Church of God. 




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THOUGHTS 

ON 

THE TABERNACLE. 



IplHE tribe of Levi was divided into three families, 
under his three sons, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. 
Each had his own separate place of encampment around 
the Tabernacle, and to each was committed a peculiar 
charge and burden. The Merarites, who encamped 
on die north, watched over, erected and carried, all the 
solid framework of the building, the pillars of the sur- 
rounding courts, together with the sockets of silver and 
brass. 

The Gershonites pitched towards the west, and had 
under their care die curtains, hangings, and coverings 
of the tabernacle and court, which they also bore on the 
journeys : whilst to the Kohathites, whose camp was 
south, were allotted the charge and carriage of the holy 
vessels. Thus was all distributed among these three 
families of Levites, and the burden of one was kept 
distinct from that erf another. 

In like manner, we may divide die truth under three 
heads : the solid foundation and framework, without 
which the Tabernacle itself could not be spread abroad, 
portray the great verities on which the whole of salva- 
tion rests, viz : the Person of Him who is God and 
Man, the eternal, unchanging, and unchangeable Son 
of God, Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and to-day, 
and for ever. p ^ 



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The varied colours, as well as costly materials, of 
which some of the beautiful draperies were fashioned, 
attracted and pleased the eye of the beholder, both by 
their brilliancy and tasteful arrangement. So does the 
eye of faith explore and delight in the display of God 
manifest in the flesh. The character and ways of Jesus, 
and his blessed work accomplished on the cross, reveal 
Him to us, and make him manifest as the Son of God. 

The holy vessels of different forms and adapted to 
different uses, but all to one end — that Israel might have 
access to God — represent the priestly offices of Christ, 
which depend on the glories of His person, and result 
from the perfection of His work. 

In pursuing the subject, this subdivision will, in 
measure be retained. But, though prominence be given 
to one aspect or portion of truth, yet the Spirit of God 
would always have us contemplate the one undivided 
Christ. If His character be displayed, it is in order that 
He may be revealed. If His offices are more particu- 
larly before us, it is that we may " know HIM.'' The 
soul is not nourished by mere abstract statements of the 
character, or even of the work of the Lord. HE is the 
living bread : His flesh and blood must be eaten, as He 
says, " As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by 
the Father; so he that eateth ME, even he shall live 
by me." — John vi. 57. 

When Moses received directions from God respecting 
the Tabernacle, the order in which the vessels and parts 
were enumerated, was different from that in which they 
were subsequently made. Thus the Ark, the Shew- 
bread table, and the Candlestick were first described to 
him; then the Curtains, Coverings, Vail, and Door; after 
that, the altar of Burnt-offering, and Boards, and Bars, 
of the Tabernacle. In the order of construction, the 
Curtains, Coverings, Boards, Bars, and Sockets — in 
fact the whole Tabernacle was first fashioned before 
the Vail and Door, or any of the vessels were made. 

The order followed in this exposition will be, first, 



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to consider the various Curtains and Hangings, and the 
Courts formed by them : and subsequently, die Boards, 
Bars, Pillars, and Sockets ; first the Gershonite, and 
then the Merarite charge. In doing so, the VaU has 
been selected by way of commencement, because we 
have a distinct Scripture in the New Testament, 
directing us to its typical signification. " The Vail, that 
is to say, His flesh." — Heb. x. 20. And if we can, by 
means of this key, unlock some of the hidden treasures 
contained in this type, we shall be better able to arrive 
at the true interpretation of the other parts. 



THE VAIL. 



"And thou shalt make a vail of 
blue, and purple, and scarlet, and 
fine twined linen of cunning work : 
with cherubims shall it be made." 
— Exod xxvi. 31. 



"And he made a Tail of blue, 
and purple, and scarlet, and fine 
twined linen: with cherubims 
made he it of cunning work." — 
Exod — xxxvi. 35. 



Fine twined linen. — One material only is specified in 
the construction of the Vail, " fine linen :" the blue, 
purple, and scarlet, were simply colours. Upon this 
ground-work of fine linen these colours were displayed ; 
so that the observer would be first arrested by the beauty 
-of the blue, the depth of the purple, and the brilliancy 
of the scarlet, before he perceived the material, over 
which these tints were spread. Does not this apdy 
exemplify that wondrous truth, " God was manifest in the 
flesh ?" "The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among 
us ; and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only- 
begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth." 

The Wife, in Rev. xix. 7, is represented as having 
-made herself ready for the marriage supper, and it is 
added in the succeeding verse, "To her was granted, 
that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean, and white: 
for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints." ver. 8. 
Here a twofold, yet united, aspect of the truth is beauti- 



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fully presented: the Church makes herself ready, and 
yet she is clothed by another. So in Rev. vii, 14, believers 
are said to have washed their robes, and made them 
white in the blood of the Lamb : while, in chap. i. 5, it 
is written " Unto Him that loved us, and washed us from 
our sins in His own blood." We may view the saint as 
clothing or washing himself ; for he may be regarded as, 
by faith, appropriating to himself the precious blood of 
Christ ; or, we may consider the work as all accomplished 
for him by the Lord Jesus, through the grace and mercy 
of God. The word " righteousness of saints " is remark- 
able, being in the plural number ; it may be rendered 
* righteousnesses 1 the fine linen displaying every form of 
bright and holy purity; righteousness in every aspect; 
according to that beautiful word " Thou art all fair, my 
love: there is no spot in thee." But whence were these 
garments derived ? If we turn to Jer. xxiii. 6, " This 
is His name, whereby He shall be called, Jehovah our 
Righteousness." — here again righteousness is in the 
plural. Jehovah Jesus is the righteousnesses of the saints. 
He is the spotless robe; they are clothed with Him ; they 
stand accepted (graced) in the Beloved. God has 
made Him to be unto them " righteousness, sanctifica- 
tion, and redemption," and His name is placed upon 
them ; as, in Jer. xxxiii. 16, Jerusalem on earth will 
have "Jehovah our Righteousnesses" as the name 
whereby she shall be called. 

The fine linen of the Vail seems, then, especially 
to present to us "the Righteous One," who in His 
life of toil and sorrow, and most especially in His 
death of shame and suffering, manifested that unsullied 
purity, that perfect obedience, and that delight in 
accomplishing the will of His Father, whereby He 
has earned for Himself a name, which is above every 
name, the name of Jesus ; " who was made sin for us, 
that we might be made the righteousness of God 
in Him." 



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THE COLOURS. 

Blub.-— This ranks pre-eminent, being always the 
first mentioned in the frequent enumerations of the 
colours given in the latter chapters of Exodus. It 
attracts, without dazzling the eye ; and the epithet 
lovely is very appropriately attached to it. It is seen 
spread over the expanse of heaven, of boundless extent. 
When the thunder-cloud vails the sky, and the 
tempest bursts in fury on the earth with its desolating 
power, this serene colour is concealed ; but we hail 
its gradual reappearance as a sure presage of the 
returning calm, and of the sun's genial beams. It is 
peculiarly a heavenly colour; and throughout these 
pes, is closely linked with gold. Thus in Exod. xxviii. 
and 15, the word "and" is omitted between the 
gold and blue ; so that the passages may be read as 
follows : " They shall make the ephod of gold, blue, 
and purple; the curious girdle of the ephod shall be 
of gold, blue, and purple, &c. Thou shalt make the 
breast-plate of gold, blue, and purple, &c." The same 
order is precisely repeated in chap, xxxix. 2, 5, 8, the 
"and" being again omitted between the gold and blue. 
Taches of gold were inserted into loops of blue, 
connecting together the curtains of the Tabernacle. 
Laces of blue, passing through rings of gold, fastened 
the breast-plate to the ephod, and a lace of blue 
bound the golden plate to the mitre of the high priest. 
The golden vessels of the sanctuary, with the exception 
of the ark, were all covered with a cloth of blue. 
If the gold was a type of the glory, majesty, and 
eternity of the Son of God, blue will fitly represent 
the grace and love He manifested as declaring the 
character of God. "God is love." So inseparably and 
exclusively is this blessed attribute descriptive of Him, 
that He affirms it to be His very nature. It is not of 
earth. As the blue vault of heaven, with its vast 



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dimensions, defies our puny measurements, so the 
breadth, and length, and depth, and height of the 
love of Christ passeth knowledge. The thunders of 
God's wrath and holy indignation against sin, may for 
a time, seem to obscure His love. But "His anger 
endureth but a moment." Judgment is " His strange 
work," for "He delighteth in mercy." 

The dark cloud only intimates a passing storm, needful, 
it may be, to purify the air. Compared with the azure 
depth beyond, it is but superficial and momentary. And, 
since we have known the full outpouring of His wrath 
upon His Son, no cloud, however black, can cross our sky, 
without the heavenly blue being seen in the bow, which 
God has set there as a token of eternal mercy, that 
judgment once poured out shall never more be repeated. 

In looking at the Vail, the first colour, which would 
draw the attention of the beholder, was the Blue. The 
sinner s first glance of faith on the Lord Jesus recognises 
Him as from above, " God manifest in die flesh," " the 
only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth." 
Grace is ever the attraction to one who is burdened with 
guilt. The woman who was a sinner, Luke vii. 37 — 50, 
despised and shunned by her more decorous neighbours, 
broke through all restraints, to welcome Christ. She 
heard that Jesus sat at meat in the Pharisee's house. God 
had, in very deed, come down to visit fallen man : but 
no thunders of Sinai, no fearful voice of stern rebuke, 
no trumpet sound of judgment heralded His approach. 
He came upon one errand, that of mercy. He made 
known the depth of God's heart, and the woman felt 
she had a claim above all others upon His compassion, 
for she knew herself most guilty. Conscious of her 
unfitness for His presence, and yet assured that her very 
unfitness had brought Him down from heaven — loathing 
herself on account of her sin, and yet aware that her 
loathsomeness was her best plea to be in the company of 
Christ, she rushed, unbidden, into that assembly; all 
considerations of propriety giving way before the one 



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engrossing thought, that it was her Saviour, her God, 
who sat there, neglected by all but herself : and there 
she remained, satisfied with her nearness to Him ; lost 
to all around her, her heart more broken, the more she 
tasted His love; arrested by the heavenly beauty of Him 
on whom she gazed. At length, she heard words 
which could come from no lips but those of the Son of 
God: "Thy faith hath saved thee: go in peace." 
Well might she have exclaimed, "Thou art fairer than 
the children of men: grace is poured into thy lips." 
(Psa. xlv. 2.) She recognised the loveliness of the 
blue. 

It would be deeply interesting, to trace through the 
Gospels this beautiful colour, exhibited in the ways of 
the Lord; and above all, its intensity, in those last scenes 
of anguish and distress, when He proved how He loved 
us. But this may suffice to direct others into these 
green pastures, and to the still waters, where refresh- 
ment and rest are found. 



THE RIBAND OF BLUE. 

As a confirmation of the typical import already proposed 
respecting the colour, Blue, it may not be amiss to insert 
here a short exposition of Numbers xv. 32 — 41, a pecu- 
liar ordinance, giving directions concerning the dress of 
the children of Israel. One of that people had been 
found transgressing a commandment of God by gather- 
ing sticks on the sabbath-day. He had, by this act, 
violated the direct precept, " Thou shalt do no manner 
of work :" and had he been allowed to carry out his 
purpose, he would have broken another statute, " Ye 
shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations on the 
sabbath-day." For this offence he was stoned to death ; 
an early example of the severity of that law under which 
Israel had voluntarily placed themselves, and which they 
had promised to obey. He perished without mercy : 



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for the law knew no grace. It demanded strict obedi- 
ence ; and no plea of necessity or of ignorance could be 
allowed in mitigation of its fearful penalty. It was on 
this occasion that the following directions were given by 
God : " And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, speak 
unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make 
them fringes in the borders of their garments throughout 
their generations, and that they put upon the fringe of 
the borders a riband of blue : and it shall be unto you 
for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all 
the commandments of the Lord, and do them ; and that 
ye seek not after your own heart, and your own eyes." 
Ignorance of God is the fruitful source of disobedience. 
The sabbath-breaker (who was but a specimen of the 
whole nation) had sinned because he had forgotten God 
and the great redemption out of Egypt, in which God 
had made Himself manifest, both as to His holiness and 
His mercy. The Law made righteous demands on those 
who were under its covenant. It was " holy, just, and 
good." But, in its precepts, it made not a full display 
of God's blessed character of mercy. Grace and truth 
did not come by it : they came by Jesus Christ ; and 
there would be no power to fulfil the righteousness of 
that law, or even to remember it, unless the heart were 
first instructed in the goodness, love, and compassion of 
God. A little intimation of this blessed truth (which 
was afterwards fully revealed under the new covenant) 
is given us in the command respecting the riband of 
blue. That heavenly colour, figuratively directing the 
beholder to the gracious character of God, was to be the 
ornament of his dress. The skirts of his clothing were 
to remind him, as he walked, that he belonged to God, 
who was holy, and who had redeemed him out of 
Egypt by the blood of the lamb, and through the waters 
of the Red Sea, unto Himself. The Law, written and 
engraven on stones, had proved ineffectual as to securing 
obedience. Even its threatenings of judgment prevailed 
not to restrain the wilful purposes of the heart, which, 



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by nature alienated from God, only despised His judg- 
ments, and found an additional zest in sinning presump- 
tuously against His word. It might be, that some 
intimation of His grace, kept constantly under the 
Israelite's eye, would remind him of those command- 
ments of which he had proved himself forgetful. 

This seems to be the purport of the fringe of blue 
riband. But, like all ordinances addressed merely to 
the senses, we know how it failed. The Pharisees 
enlarged the blue riband, in order that men might 
praise their scrupulous adherence to the letter of the 
law. They did it, to be seen of men; not that they 
might themselves look upon it, and remember all the 
commandments of the Lord. They fashioned their 
dress, in order to attract the notice, and gain the 
approbation of others ; to get a character for sanctity, 
and separation from the world; and they had their 
reward. They were held in reputation among men. 
So, in modern days, a peculiar garb may be assumed, 
an outward appearance affected, an ascetic life practised, 
which will gain human applause; and he who adopts 
such will be hailed as a heavenly man. But, if the 
heart be not first right with God; if the affection be 
not set on things above, and that on the ground of 
resurrection with Christ, and the life hid with Christ 
in God ; all these outward observances are mere 
Pharisaical displays, and nourish, instead of mortifying, 
the flesh. 

The every-day garments of the Israelite were to be 
adorned with this memorial of the God who had 
redeemed him, and to whom he especially owed his 
allegiance. The believer is constantly to keep in view 
his heavenly origin, and to remember, he is not of the 
world, even as Christ is not of the world. He should 
gaze continually on the face of Him, who has manifested 



God, in the gift of Jesus, has proved that love is 
inseparable from holiness; and if we reflect His 



the love of God h 




His life for his redemption. 



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character, we shall, in our ordinary ways, display 
something of the grace and purity, which pre-eminently 
shone forth from the Son of God. As holy brethren, 
partakers of the heavenly calling, we have to consider 
the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, and 
thereby we shall be more and more conformed to His 
likeness, and adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour. 
The heart first, and the eye next, can only be kept from 
lusting after the things of the world and of the flesh, 
by being fixed on heavenly things. 

The touch of faith drew out cleansing virtue from the 
border of His garment, who was truly the Heavenly One ; 
and as we, by faith, hear, see with our eyes, look upon, 
and handle, the Word of life-, as we exercise our every 
spiritual sense in contemplating Christ; so shall we be 
practically holy, and have the adorning of the hidden man 
of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, but which 
will be made manifest in the meek and quiet spirit, which 
is, in the sight of God, of great price: " That ye might 
walk worthy of the Lord unto all pleasing, being fruitful 
in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of 
God." " As ye have therefore received Christ Jesus the 
Lord, so walk ye in him. — Col. i. 10. -, ii. 6. 

The Blue colour in the vail, and other hangings 
of the Tabernacle, may therefore, without assuming any 
fanciful interpretations, represent the gracious and holy 
character of God, who is Love, as displayed in the 
Lord Jesus. 

The Scarlet. — As blue is peculiarly the colour of 
the heavens, so, scarlet is the gorgeous colour belonging 
to earth. The flowers, the produce of the soil, display 
its brilliant tints. We do not look above to find it : but 
it meets our eye when we contemplate the flowers of the 
field. The Word of God also employs this colour as 
an emblem of royalty. The beast, and the woman in 
the Revelation, are both represented as scarlet. Not 
that the scarlet of itself, denotes evil •, but because the 
kingdoms of the world were held under their regal sway. 



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And, when the Lord Jesus was, in mockery, hailed as 
king, the soldiers of imperial Rome clothed him with a 
scarlet robe.* Matthew xxviL 28. 

This colour, in the Vail, seems therefore to typify the 
perfect human kingly glory of the Lord Jesus. He was, 
by birth, of the royal line of David ; David's son, as 
well as David's Lord. He was born King of the Jews ; 
having tide to the throne, and sovereignty of the world, 
not only by descent, but He was truly a king, by virtue 
of his own intrinsic excellency. 

At his creation, Adam had dominion conferred on him 
by God. All things of this earth were put under him. 
But he debased himself by giving credit to one who was 
classed as of the beasts of die field ; for it is written of 
the serpent, to whom man yielded his allegiance, that 
" he was more subde than any beast of the field, which 
the Lord God had made." Gen. iii. I. Adam was not 
indeed deceived, as Eve was ; but he participated in her 
sin, and thus both parents of the human race for ever 
lost their legitimate place of authority. 

A true king would neither come in his own name, 
nor accept his kingdom from any, but from God. Too 
exalted for ambition ; satisfied with the favour of God, 
and owning no other as Lord over him ; contented to be 
His servant, in meekness and righteousness would he 
triumph. Combining mercy and truth in all his actions, 
and uniting boldness and courage with pitifulness and 
courtesy, he would scatter away all evil with his eyes, 
and would plead for those who are appointed to destruc- 
tion. Liberal of heart and having a bountiful eye, he 
would give bread to the poor and needy. Unerring with 
his mouth as to judgment, a divine sentence would ever 
proceed from his lips. In the light of his countenance 

* Note.— In the Gospels by Mark and John, the robe is said to be purple : in 
Luke, no colour is specified, but it is simply called a gorgeous robe The differ- 
ence between scarlet and purple, according to the present estimation of these 
colours, seems hardly to have been recognised of old. But the royal purple of 
the ancients was what we should now term scarlet, or, it may be, crimson.— 
Purple, in our days, inclines strongly to blue. 



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would be life ; and his favour, as a cloud of the latter 
rain. These are some of the leading features of the 
royal character, portrayed in the Word of God : and 
such was the Son of Man. 

The blind beggar discerned, in the despised and 
rejected One, the true Son of David. He saw the royal 
colour ; whilst others, who had eyes, perceived it not. And 
the woman of Canaan put Israel to shame, for she, though 
a dog, recognised her royal master. Once, for a moment 
only, the multitude owned their meek and lowly King. 
They caught a transient glimpse of His majesty and 
glory. But soon they lifted up, in shame and dishonour, 
on the tree, Him whom they had welcomed, a little while 
before, as their rightful sovereign. Never did His glory 
shine forth more resplendently, than when His crown 
was thus trampled under foot. Never did the Royal 
One so prove His own majesty, as when disowned by 
all, and even cast offby God. The exaltation of the cross 
was His one step to the throne of God. He manifested 
Himself, when hanging on the tree, so glorious and so 
worthy, that no place was high enough, but that at the 
right hand of Jehovah : no name sufficiently dignified, 
but " the name that is above every name." 

The true dignity of man was blessedly maintained and 
exhibited by Christ when tempted of the devil, as 
recorded in Matt. iv. I — 4. Eve, when surrounded by 
all that bespoke God's care and kindness, mistrusted 
His love, and believed the insinuated lie of Satan, viz : 
that God had withheld the best fruit lest she should 
become, by eating it, like Himself. Her ambition was 
stirred; she desired to be greater than she was. Her 
eye also was attracted by die beauty of the fruit, and 
her heart received the whisper of the enemy. She gave 
credit to the devil in preference to God. She took and 
ate, and gave to her husband, and he did eat : and the 
dignity and honour of the creature, Man, was voluntarily 
surrendered to the unclean apostate spirit, Satan. " Dust 
thou art," was all that could now be said of the fallen 



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lord of creadon : and there was no power in him to 
regain his lost greatness. 

Let us now mark the contrast displayed by the Son 
of God. In a wilderness, surrounded by wild beasts, 
an hungered, and apparently deserted by God, Satan 
desired, if possible, to induce the blessed Lord to act 
independently of His Father ; to provide Himself with 
the bread which He needed for His sustainment, by a 
simple act of His own power. But he answered the 
tempter, not by asserting His dignity, as bring Himself 
God, but by keeping His own subject place as man. He 
proved Himself thus above the control of the circum- 
stances in which He was placed, and above yielding 
even to His own need. Again assailed by the enemy 
with the suggestion as to whether God's Word were 
true, and therefore, would it not be well to test its faith- 
fulness ? He not only maintained His perfect reliance on 
that Word, but proved His obedience to its commands. 
And when, as a last device, the tempter spread out 
before Christ such a vision of earthly glory as human 
eyes had never beheld, and sought, by that enticement, 
to allure Him from His allegiance to God; the Lord, 
taking, for a moment, His kingly seat of judgment, drove 
the wicked one from before Him ; at the same time 
preserving His humble, yet happy position as a worship- 
per of die Most High. Throughout this wondrous 
scene the kingly colour, the scarlet, is most manifest. 

Two Hebrew words are united in all the passages in 
Exodus relating to the Tabernacle, where our word, 
scarlet, occurs. The first of these, (tohlahgh,) is trans- 
lated worm in the following texts: " The son of man, 
which is a worm." Job xxv. 6. " I am a worm, and 
no man." Psa. xxii. 6. " Fear not, thou worm, Jacob." 
Isa. xli. 14. The other word, (shahnee,) is of doubtful 
signification. Some suppose it to mean double-dyed. In 
the margin of Proverbs xxxi. 21, double garments is the 
rendering suggested instead of scarlet, where the Hebrew 
word occurs. In Isa. i. 18, both words occur sepa- 



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16 

rately. " Though your sins be as scarlet, (shahnee,) 
they shall be white as snow : though they be red like 
crimson, (tohlahgh,) they shall be as wool." In this 
verse, perhaps, the first word, (shahnee,) is used to 
imply the depth of the dye ; and the latter, (tohlahgh,) its 
glaring colour, red. Others suggest, that the two words 
used together, express the kind of insect, (coccus,) from 
which this colour was extracted. It is remarkable that 
our most brilliant dye is procured from it. 

Is there not some deep instruction to be gained from 
these Hebrew words ? On the one hand, do they not 
teach us, that, however gloriously attired through 
human agency, however dignified with human greatness, 
the robe of honour, after all, is but the produce of a 
worm, and covers but a worm? And we read in 
Isaiah xiv. II, that the king of Babylon, who is 
hereafter to be clothed with regal splendour and dignity 
heretofore unknown on earth, so as to exceed even his 
predecessor Nebuchadnezzar, the king of kings, in great- 
ness and glory, will be brought down to the grave, where 
the crimson worms will be his bed and his covering. 

On the other hand, does not this word worm, or the 
scarlet colour derived from it, instruct us as to the 
humiliation of the blessed Lord ? He made Himself of 
no reputation, when He took upon Him the form of a 
servant, and was made in the likeness of men. He who 
was equal with God, was found in fashion as a man. 
The blue of the heavens was connected with the scarlet 
of the worm. And at length, on the cross, in the depth 
of His self-abasement, and under the judgment of God, 
He exclaims, "lama worm, and no man ; a reproach 
of men, and despised of the people." But what a 
glorious display of the perfect Man was this ! How 
that dazzling colour has been, as it were, expressed ; 
so that now we behold it on the throne of the Majesty 
in the heavens. 

Purple. — If we were to place the blue and the scarlet 
side by side, without the intervention of some other 



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colour, the eye would be offended with the violent 
contrast; for, though each is beautiful in itself, and 
suitable to its own sphere, yet there is such a distinction, 
we might almost say opposition, in their hues, as to 
render them inharmonious if seen in immediate contact. 
The purple interposed, remedies this unpleasing effect: 
the eye passes with ease from the blue to the scarlet, 
and vice versa, by the aid of this blended colour, the 
purple. The blue gradually shades off into its opposite, 
the scarlet; and the gorgeousness of the latter is softened 
by imperceptible degrees into the blue. The purple is a 
new colour, formed by mingling the two : it owes its 
peculiar beauty alike to both : and were the due 
proportion of either absent, its especial character would 
be lost. 

The order of the colours, blue, purple, scarlet, 
repeated at least twenty .four times in Exodus, is never 
varied. The scarlet and the blue are never placed in 
juxta-position throughout the fabrics of the Tabernacle. 
Does not this intimate a truth of an important character? 
Would the Spirit of God have so constandy adhered to 
this arrangement had there not been some significant 
reason for it ? Are we not hereby taught a very 
precious fact respecting the Lord Jesus ? He is God 
and Man : and we can trace in the Gospels all the 
fulness of the Godhead, as well as the dignity and 
sympathy of the perfect Man. But, besides this, in His 
thoughts, feelings, words, ways, and actions, there is an 
invariable blending of the two. Many mistakes and 
errors would have been avoided, in the Church of God, 
if those, who have undertaken to write or speak on this 
subject, had been subject to the definite words of Scrip- 
ture, instead of adopting abstract reasonings upon the 
divinity and humanity of the Son of God. The Christ of 
God is the object of our faith ; not a nature, or natures, but 
Himself. He was born of the Virgin, though HE 
eternally existed as the Son of God : HE died on the 
Cross, though He is the Mighty God. The importance 



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of this little word HE, cannot be over-rated. The Apostle 
John was so intimately acquainted with his Lord, that in 
his first epistle, he constantly refers to Him, without 
mentioning His name ; as if assured that the hearts of 
his readers would be so filled with the same blessed 
object that occupied him, that they would at once know 
to whom he alluded. See especially chap. i5, 2 — 7. 

In contemplating Christ, it is well ever to remember 
the first syllable of His name, as riven us in Isaiah ix, 6. 
"WONDERFUL :" and part of this marvel is, that in 
Him are combined the deep thoughts and counsels of 
God, with the feelings and affections of man. In Him 
there is no incongruity; in the days of His flesh, and 
on the cross itself. He was "the same" the " I AM," 
the Son of God, Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and 
to-day, and for ever. He could say, whilst on earth, 
"The Son, which is in the bosom of the Father." 
When speaking to Nicodemus, in that memorable 
meeting by night, He said, " No man hath ascended up 
to heaven, but He that came down from heaven, even the 
Son of Man which is in heaven." And subsequently, 
when some of His disciples murmured at the difficulties 
raised in their carnal minds by His words of life, His 
answer was — "Doth this offend you? What, and if 
ye shall see the Son of Man ascend up where He was 
before?" (John vi, 61, 62.) Such words as these, 
from the lips of the Son of God, should silence our 
fleshly reasonings, and cause us to bow down and 
worship, instead of attempting to fathom that which is 
unfathomable. Vain of our own conceit, we try, with 
our puny resources, to sound the depths-, and fancy, 
when we have run out our little line, that we have 
reached the bottom. We cut and square systems of 
divinity, and stamp, with our imprimatur, as orthodox, 
the theology of this or that divine ; and all the while, lose 
sight of HIM, in whom are hid all the treasures of 
wisdom and knowledge. Man can applaud his fellow; 
for, in so doing, he praises himself. He can approve 



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the sayings of another; for, thereby, he constitutes 
himself a judge. And thus, in the divinity of the day, 
we shall find that creeds, confessions of faith, and 
writings of the Fathers, really assume the place of the 
Word of God: and orthodoxy consists, not in holding 
what God says, but in subscribing to articles drawn 
up by fallible man. 

Three instances are recorded in the Gospels, of the 
dead bang raised to life by Christ : Jairuss daughter, 
the widow of Nam's son, and Lazarus of Bethany. 
Together, they afford us a complete display of His mighty 
power : for, in the first case, death had only just seized 
its victim ; in the second, the sorrowing mother was on 
her way, to commit the body of her only son to the 
grave ; in the third, the corpse had already been deposited 
some time, and had become corrupt in the tomb. In 
each of these remarkable scenes, the colours of the Vail 
may be traced. We can have no hesitation in recognising 
the Blue, in the manifestation of the love of God, when 
His blessed Son, at the entreaty of the sorrowing father, 
went to the house, to heal the dying child. On the way, 
the message came to the ruler, " Thy daughter is dead : 
why troublest thou the Master any further r " little did 
they, who spake these words, understand who that 
Master was ; or the depths of trouble, in which He 
would be overwhelmed, in order that the dead might 
live. They knew not that God was present with them, 
manifest in the flesh : but He at once stilled the fear of 
the damsel's father thus doing what none but God 
could do ; commanding peace into his bosom, in the very 
presence of death. Again, the voice of the Mighty God 
sounds forth, to hush the boisterous grief of those who 
had no hope, saying " Weep not : the damsel is not dead, 
but sleepeth." But they perceived not who it was that 
thus spoke. Death was to them a familiar sight ; they 
knew its power : but they laughed Christ to scorn. 
Ought not the believer exactly to reverse this ? In the 
presence of the Lord, he may well laugh death to scorn. 



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Lastly; how were the power and the grace of the One 
from heaven made known, when He spake those words — 
"Damsel, I say unto thee, arise ! " 

Let us now turn to the scarlet in this beautiful picture. 
Who but the Son of Man, would have pursued the path 
of kindness and sympathy, notwithstanding the rude 
scoffs, with which His ready love was met? and who, 
but one that knew what exhaustion and hunger were, 
would have added, to this mighty miracle, the command 
"Give her something to eat" r And does not this also 
exhibit to us the purple ? With sympathy and love for 
the child, deeper than the mother's, and yet present in 
the scene as one who was Lord in it, and above it ; He 
can call the dead to life, and at the same moment, enter 
into the minutest want of the little maid. The mere 
human beings who were present, even the very parents, 
were so overpowered with what they had witnessed, and 
with the joy of receiving back the dead one to life, that 
their human sympathies failed. None but God could 
thus have abolished death : and none, but He who was 
God and Man, could so have combined power, majesty, 
grace, sympathy, and tenderest care. 

The next instance already alluded to, depicts in few 
but full sentences, the beautiful tints of the Vail. Un- 
solicited, the Son of God went to the city where He 
knew the stroke of death had fallen, and had inflicted 
another wound upon a heart already stricken with grief. 
He timed His visit so as to meet, at the gate, the 
mournful procession, bearing to the grave the only son 
of a widowed mother. If any hope of God's inter- 
ference had at one time cheered her whilst she watched 
her dying child, all such hope must now have fled. A 
little interval only remained, and the earth would close 
over her lost son. But attracted by the very extremity 
of the .case, He, who declared the Father, drew nigh. ; 
With the authority of God, He touched the bier, and 
arrested the bearers in their progress to the tomb. Struck 
by a sudden consciousness that they were in the presence 



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of One who had a right to stop them on their way, they 
stood still ; they did not, like die attendants on the dead 
in the former case, laugh Him to scorn ; and therefore, 
they had the blessing of witnessing His mighty act. He 
commanded the young man to arise from the bier, as He 
ordered the child to arise from her bed ; and in like 
manner He was obeyed. " He, that was dead, sat up, 
and began to speak." Here, then, the heavenly colour 
was evident ; so that even they that looked on, said, 
" God hath visited His people." But the heart of Christ 
was occupied with the mother as well as with the son. 
As the voice of the risen youth reached His ear, He 
knew how the widow felt as she heard it. Himself 
undistracted by the exercise of His life-giving power, yet 
fully occupied in sympathy and grace with the yearning 
of the mother to embrace her son, and thus to assure 
herself of the reality, which even the evidence of her 
eyes and ears scarcely enabled her to credit, He gave 
completeness to the scene by delivering him to his 
mother. Here was the perfection of human sensibility, 
such as no man could have exhibited in such circum- 
stances, unless that man were also God. 

But perhaps the most complete manifestation of " the 
Word made flesh" is to be found in John xi., if we 
except, as we must always do, the Cross, where all was 
marvellously concentrated. It seemed to the sisters as 
if the Lord had strangely disregarded their urgent mes- 
sage : for, He still abode at a distance, and allowed not 
only death to bereave them of their brother, but the 
grave to close upon his remains. His very reply to their 
announcement, (" Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest, is 
sick,") contained in it a paradox which they were unable 
to comprehend, and which the subsequent circumstances 
apparendy falsified ; for, His answer was, " This sick- 
ness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that 
the Son of God might be glorified thereby." And yet 
He tarried till death had, for four days, retained its 
victim. 



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Thus, love and truth in Him who is Love, and who 
is the Truth, for a while appeared to have failed ; but 
in reality the glory of God was the more to shine forth 
in His Beloved. It was, to Mary and Martha, as if the 
Vail had suddenly lost its colours. The short suspense, 
however helped them to discover fresh and deeper beau- 
ties in that curiously wrought fabric. 

What mingled feelings occupied the heart of Christ, 
when, seeing the grief of Mary, and of those around, He 
groaned in the spirit, and was troubled ! He grieved over 
their unbelief and ignorance of Himself : and yet He wept 
in sympathy with them, and sorrowed for the very sorrow 
which His presence might have prevented. Who could 
have shed tears in such circumstances but Christ? Had 
a mere man been gifted by God with the power to raise 
the dead, he would be so eager to exhibit that mighty 
power, and thereby to still the mourners' grief, that he 
would be unable to weep whilst on the way to the 
grave. He must be more than man who could display 
what man in perfection is. The tears of Jesus are 
precious, because they are those of true human feeling : 
but they are most precious because they flow from the 
heart of Him who is the Mighty God. And when 
those 'tears plenteously fell from His eyes, all questions 
as to His love were at an end ; and even the Jews ex- 
claimed, " Behold, how He loved him." Again another 
groan burst from Christ as He drew nigh to the sepulchre : 
for, not only was his heart sorely pained because of the 
inroad that death had made in this once united family, 
tearing asunder the most cherished human relationships; 
but it may be also that the cave, with its door of stone, 
presented to Him in anticipation the sepulchre to which 
he was fast hastening, and that fearful death upon the 
tree where He for a season was to experience the for- 
saking, even of His God, whose bosom had been His 
dwelling-place from all eternity. This second time He 
groaned in Himself. 



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As with authority He had touched the bier, so now 
He commanded that the stone should be removed. But 
Martha interposed her objections ; and though she 
owned Christ as Lord, and had heard, from His lips, 
the wondrous words, " I am the Resurrection and the 
Life," yet she believed not that there could be a remedy 
for one who had already seen corruption. It was then 
that Jesus reminded her of the message he had returned 
when they sent to inform Him of Lazarus's sickness — 
that it should not be unto death, but for the glory of 
God, by answering, " Said I not unto thee, that, if thou 
wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God?" 
God's glory was ever His object : and to accomplish 
that, He had been content to bear the questioning of 
those dear to Him, who could not understand why He 
had not at once come to their aid. 

The sepulchre was now laid open ; and Jesus lifted 
up His eyes from that receptacle of death to the heaven 
above, resting His spirit in the bosom of His Father, 
and audibly expressing His dependence on Him, before 
he cried, with a voice of almighty power, " Lazarus, 
come forth." What a wondrous blending was here of 
subjection and authority, of obedience and command, of 
" the opened ear," and of the great " I Am." 

The dead, hearing the voice of the Son of God, came 
forth. The corrupting corpse stepped out in life. What 
a moment of astonishment and delight must that have 
been to the asters, as well as to their brother ! But 
here again the Lord alone entered into the minutest 
details of this astonishing act of His power. He saw, 
or rather felt, (for He loved Lazarus,) that His friend 
was still encumbered with the relics of the grave ; and 
He left it not till others awoke from their surprise, to 
perceive the clothes that bound and troubled die risen 
one, but gave another command, " Loose him, and let 
him go." 

Jesus is the second man from heaven, made like unto 
His brethren, yet not of the earth, earthy; that Holy 



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thing born of the Virgin, partaker of flesh and blood, 
yet incorrupt and incorruptible; in Him are inseparably 
united God and Man; yet He is the One Christ, 
manifesting that which is altogether new, viz.: the 
perfect blending of all that is of God, with all that is 
proper to man. Nor can we ever contemplate Him, 
unless we keep in view the mystery of His person. 
God, in sending His beloved Son, has given to man and 
angels a new object of attraction. He enables us to 
behold the brightness of His glory; yet in such a 
manner, that we are not terrified or struck down by 
the sight. We can also look upon man in perfect union 
with God. All such expressions as, "the Divinity 
being in abeyance," "the Divine nature sustaining His 
human nature,'* " Divinity enshrined in humanity," and 
the like, are attempts to explain to human understanding, 
that which can only be received by faith : they are the 
efforts of intellect to grasp that which is beyond human 
scan; and in measure falsify the great truth, "The 
Word made flesh." 

The Jew saw no beauty in Christ to admire : he could 
only perceive an afflicted man of sorrows. The believer, 
at the same moment beheld His glory, the glory as of 
the only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. 
The type we have been considering especially teaches 
these truths : for, all the colours were curiously wrought 
with the fine linen, so as form one mass of cherubim ; a 
vail instinct with life and power, manifesting glory and 
beauty. 

It will be seen that, in Exodus xxxvi, 35, the word 
".with" is in italics before "cherubim:" the vail being 
so fashioned as to present nothing but cherubim. Much 
has been written on these emblematical figures; and the 
reader will find the subject more fully expounded in the 
work on the Holy Vessels before mentioned, under the 
article, " The Mercy-Seat." Many have supposed that 
the Church is symbolised by the cherubim in Exodus. 
But the fact of their forming the vail seems to preclude 



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this interpretation. As the vail shadows forth Christ in 
the flesh, we cannot suppose that any type would be 
given representing the union of the Church wkh Him 
then; as, before death, the corn of wheat abode alone: 
it must die, in order to bring forth fruit. The union of 
the believer with Christ is in life, quickened together 
with Him; seated in heavenly places in Him. He was 
the substitute in death; but He is the last Adam, the 
head of the new family, and source of its existence 
in resurrection. 

The lion (one of the four faces of the cherubim) is 
classed with the king, against whom there is no rising 
up, in Prov. xxx, 30, 31 ; and is also described as going 
well, and being comely in going; and as strongest 
among beasts, turning not away from any. Majesty, 
strength, and courage, are therefore here typified. 

The ox, in addition to its well-known character for 
patient enduring labour, is also recognised in Scripture 
as knowing its owner; herein it may prefigure the 
persevering resolution of Him who unflinchingly set His 
shoulder to the arduous work committed to Him by His 
Father, and who always recognised His Father's will, 
and delighted to do it. 

The way of an eagle in the air is alluded to in 
Prov. xxx, 19. as too wonderful to be known: referring 
probably to the astonishing extent and accuracy of its 
vision as to things of earth, when poised aloft; and to 
its swiftness of flight when the object of its search is 
discovered. Fit emblem this of Him, whose eyes search 
the depths of the heart, and who is as rapid in discovering 
where the lawful prey is, as in delivering it from the 
power of the destroyer. 

These three faces, combined with the human face 
and form, completed the cherubim : for all this power, 
labour, activity, and quickness of perception, were put 
forth under the control and guidance of perfect wisdom 
and sympathy. Wings were also spread abroad 
over the surface of the vail, proceeding from the 



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cherubim ; denoting the heavenly origin and unearthly 
ways of the Son of Man, who was "from above," and 
who could say, even while here, " The Son of Man, 
who is in heaven." 

The vail, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine 
twined linen, cherubim was made "of cunning work," 
or, as it might be translated, "the work of a deviser." 
It was skilfully wrought with wisdom and cunning 
device; a matchless fabric, copied from a heavenly 
pattern, and never again to find its equal on earth : type 
of Him who said "A body has Thou prepared me." 
Gabriel's words to Mary betoken the wonder of Imman- 
uel's birth. "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, 
and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee. 
Therefore also that holy thing, which shall be born of 
thee, shall be called the Son of God." She conceived 
in her womb, and brought forth a son, and called his 
name Jesus. He was the Son of the Highest, and to 
Him, the Lord God gave the throne of His father David : 
and He shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever : and 
of His Kingdom there shall be no end. (Luke i. 28 — 35.) 
Wondrous mystery ! the Virgin's Son, and yet the Son 
of God: the Son of the Highest, and yet inheriting the 
throne of His father David : the Child born, the Son 
given-, His name, Wonderful, Counseller, the Mighty 
God, the Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace : Jesus, 
Immanuel, to whom every knee shall bow, and who is 
the object of the church's contemplation and worship on 
earth; and the subject of eternal song in glory for ever. 
May we ever be filled with reverence and godly fear, 
when speaking or meditating on Him. The precincts of 
the tabernacle are holy ground : and before we view the 
great sight of God manifested in the flesh, we must loose 
the shoes from off our feet. 

The Hebrew word, translated Vail, is, according to 
Gesenius, derived from an unused verb signifying to 
break, and in a secondary sense, to separate. It is called 
the Vail of the covering. (Exod. xxxix. 34; xl. 5. 



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Num. iv. 5.) It was hung up, in order to separate 
between the holy place and the most holy, and also to 
cover or hide the ark, (Exod. xxvi. 33 ; and xl. 3-) 
And when the tabernacle moved, the vail was taken 
down, and thrown over the ark as its first covering. As 
long as the Lord Jesus was in the flesh, His very 
presence on earth declared the impossibility of any one 
approaching God excepting Himself, or unless having 
His perfectness. — He stood as the Perfect Man, who 
alone was fit to appear before God ; the standard weight 
of the sanctuary. Any one, weighed against Him, was 
found wanting. His perfect righteousness placed in dark 
shade the uncleanness of all men. The measure of His 
stature declared the utter insignificance of all human 
attainments. His fulness proved man's emptiness. The 
white and glistening purity of His character, exceeding 
white as snow, put to shame the filthiness of all that was 
born of woman* 

Thus, the very display of the Perfect One on earth, 
showed the impossibility of any approach to God, unless 
some way could be devised, whereby the sinner could 
draw near, clothed in garments equally unsullied. Man, 
Both Jew and Gentile, had made it plain that he was by 
nature a sinner, and had come short of the glory of God : 
and the presence, amongst men, of One who was fit for 
that glory, only rendered the melancholy fact more 
apparent. The vail, as it hung on its golden pillars, 
precluded entrance into the holiest: the ark and mercy- 
seat were hidden, instead of being laid open to public 
gaze. 

The whole ritual of Jewish worship, under the law, 
was one that served to maintain the distance between 
God and the creature. Bounds were set about Sinai, so 
that not even a beast must touch it : and the people felt, 
their safest place was far off. One tribe alone was per- 
mitted to encamp around the tabernacle : one family alone 
of that tribe was singled out to be allowed to enter the 
holy place : and one man alone of that family had access 



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to the holiest; and that, only once a year, and with 
such preparations, and fearful ceremonies, as must have 
inspired him with dread, lest, in the very act of approach, 
through some omission, he might incur the judgment of 
the Most High. 

The incarnation of the Blessed Lord, and His subse- 
quent sojourn here, presented in themselves no gospel to 
the sinner : the requirements of a holy God were only 
made more manifest. A vail unrent, a mercy-seat 
without blood, might indeed exhibit what the glory of 
God required, but could not advance the ruined sinner 
towards that glory, or throw open the way of access. 



THE RENT VAIL. 

Each dispensation, as it succeeded that which went 
before, only the more shut up man in the hopelessness of 
his misery. It left him manifestly worse at the close, 
than it found him at its commencement. The Law and 
Prophets effected no deliverance; the former, instead of 
proving a remedy for sin, became its strength ; the latter 
were slain and persecuted, and afterwards their memory 
was honoured by the children of those who had so used 
them, and who thought themselves better than their 
fathers. At length, in the fulness of the time, God sent 
forth His Son, made of a woman, made under the law. 
The second man, the brightness of God's glory, appeared 
on earth. Still, nothing was effected. He came into 
the world, and the world was made by Him, and the 
world knew Him not. He came unto His own-, and 
His own received Him not. The world, in the stupidity 
of its brutish ignorance, caused by sin, recognised not its 
Lord. Israel, still worse, consdous to some extent of 
His presence, wilfully despised and rejected Him, treating 
Him with the scorn and derision, which devils dared not 
to offer. 



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"The Word, made flesh," dwelling among men, and 
going about ceaselessly doing good, was not the 
fullest manifestation of the love of God. Man himself felt 
rebuked by the presence of the Holy One, rather than 
attracted ; he might, for a moment, be startled at the 
glory, beauty, and grace, manifested in Him whom the 
vail typified : but soon the contrast with himself made 
him hate the perfect One. The way into the immediate 
presence of God was not made manifest as long as the 
vail remained unrent. Two things had to be accom- 
plished. God must declare His love after such a manner 
that the mouth of every gainsayer might be stopped, and 
man be left without excuse ; besides which, a way of 
access must be prepared, so that the vilest sinner, 
covered with all his filthiness, might, without one 
attempt at self-amendment, be welcomed to the presence 
and heart of the Father. To effect these objects, God 
counted nothing too costly. The Wonderful One for 
whom He had prepared a body, and whom He had sent 
into the world, whom he delighted to contemplate, and 
on whom His eternal love rested with unabated fulness 
and complacency, was bruised, and utterly marred in 
death. But who can tell the feelings of His heart, 
when, compelled by His love to us, He spared not His 
own Son ? Or, who can tell the sufferings of that Son, 
when bruised by the hand, and pierced by the arrows, 
of the Almighty ? 

The following is the record, in three Gospels, of the 
rending of the Vail : — 

Matt, xxvii. 46 — 52. — "And about the ninth hour 
Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabach- 
thani ? that is to say, my God, my God, why hast 
thou forsaken me? Some of them that stood there, 
when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elias. 
And straightway one of them ran, and took a sponge, 
and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave 
him to drink. The rest said, Let be, let us see whether 



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Ellas will come to save him. Jesus, when he had cried 
again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. And, be- 
hold, the vail of the temple was rent in twain from the 
top to the bottom : and the earth did quake, and the 
rocks rent; and the graves were opened." 

Mark xv. 34 — 38 — "And at the ninth hour Jesus cried 
with a loud voice, saying, Eld, Eloi, lama Sabachtham ? 
which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why 
hast thou forsaken me i And some of them that stood 
by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he caileth Elias. 
And one ran and filled a sponge full of vinegar, and put 
it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone : 
let us see whether Elias will come to take him down. 
And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the 
ghost. And the vail of the temple was rent m twain 
from the top to the bottom." 

Lukexxiii.44 — 46 — <l And it was about the sixth hour, 
and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth 
hour. And the sun was darkened, and the vail of the 
temple was rent in the midst. And when Jesus had 
cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands 
I commend my spirit : and having said thus, he gave up 
the ghost." 

Although it was the vail of the temple that was rent, 
yet it is to be remarked that in the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, where we have the explanation given what 
the vail typified, " that is to say, His flesh," reference is 
alone made to the tabernacle. 

The temple embodied in its type, a dispensation 
beyond the present, and cannot be so exclusively used 
as a shadow of heavenly things, while the Church is 
passing through this world, like Israel in the wilderness. 
Throughout this epistle, no allusion is made to the 
existence of the temple, although in fact it was then 
standing: and the rending of the vail is made to have the 
same import as the passing away of die earthly tabernade : 
(compare Heb. ix, 3, 8, with x, 20.) It may also be 
observed, that the Ark was the only vessel of the 



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Tabernacle, which was, as originally made, placed in 
the Temple, the other vessels being all fashioned anew; 
and the VaU was also the only hanging which preserved 
an analogy between the temple and the tabernacle. It 
seems to have been perpetuated in the temple, to the end 
that it might be thus significantly rent. 

In the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, as above 
quoted, the same expression is repeated, "rent in twain 
from the top to the bottom." The only type in which 
God Himself, represented by His own act, the great and 
most wonderful truth respecting the death of Christ, viz : 
that He, with His own hand, smote the Lord Jesus. 
Many are the allusions to this in the Old Testament 
Scriptures, " He that is hanged is die curse of God." 
(Deut. xxi. 23.} "THOU hast brought me into the 
dust of death." (Psa. xxii. 15.) "THINE arrows stick 
fast in me, and THINE hand presseth me sore." 
(Psa. xxxviii. 2.) "All THY waves and THY bil- 
lows are gone over me." (Psa. xlii. 7.) " THOU hast 
laid me in the lowest pit, m darkness in the deeps. 
THY wrath lieth hard upon me, and THOU hast 
afflicted me with all THY waves. THY fierce wrath 
goeth over me; THY terrors have cut me off." 
(Psa. lxxxviii. 6, 7, 16.) "It pleased Jehovah to bruise 
Him: He hath put Him to grief." (Isaiah lifi. 10.) 
"Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, and against the 
man that is my fellow, saith Jehovah of hosts-, smite the 
Shepherd." (Zee. xiii. 7.) This was, to the Blessed 
Lord, the most terrible element in the cup of judgment 
which he drank. The grape was trodden in the wine- 
press of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. 
The corn of wheat was bruised between the upper and 
nether nrilfetone of His righteous indignation. The oil 
was beaten from the olive, under the heavy pressure of 
His hand. When the Lord was crucified, we behold 
all the powers of hell, earth, and heaven, arrayed against 
Him. He was lifted up between earth and heaven; the 
fountains of the great deep spouted up their billows 



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from beneath, and the windows of heaven poured 
down the water-spouts of Divine vengeance from 
above. 

In the death of Christ, we have marvellously combined 
Satan's power; man used as the instrument in killing the 
Prince of Life; God smiting Him; and yet no one took 
His life from Him. He laid it down of Himself, with 
the same power by which He took it again in resurrec- 
tion; and this, in obedience to the command of His 
Father. 

No human hand rent the vail in twain ; neither was 
it torn from the bottom towards the top ; but a hand 
from above rent it from the top to the bottom. Access 
to the heaven of heavens was to be laid open ; no love 
and no power could either have devised or accomplished 
this, but the love and power of God. 

In the Gospel of Luke, the rending of the vail is 
mentioned as if it had occurred during the three hours 
of darkness, and before the Lord Jesus gave up the 
ghost. May it not be, that in accordance with the order 
of this Gospel, (which is rather a spiritual than a chro- 
nological order,) it is so inserted, to direct our thoughts 
to the fact, that during those hours of darkness, the 
hand of judgment from God lay in unmitigated weight 
on the soul of the Lamb of God ? The period was 
one, during the whole of which, He was being rent 
from above. 

In Luke, also, the expression " in the midst" is sub- 
stituted for " from the top to the bottom." Here, 
another blessed feature is added to the truth typified by 
this act of God. The vail hung upon four pillars ; and 
the ark was placed in the centre of the holiest ; so that, 
the vail being rent in the midst, from the top to the 
bottom, a way of approach was made directly to the very 
centre of the mercy-seat, where, between the cherubim, 
the God of glory dwelt. It was not a side access, but 
the shortest and most direct that could be made, to the 
fore-front of the ark. 

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The rending of the vail made an entire change in the 
dispensation. Up to that time, the tabernacle and 
priesthood, connected with the law, stood in their in- 
tegrity. Heb. ix. 8 states, that as long as the first 
tabernacle was standing, the way into the holiest was 
not made manifest. Not that the tabernacle was actually 
standing when the vail was rent, but, as the Greek 
expresses it, it had yet a standing, or existence, dispen- 
sationally ; for the first covenant, with which it was 
connected, had not waxed old and passed away. When 
however, the vail was rent, all the exclusive privileges 
which the law had established, were abolished; distinc- 
tions in the flesh were at an end : the first covenant, 
with its ministration of death, was for ever superseded 
by the second, established upon the blood of Him whom 
the vail typified. The same hand that rent the beautiful 
fabric which hitherto had concealed the holiest of all, 
opened simultaneously the graves ; one act of God laid 
open the way, even from the ruin and death caused by 
sin, up to the height of His own glory. Henceforth no 
human priest was needed to stand between the sinner 
and God. No steps of approach were prepared in order 
that, by slow degrees, the unclean might be gradually 
fitted to draw nigh. The way from the grave to the 
glory was but one step ; by the blood, through the 
vail, the sinner, however guilty, however unclean, might 
at once with boldness take his place before the throne 
overshadowed by the Cherubim of Glory. 

Creation also heaved in convulsive throes, for " the 
end of the world" had come : and all that was old, 
and which could be shaken, was to be removed, to 
make way for the new heavens and the new earth, 
wherein dwelleth righteousness. True, this blessed 
consummation has not yet arrived : God still waits to 
be gracious ; but the whole period which has elapsed 
since the death of the blessed Lord, has only been one 
of long-suffering : for, the Cross stood, in the counsels 
of God, at the ensi-ei-att^hings ; the believer him- 




c 



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self is able, by faith, to say, " If any man be in Christ, 
(to him there is) a new creation : old things are passed 
away ; behold, all things are become new : and all 
things are of God." 2 Cor. v. 17, 18. 

The vail of the tabernacle divided between the holy 
and the most holy places. (Exod. xxvl 33.) The sons 
of Aaron, the priests, ministered in the holy place : the 
congregation of Israel had no access into it. The high 
priest alone entered the most holy, and that only once a 
year. All believers in Christ are not only worshippers, 
like Israel, but priests. " Unto Him that loved us, and 
washed us from our sins in His own blood, and hath 
made us king and priests unto God and His Father." 
Rev. i. 5, 6. 

The exhortation in Heb. x. 19, contemplates this 
priestly standing of believers ; they have liberty to enter 
into the holy places (see original) through the rent vail, 
the new and living way, which Jesus has newly made. 
The passage beautifully expresses the two thoughts of 
life and newness, inseparably connected with this way, * 
in contrast with the old covenant and its ceremonial ob- 
servances of dead works, which never advanced the 
sinner a step nearer to God. Besides this, access is in 
the blood; because, not only is the way made, but the 
worshipper himself has a perfect priestly sanctification 
thereby, and is perfectly fit to draw near to God. The 
holiest, also, was thrown open ; and though there can 
only be one Great High Priest, the Lord Jesus Himself, 
yet all believers, seeing they constitute the royal priest- 
hood, have the same high-priestly standing, as regards 
their nearness of approach to God in the holiest. 



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THE PILLARS. OF THE VAIL. 



Exod. xxvi. 32. — "And thou 
shalt hang it upon four pillars of 
shittim wood overlaid with gold : 
their hooks shall be of gold, upon 
the four sockets of silver." 



Exod.xxxvi.36 — "And he made 
thereunto four pillars of shittim 
Wood, and overlaid them with 
gold : their hooks were of gold ; 
and he cast for them four sockets 
of silver." 



The pillars of the vail were four in number, Exod xxvi. 
32 ; and xxxvi, 36. Unlike those, on which hung the 
curtain for the tabernacle-door, they had no capitals-, 
thus they lacked the ordinary architectural completeness 
of a pillar. . May not our thoughts be directed by this, 
to the contemplation of those Scriptures, which speak of 
the Lord as cut cfft Isa. liii. 8. "Who shall declare 
His generation ? For He was cut off out of the land of 
the living." And Psa. cii. 23, 24, "He shortened my 
days : I said, O my God, take me not away in the midst 
of my days." And yet the very fact of this seemingly 
abrupt termination of the life of the Lord Jesus, in the 
days of His flesh, has made Him to be unto us " wisdom, 
righteousness, sanctification, and redemption ?" a fourfold 
perfection, meeting our fourfold need ; to Which possibly 
the number of the vail-pillars may allude. 



C2 



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THE CURTAINS OF THE TABERNACLE. 



Exod. xxvi. 1—3.—*' Moreover 
thou shalt make the tabernacle 
ten curtains of fine twined linen, 
and blue, and purple, and scarlet ; 
cherubims ol cunning work shalt 
thou make them. 

"The length of one curtain shall 
be eight and twenty cubits, and 
the breadth of one curtain four 
cubits : and every one of the car- 
tains shall have one measure. 

"The five curtains shall be 
coupled together one to another ; 
and other five curtains shall be 
coupled one to another." 



Exod.xxxvi.8 — 10 — "And every 
wise hearted man among them 
that wrought the work of the 
tabernacle made ten curtains oi 
fine twined linen, and blue, and 
purple, and scarlet : cherubims of 
cunning work made he them. 

" The length of one curtain was 
twenty and eight cubits, and the 
breadth of one curtain four cubits: 
the curtains were all of one size. 

"And he coupled the five curtain- 
one unto another : and the other 
five curtains he coupled one unto 
another." 



The framework of the tabernacle was made of boards 
of shittim-wood, overlaid with gold, standing in sockets 
of silver. Over these boards which enclosed an area of 
30 cubits by 10, were thrown two sets of curtains, and 
two coverings, forming what may be called the roof of 
the building, and hanging down over the back and two 
sides. The first and innermost set of curtains are 
emphatically called " The Tabernacle.'' 

" Thou shalt make the tabernacle, ten curtains." 
Exod. xxvi. I. " The work of the tabernacle, ten cur- 
tains." Exod. xxxvi. 8. And it shall be one tabernacle" 
Exod. xxvi. 6. Also xxxvi, 13. "curtains of goats' 
hair, a covering upon the tabernacle." " The tabernacle 
and the tent." Num. iii. 25. 

Upon reference to these quotations, it will be found, 
that the word tabernacle is used to express the set of ten 
curtains, whilst the word tent has reference to the eleven 
curtains of goats' hair, which were thrown over this 
first set. The Hebrew word, translated tabernacle, means 
a dwelling-place, and is exclusively confined to the 
thought of this structure being God's dwelling-place. 
In our translation, we find the words " tabernacle of 
the congregation " constantly occurring ; but, in almost 



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every instance, the Hebrew has the words " tent of the 
congregation " : for, this building was their tent of 
assembly ; and God s tabernacle or dwelling-place. 

Ten curtains were first made, each 28 cubits in 
length, and four cubits in breadth. Five of these were 
subsequently joined together-, thereby forming one 
curtain, 28 cubits in length, and 20 in breadth. The 
other five were similarly joined together, forming a 
second curtain of like dimensions. The materials used 
in the manufacture of this fabric were precisely the same 
as those which formed the vail ; a different arrangement, 
however, is adopted as to the fine linen. In the vail, the 
blue first meets the eye; and the fine linen is last in the 
series. In these curtains, the fine linen stands first, 
succeeded by the blue and the other colours. The vail, 
we know from Heb. x. 20, was a type of the Lord 
Jesus in the days of His flesh, and was rent when He 
yielded up the ghost. The curtains, fastened together 
by golden taches, seem to foreshadow Christ in 
resurrection. The same glorious display of God and 
man, wondrously united, meets the eye of faith, whether 
the blessed Lord be contemplated when sojourning on 
this earth, or raised to the right hand of the Majesty on 
high. Indeed, He cannot be known upon the throne 
of God, unless He has been first revealed to the soul as 
the Crucified One on earth. He that ascended, first 
descended. He is the unchanged and unchanging One. 
" Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and to-day, and tor 
ever." Resurrection added to Him no new perfections; 
for He was, while on earth, the Resurrection and the 
Life. He was ever perfect. The blue, purple, and 
scarlet, were as bright and gorgeous in the vail, as in 
the 10 curtains of the heavenly roof. The fine linen 
was as spotless in the one, as in the other. The 
Cherubim of Glory were manifest in the cunning work 
of both. The same blessed name of Jesus, bestowed 
on the. Lord at His incarnation, is again the "name 
above every name" given to Him on His exaltation. 



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Even when His days, like the shadow declined, and 
when He was withered like grass, at the very moment 
of His death, the Father pronounced Him to be the same, 
the Jehovah who, of old, had laid the foundation of the 
earth. Compare Psa. dl 25, with Heb. i. 10. "And 

Thou, Lord, &c. 

Fine linen, which formed the groundwork, on which 
the beautiful tints of the vail were displayed, was also 
the material of the curtains, The Holy One, whose 
flesh saw no corruption, was unchanged by resurrection : 
for mortality was never attached to Him. He alone 
had, and has, incorruptibility and immortality, though 
crucified and slain. "I am the First and the Last, and 
the Living One who became dead, and behold, I am the 
Living One for evermore." Rev. i. 1 8. Wondrous 
mystery, to be received alone by faith : and as the 
priests walked barefoot in the tabernacle, so must we, 
with reverent and worshipping hearts, tread on this 
holy ground. 

It has been already observed, that the fine linen is put 
first in the description of the curtains ; whilst the blue 
is first in that of the vail. 

Is not this the order, in which the Holy Spirit 
instructs as to Christ in humiliation and in glory? The 
eye of faith is first directed to that mystery, God 
manifest in the flesh ; the Word made flesh. The heart 
is attracted by the blessed truth, that the Child born to 
us, and slain for us, is the Mighty God. The heavenly 
colour stands pre-eminent in the vail. The other marvel 
is, that there should be a Man upon the throne of God. 
So, the fine linen, which especially sets forth Christ as 
the righteous Man, is pre-eminent in the curtains. 

The five curtains, which were joined together in their 
breadth, defined the extent of the holy place, 20 cubits : 
for, the vail, which separated the interior of the taber- 
nacle into two parts, the holy and the most holy, was 
to be hung up under the taches. These taches being 
golden clasps fastened into loops of blue, and thereby 



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uniting the two curtains, each formed of five breadths, 
one curtain covering the holy place, io cubits of the 
other covering the most holy, and the remaining io 
cubits hanging over the boards of the west end of the 
tabernacle. It may be, that the explanation of the 
number five is found in Heb. viL 26, " Such a high 
priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, 
separate from sinners, and made higher than the 
heavens.** Under the shelter of this glorious Priest, we 
dwell, and have access, as priests to God, into the holy 
and most holy places; which, by reason of the vail being 
rent, now form but one undivided tabernacle. Of the 
two holy places, formerly separated one from the other 
by the vail, the holiest was especially the dwelling-place 
of God alone. None dared intrude thither ; not even the 
priests themselves were allowed to pass within the vail. 
No worship was carried on there-, no human voice was 
ever heard withia its precincts. In fearful majesty the 
God of Israel dwelt between the Cherubim of glory. 
And though, once a year, the high priest was directed 
to enter, yet he could not draw nigh without blood. 
And the object, for wh:ch he was commanded to 
approach the mercy-seat, was in order to appease the 
wrath of God, offended by the sins of Israel. But the 
clasped curtains of the roof betokened that the tabernacle 
was one; and in due time, the rending of the vail pro- 
claimed it. Christ crucified, Christ the power of God, 
and the wisdom of God, is like the golden tache in the 
loop of blue. He links heaven and earth together. 
He gives the worshipper entrance to the immediate 
presence of God. All distance and separation are gone. 
The sound of prayer and praise; the cry of distress, 
and the voice of melody, are presented and heard in 
the holiest of all. 

The curtains, like the vail, were a mass of cherubim. 
In the latter, these emblematic figures of glory were 
marred and rent asunder ; for, it pleased Jehovah to 
bruise His Son. «< He made His glory to cease, and cast 



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His throne down to the ground. He shortened the 
days of His youth, and covered Him with shame." 
Psa. lxxxix. 44, 45. But in the former, that is the 
curtains, we behold again the same cherubim of glory, 
spreading their wings on high, and forming the lofty 
ceiling of the tabernacle; a firmament of expanded 
feathers, composed of the blended tints of blue, purple, 
and scarlet, on the pure white ground of fine linen. 
Various are the references in the Psalms to this shelter- 
ing canopy. For instance — " I will abide in Thy taber- 
nacle for ever : I will trust in the covert of Thy wings." 
Psa. lxi. 4. "He shall cover thee with His feathers : 
and under His wings shalt thou trust." Psa. xci. 4. 
" Hide me under the shadow of Thy wings." Psa. 
xvii. 8. " How excellent is Thy loving-kindness, O 
God! therefore the children of men put their trust 
under the shadow of Thy wings." Psa. xxxvi. 7. " Be- 
cause Thou hast been my help, therefore, in the shadow 
of Thy wings will I rejoice." Psa. lxiii. 7. "In the 
shadow of Thy wings will I make my refuge." Psa. 
lvii. I. 

The blessed Lord Himself, during all His life on 
earth, abode under the shadow of the Almighty. He 
dwelt in the secret place of the Most High, till that 
awful hour when refuge failed Him, and He had to 
exclaim, "I am cast out of Thy sight." Jonah ii. 4. 
" Lord, why castest Thou off my soul ? Why hidest 
Thou Thy face from me ?" Psa. lxxxviii. 14. " My 
God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken me?" Psa. 
xxii. I. "But the God of peace has, through the blood 
of the everlasting covenant, brought again from the dead 
that great Shepherd of the sheep." Heb. xiii. 20. And 
now, in the holy places not made with hands, Christ is 
the covert, the hiding-place, the refuge, the defence, 
help, power, and joy, of all those who trust under the 
shadow of His wings. The secret place of the Most 
High, the Holy of Holies, this glorions pavilion, covered 
with the feathers of the Almighty, is a safe and quiet 



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resting-place for the wearied saint. The strife of tongues 
enters not there ; no terror by night ; no arrow that 
flieth by day ; ho snare of the fowler, or noisome pesti- 
lence can reach one that is sheltered there. Death may 
be at the right hand, and yet shall not come nigh. The 
young lion and the dragon can there be trampled under 
foot. Love, wisdom, patient tenderness, and almighty 
power, combine to form a fitting shelter. 

The comforting passage in Heb. vi. 1 8 — 20. refers to 
the security found in the Holiest. There is no place of 
safety, short of that within the vail. The Eternal God 
alone is our refuge : thither we have fled, through the 
rent vail. There, hope, not deceitful or fluctuating, but 
sure and stedfast, is laid hold of, and becomes actual 
certainty to the soul : for Christ is there, the forerunner. 
Rapid has been His course, having broken the gates of 
brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron. He has taken 
the prey from the mighty, and ascended from the lower 
parts of the earth far above all heavens. And now, He 
has entered for us into the very presence of God ; the 
sure pledge, that every one, whose hope is fixed on Him, 
shall likewise obtain this everlasting glory. We may, 
with confidence, brave the storms and tempests of this 
world, and the bufferings of Satan ; seeing we have hope, 
as an anchor, fastened in the holiest. But let us not 
think that the word hope expresses uncertainty ; in human 
language, it is often used to convey the thought of chance 
or doubt ; so that we hear, all around us, such express- 
ions as, hoping for salvation, hoping to go to heaven, &c, 
the utterance of unbelief : whereas, in the Scripture use 
of the word, hope always implies assurance-, and he who 
hopes, patiently waits for that which he knows he shall 
obtain. 

There were six dries in the land of Israel, appointed 
by God, to which the man-slayer might run for protec- 
tion, when pursued by the avenger of blood. The 
three, which lay on the west of Jordan, were each set 
upon a hill ; Kedesh, in Galilee, in Mount Naphtali ; 



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Shecem, in Mount Ephraim ; and Kirjath-Arba, which 
is Hebron, in the Mountain of Judah : Josh. xx. 7. 
These were priestly cities. A way was to be prepared, 
so that the guilty person might have no difficulty in 
reaching the nearest city of refuge. If an Israelite, or a 
stranger, by accident as it might be called, killed his 
neighbour, as for instance, " when a man goeth into the 
wood with his neighbour, to hew wood, and his hand 
fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and 
the head slippeth from the helve, and lighteth upon his 
neighbour, that he die." Deut. xix. 5. he must at once 
raise his eyes from the scene of his calamity, and look 
for the nearest city of refuge. God had provided that it 
should be conspicuous on every side. He must then 
hasten, with all speed, along the prepared way to that 
city, and pause not till he found himself within the 
threshold of its gate. A cry for mercy to the avenger 
of blood, would be unheeded ; a plea that his crime 
was unintentional, would be of no avail. The sword of 
vengeance would inevitably fall upon him, if he delayed 
to hasten to the refuge. To spend, in entreaties and 
prayers, the precious dme which yet afforded him 
opportunity of reaching the only place of safety, would 
be madness. He must fiee from the approaching wrath. 
God had established the place of mercy : safety was in 
that alone. Moreover, the slayer had, by inheritance, 
no title to a dwelling-place within that city. His crime 
and danger were his only plea ; and marvellously enough, 
his very misery placed him, through the merciful provi- 
sion of God, in association with the holiest of God's 
people. He was raised from the rank of an ordinary 
Israelite, or from the outcast condition of a stranger, to 
be a fellow-citizen with the priests of God. 

These shadows of truth are more than fulfilled in the 
merciful and rich provision made by God for the salva- 
tion of the sinner. The dwelling-place of the Most 
High becomes the city of his refuge, his everlasting home. 
On the mercy-seat he beholds the blood ; sure pledge 



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that wrath has been appeased, that the avenger of blood 
has buried the sword of justice in the heart of another 
on his behalf. The ground on which he stands, within 
the holiest, is as a rock under his feet ; for the blood of 
the atoning victim has also been sprinkled there. T^e 
great High Priest is likewise present, Himself the fore- 
runner, the first that has tasted the joy, and entered into 
the rest, the blessed rest of that eternal salvation which 
He has obtained for others. From the ruin, degradation, 
and death, entailed on him by the fall, the sinner is raised 
into a standing of perfection, glory, and life, to be a king 
and a priest, to go no more out, to be an heir of God, 
and joint-heir with Christ. The cry of terror and 
distress is exchanged for the song of victory and joy ; 
holy worship and ceaseless praise take the place of vain 
regrets and unhappy murmurings. He, who looked 
back over the past with fearful forebodings, dreading 
the rapid advances of well-merited vengeance, now sees 
goodness and mercy pursuing him all the days of his 
life, Psa. xxiii. 6, (in the Hebrew,) and gazes with 
unspeakable delight upon Him, who has opened the way 
into the holiest through His own death, and is seated 
there, crowned with glory and honour. 

These are some of the many blessed truths, which seem 
to be crowded together in the types of the tabernacle. 
Ever and anon fresh aspects of the glories of salvation 
present themselves to the soul; even as to the eyes of 
the priest in the sanctuary, mingled gleams of light and 
beauty shed their radiance from the gorgeous curtains 
and golden boards, lighted up by the doud of glory 
which covered the mercy-seat. 



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THE LOOPS AND TACHES. 



"And thou shalt make loops of 
blue upon the edge of the one 
curtain from the selredge in the 
coupling; and likewise shalt thou 
make in the uttermost edge of 
another curtain, in the coupling 
of the second. 

"Fifty loops shalt thou make in 
the one curtain, and fifty loops 
shalt thou make in the edge of the 
curtain that is in the coupling of 
the second; that the loops may 
take hold one of another, 

"And thou shalt make fifty 
taches of gold, and couple the 
curtains together with the taches: 
and it shall be one tabernacle."— 
Exod. xxvi. 4—6. 



"And he made loops of blue in 
the edge of one curtain from the 
selvedge in the coupling: likewise 
he made in the uttermost side of 
another curtain, in the coupling 
of the second. 

"Fifty loops made he in one 
curtain, and fifty loops made he in 
the edge of the curtain which was 
in the coupling of the second: the 
loops held one curtain to another. 

"And he made fifty taches of 
gold, and coupled the curtains 
one unto another with the taches: 
so it became one tabernacle."— 
Exod. xxxvi. 11— 13. 



Fifty taches, or clasps of gold, linked togetner the 
innermost or beautiful curtains of the tabernacle. Fifty 
taches of brass coupled the goats' hair curtains. By the 
former, one tabernacle — by the latter, one tent was made. 
The vail, which divided the interior into two unequal 
portions, was hung up under the taches. As long as 
that vail remained entire, there might be said to be two 
tabernacles; thus, in Heb. ix. I — 7, where this building 
is looked at before the rending of the vail, we read of 
the first, wherein was the candlestick, and the table, and 
the shewbread; and the second, or holiest of all, into 
which went the high priest alone, once every year. At 
the same time, there was an intimation that the whole 
interior was but one holy place, in the fact of the curtains 
that covered, being connected by the taches, and forming 
one tabernacle, and one tent above it. 

All priestly service is now conducted in the holiest. 
Heaven itself is the place where Christ appears in the 
presence of God for us. There is no intermediate place 
of acceptance; but a man is either a sinner, short of the 
glory of God, and as such, outside, and infinitely far 



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off ; or, he is made nigh by the blood of Christ, and 
presented in Christ, faultless in the presence of that 
glory in the holiest of all. 

The fifty taches of gold may be so many distinct 
presentations of the glories of Christ, expressed in His 
various names and titles, as seen crowned with glory and 
honour upon the throne of God. 

The taches of brass may exhibit the same names and 
titles as appertaining to Him when He was on earth, the 
second man, the Lord from heaven ; as it will be found 
that the brass is used as a type of the Lord on earth in 
suffering and trial ; while the gold has a resurrection 
aspect of the same glorious One. He has, as risen from 
the dead, retaken His own glorious titles ; having, for 
the joy set before Him, endured the cross. 

The brazen taches seem appropriately to knit together 
the curtains of goats' hair, which proclaim to us His sor- 
rows and sufferings on the tree-, while the golden taches, 
as appropriately coupled together the beautiful curtains, 
which manifest Him as received up in glory, because 
of the perfection of His labour and service in suffering 
on earth. 

The following are fifty names and titles of the Blessed 
Lord, which were His alike when on earth, as now in 
the glory above. 

1. The Mighty God. 

2. The Almighty. 

3. Jehovah. 

4. The Son. 

5. The Son of God. 

0. The Only-begotten of the Father. 

7. The First-born of every creature ; 

(or) born before all creation. 

8. The Word, 

9. The Beginning. 

10. The Wisdom of God. 

11. The Power of God. 

12. The Image of the Invisible God. 



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13. The Brightness of God's glory. 

14. That Eternal life. 

15. The First and the Last. 

16. Immanuel. 

17. Jesus. 

18. Messiah. 

19. The Lord. 

20. The Lord of Glory. 

21. The Prince of Life. 

22. The Prince of Peace. 

23. The Everlasting Father. 

24. The Creator. 

25. The Sustainer. 

26. The Holy One of God. 

27. The Same. 

28. Wonderful. 

29. Counsellor. 

30. The Son of Man. 

31. The Seed of the Woman. 

32. The Resurrection. 

33. Quickening Spirit. 

34. The Light. 

35. The Truth,* 
30. Righteousness. 

37. The Way. 

38. The Sun of Righteousness. 

39. The Day-Star. 

40. The Amen. 

41. The Bang of Kings. 

42. The Heir of all things. 

43. The Root of David. 

44. The Offspring of David* 
45- The Shepherd. 

46. The Lamb of God. 

47. The Rock of Ages* 

48. The True Witness. 

49. Shiloh (or) the Sent One. 

50. The Redeemer. 



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It must not be supposed that the above glorious list 
of names and titles of Jesus is given as a definite inter- 
pretation of the type. But every true-hearted believer 
will own, that each of these names is a golden link, 
uniting together heaven and earth, connecting God with 
his people, and enabling Him to spread out a heaven of 
glory, into which He will receive the royal priesthood, 
and where already true worship is in spirit carried on. 
Each tache of gold, or of brass, was carefully numbered 
and guarded by the Levites ; for if but one had been 
wanting, the curtains of the tabernacle or tent would 
have been insecurely united. 

God has committed to His Church all truth connected 
with the glory of the work and person of His Son. 
The Church of the Living God is the pillar and ground 
of the truth. It is the blessed responsibility of each 
member of that body carefully to watch and guard 
every, even the smallest portion of the truth, which 
testifies of Christ. Error and weakness will result 
if anything be lacking, as to what is held respecting 
the Lord Jesus. If one link in the golden chain be 
weak or deficient, the strength of the whole is impaired. 

THE CURTAINS OF GOATS' HAIR. 

We have now to consider the other set of curtains, viz. 
those of Goats' Hair, which were thrown over the beau- 
tiful curtains already described. It will be observed that 
these of goats' hair, like tho$e, were made in breadths of 
four cubits each : instead however of there being only 
ten such breadths, as in the former set, there were eleven. 
Six of these were joined together, forming one curtain ; 
and the other five, joined in like manner, formed the 
second. The sixth, or additional breadth, hung down 
over the front of the tabernacle. The length also of 
these curtains, was greater than that of the former set, 
being 30 cubits instead of 28. A cubit of this additional 



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48 



length hung down on each side of the tabernacle, so as 
completely to cover up the cubit of the golden boards 
which had been left exposed; the beautiful curtains 
falling short by a cubit each side. The boards of 
the tabernacle stood io cubits high on the north and 
south sides ; the space which separated them being the 
width of the tabernacle, was also 10 cubits. A curtain 
therefore 28 cubits long, thrown over the top, and 
falling down each side, would leave a cubit on each 
side of the golden boards exposed : whereas one of 30 
cubits long would exactly cover up the whole. This 
explains the meaning of the somewhat obscure passage : 
" A cubit on the one side, and a cubit on the other side, 
of that which remaineth in the length of the curtains of the 
tent, it shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle, on 
this side and on that side, to cover it." Exod. xxvi. 13. 

The sixth curtain, or breadth, which hung down in 
front of the tabernacle, was doubled back so as to hang 
like a bag : the same expression being used, " Thou 
shalt double the sixth curtain in the forefront of the 
tabernacle," as in Exod. xxviii.16, respecting the breast- 
plate, which was doubled or folded in the form of a 
bag, so as to receive within it the Urim and the 
Thummim. This additional sixth curtain being thus 
allowed to hang down in front, the other five breadths 
exactly corresponded with the five breadths of the 
beautiful curtains beneath ; and the taches of brass, 
which linked together the goats' hair curtains, precisely 
reached the same place, so as to be immediately above 
the taches of gold, which united together the innermost 
or beautiful curtains. 

The 1 2 th verse may present a difficulty to the reader. 
"The remnant that remaineth of the curtains of the 
tent, the half-curtain that remaineth shall hang over the 
back side of the tabernacle." The meaning of this is, 
that half the curtain, which was formed of the five 
breadths of four cubits each joined together, hung down 
over the back or west end of the tabernacle, so as to 



49 



cover up that extremity ; for the width of it would be 
exactly 20 cubits •, ten of which would reach over the 
top, from the taches to the end of the tabernacle ; and 
the other ten would fall down from the top over the 
west end, so as to reach the ground. 

The material of which these curtains were made, was 
goats' hair ; probably of a fine texture, like the modern 
Cashmere shawl. In the original, the word " hair" 
does not occur. 

It will be found that the goat was universally selected 
for the sin-offering in the great feasts under the law, 
when Israel was collectively represented and appeared 
before God. 

In the beginnings of their months, Num. xxviii. 
II — 15, when the thin crescent of the new moon marked 
the commencement of another period of increasing light 
and blessing, fresh burnt-offerings were laid upon Israel's 
altar for a sweet savour to the Lord, and a kid of the 
goats for sin atoned for the darkness and evil of the past 
month; which though unknown to themselves, had 
been observed by Him who is of too pure eyes to behold 
iniquity. They should have abode before Him, fair as 
the moon : but as that light in the heavens had waned 
into darkness, so was their history one of brief hope and 
quick declension. And such alas ! is the history of the 
Church of God, and too often, of the saints which 
compose it. One's life passes away in a series of revivals 
and declensions ; of bright purposes and intentions, ending 
in sorrowful failures and short-comings. Well for us is 
it that the value 'of the sin-offering, the memorial of 
that costly gift, abides for us before God, like one of the 
breadths of the goats' hair curtains. 

Israel's year commenced with the appointment of the 
passover, E&od. xii. Intimately connected with this 
ordinance was the feast of unleavened bread. In Luke 
xxii. I, they are identified. Throughout the seven days 
of this feast, one goat for sin to make atonement was 
sacrificed, besides other offerings. The more the 



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unleavened purity and holiness of Christ is realised, 
and the more He becomes the strength of our life, 
and we feed on His flesh and blood, as on unleavened 
bread, the more shall we find our need of Him as 
"made sin for us." Israel, by feeding on the unleavened 
bread, had to discover their own leavened condition-, 
and thus the goat for the sin-offering was daily provided, 
to meet the uncleanness of their state* an uncleanness 
made manifest by the very purity of the food on which 
they were directed to feast. So it is with the believer. Not 
only will the daily contact with the leaven of sin around 
him cause that same leaven to work within •, but the 
more he walks in the light as God is in the light, the 
more will he discover his own uncleanness, and find the 
need of the blood of Jesus Christ (that one sin-offering) 
which cleanseth us from all sin. 

Another breadth of the goats' hair curtain may thus 
Tiave had reference to this feast of unleavened bread, 
and its accompanying sin-offerings. 

The next great feast of Israel, which followed the 
passover, was the feast of weeks. It commenced with 
the waving of a sheaf of first-fruits before the Lord. A 
beautiful type of the resurrection of Christ; the corn of 
wheat, which had fallen into the ground, and had died, 
and had sprung up, bringing forth much fruit. At the 
conclusion of the feast — the day of Pentecost of 
Acts H. — a new meat-offering, consisting of two loaves 
of the fresh harvest, baked with leaven, was waved 
before God: a type this of the presentation to God of 
Israel's first-fruits on the day of Pentecost, when the 
iirst portion of the Church of God stood risen with 
Christ, one with Him in life eternal, and anointed with 
the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven ; a sample of 
the whole body, to be completed at the Lord's return, 
when the harvest shall be all gathered into the garner 
of glory. But these first-fruits, these believers, were still 
leavened with the presence ot the old man, the old sinful 
nature, and were still in their old corrupt bodies of death. 



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A sin-offering was therefore commanded for atonement. 
In Num. xxviii. 30, a kid of the goats, and in Lev. xxiii. 
19, the same sacrifice connected with this new meat- 
offering, is in both places appointed. 

The believer, though he be (by virtue of the death and 
resurrection of Christ) a new creature; though partaker 
of a new and everlasting life, derived from, and in union 
with the Lord Jesus ; yet is burdened with the body of 
sin and death, and finds the constant lusting of the flesh 
against the spirit; an incessant warfare during all his 
abode on earth. That which is born of the flesh remains 
still flesh, irremediable in its corruption, with a mind at 
enmity with God, and which cannot be subjected to the 
law of God. Like some ferocious evil beast, it may be 
chained, but cannot be tamed. We cannot make a 
servant of this monster, or come to any agreement with 
him, any more than with the leviathan described by God 
to Job. "Will he make a covenant with thee? Wilt 
thou take him for a servant for ever? Wilt thou play 
with him, as with a bird?" (xli. 4, 5.) An evil beast, 
neither to be trifled with nor trusted. 

It is of deep importance to the child of God, as 
regards both his peace and his walk, that the truth 
respecting the distinction and co-existence of the twa 
natures, new and old, should be fully believed. They are 
denominated in Scripture, the new man and the old man* 
the former, after God, created in rightc ousness and true 
holiness ; the latter, one's original existence, derived from 
the ruined fallen Adam, often called the flesh, in which 
dwells no good thing. Sin can never be eradicated. 
It abides as long as the flesh remains. No power of the 
Holy Spirit burns up or consumes it. Neither is there 
any. possibility of converting that which is evil into good. 
The presence and power of the Spirit of God, by 
strengthening the new man, and feeding the soul with 
Christ, and deepening its value of the precious blood, 
enable the believer to repress and keep under the 
motions of sin, the energies of the old man, 



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"Watchfulness, faith, and prayer, are as needful, 
up to the very end of the race, as they were at its 
commencement. Through the whole of this Pentecostal 
dispensation, the constant remembrance of the sin-offering 
is imperatively required, in order to preserve fellowship 
with the Father and the Son, and to give power, and to 
afford us a weapon of strength against the leaven still 
mingled with the new meat-offering. 

Another of the six curtains of goat's hair may remind 
us of this aspect of the sacrifice. 

A long interval elapsed in Israel's year between the 
feast of weeks, and the next general feast. It was not 
until the seventh month opened, that any special gather- 
ing of the people was appointed. But on the first day 
of that month was the feast of the blowing of trumpets. 
By this time, the labours of the harvest-field, of the 
olive-yard, and the vineyard were nearly over ; and the 
silver trumpets were to sound in the ears of the people ; 
to call them from the busy cares and thoughts of earthly 
things, that had now occupied them some time, to 
rest in holy convocation before God, under the sweet 
savour of fresh burnt-offerings, and under the atonement 
of a kid of the goats for a sin offering. It was a joyful, 
as well as a solemn sound, that those trumpets gave 
forth. Their silver note supplanted the shout of the 
harvest-home, or of the treading of the wine-press ; and 
summoned Israel to the presence of their God, who had 
blessed their labours, and crowned their year with His 
goodness. Yet even in this scene of holy repose and 
worship, the sin-offering was needed.' The convocation 
itself brought with it evil, and the blood of atonement 
must flow. 

May we not learn from this, how needful it is to keep 
in remembrance the precious blood of Christ, in the midst 
of our very activities of service and labour for God ; and 
to seek to preserve as our first object, the soul in fellow- 
ship with the Father and the Son •, lest busy occupations, 
even though they be of the holiest kind, withdraw the 



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heart's affection from the Lord, or usurp that place in 
our souls, which belongs alone to Himself. 

" My son, give me thy heart," is one great command. 
" Keep thy heart with all diligence," is another. There 
may be much diligence in outward service, and yet 
the soul may have little fellowship with God, and 
be rendering but little true worship to Him. The 
blood of Christ alone keeps the way of access open 
for us : and as we are eating that meat indeed, and 
drinking that drink indeed, so are we abiding in Gods 
presence. 

This feast of trumpets, with its accompanying sin- 
offering, may have had its memorial in a fourth curtain 
of goat's hair. 

On the tenth day of the seventh month, was the feast 
of Atonement. On that day alone, in all the year, a 
special sin-offering for atonement was appointed. Two 
kids of the goats, looked upon as one sin-offering, were 
presented before the Lord. One was selected by lot to 
be slain ; and the other to be a scape-goat. The blood 
of the one slain, was on this occasion, and on none other, 
carried by the high priest into the holiest, and there 
sprinkled upon the mercy-seat, and before the mercy- 
seat, seven times. Israels sins of the past year were 
thus in type covered over, and blotted out from Gods 
remembrance. 

The high priest, after having completed the work of 
atonement within the tabernacle before God, then came 
out, and confessed over the living goat, the sins of the 
people ; at the same time laying both his hands upon its 
head, and thus typically transferring them to the animal ; 
which was then sent into the wilderness, never more to 
return ; and thus the sins reckoned to it were no more to 
be remembered. The object of having two goats 
for one sin-offering was, to convey to Israel assembled 
outside the tabernacle, the knowledge of what had passed 
before God on their behalf within the holiest. The 
disappearance of the scape-goat, bearing their sins, 



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represented to them the fact that those sins had been 
blotted out from God's remembrance, by means of the 
blood sprinkled on the mercy-seat. The goat whose 
blood had been carried within the vail, was entirely 
consumed as a sin-offering without the camp. It may 
be that the goats' hair curtain, doubled, and hanging 
<lown in front of the tabernacle, was intended to keep a 
memorial of this day of atonement before Israel's eye. 
The doubling of the curtain, so that half faced inwards, 
and the other half could be seen from without, may have 
some allusion to the double aspect of atonement, set forth 
in the different uses of the two goats, the one sin-offering : 
the object of the one being solely for atonement towards 
God •, that of the other being to express the result of 
that atonement towards Israel. The 9th and loth 
chapters of Hebrews give us an exposition of the 1 6th 
chapter of Leviticus ; but chiefly by way of contrast ; 
comparing the inefficiency of the blood presented on that 
day for Israel, with the complete and eternal efficacy of 
the one offering presented by Christ — the offering of 
Himself. A more full explanation of this beautiful type 
is reserved for a future occasion, when the dress of the 
high priest will be considered. 

As the worshipping Israelite could not draw near the 
tabernacle without observing the goats' hair curtain folded 
down in front ; so has the believer ever to draw near to 
God with the full assurance that his sins and iniquities 
are remembered no more, and that the record of this 
blessed fact is preserved in God's dwelling-place, by the 
rending of the vail, the sprinkling of the blood upon the 
mercy-seat, the presence of the living High Priest, and 
the very construction of the tabernacle itself. 

The last feast in the year was the feast of tabernacles— 
the feast of in-gathering — when Israel had only to rest, 
and rejoice in the blessing of God upon all their labours. 
Liberty, cessation from toil, mingled with solemn feasting 
and joy, marked this holy festival. There were also two 
remarkable things connected with it : first, the dwelling 



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in booths : secondly, an eighth day added to the seven. 
The booths were to be erected in remembrance of Israel's 
deliverance out of Egypt, when their first resting-place 
was at Succoth (booths.) There seems also to be an 
intimation of a future deliverance out of Babylon, in the 
fact that " willows of the brook " were to be intertwined 
with other trees to form these booths. Psa. cxxxvii. 2, 
alludes to the willow as a tree growing by the rivers of 
Babylon. The eighth day, "that great day of the feast," 
gave a resurrection character to this remarkable ordinance. 
Throughout this feast, on each day, a goat was offered, 
for a sin-offering. And though the burnt offerings 
declined in number from day to day, yet the sin-offering 
remained the same. The goat was considered sufficient 
at the close, as at the commencement. 

This feast of tabernacles is mentioned but once in the 
New Testament, (John vii.) The brethren of Jesus 
urged upon Him to manifest Himself openly to the 
world at this feast. But He tarried behind in Galilee. 
His time was not full come for shewing Himself to the 
world. The cross must precede that full time. He 
must be lifted up in order to draw all men unto Him. 
However, after " His brethren were gone up, then went 
He also up unto the feast, not openly, but as it were in 
secret." When there, He marked the lack of peace and 
joy which should have filled that city of God, especially 
at such a time. He heard the restless questionings and 
surmisings which disturbed the hearts of the people, and 
" about the midst of the feast, He went up into the 
temple and taught." He still confined Himself to the 
temple, and did not openly manifest Himself to the 
world. The Jews marvelled at His knowledge of letters 
rather than at the deep subject which He taught. Just 
as m the present day the ear is attracted often by a sweet 
sound of God's truth, whilst the heart is unmoved by 
its solemn verities. A preacher is wondered at, it may 
be for his eloquence and earnestness ; whilst the all- 
important doctrines which he enunciates are passed by. 



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The GREAT TEACHER sought in vain to direct 
them to the source from whence He Himself, as well as 
His doctrines proceeded, viz. to God. 

At length, " in the last day, that great day of the 
feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, " If any man thirst, 
let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on 
me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall 
flow rivers of living water. But this spake He of the 
Spirit, which they that believe on Him should receive : 
for the Holy Ghost was not yet; because that Jesus was 
not yet glorified." Ver. 37, 38, 39. 

The man of sorrows discerned under the seeming 
prosperity and gladness around Him, aching, unsatisfied 
hearts. The best feast under the law, with its great 
day, had given no lasting peace or joy. The booths, at 
first green and fresh, were now withered and dead ; 
the sun poured its scorching beams through their lifeless 
branches the burnt-offerings had dwindled down from 
thirteen to one. Though professing to know God, 
Israel was still ignorant of Him. The bounties of His 
hand, manifested in the full winefat and corn-floor, had 
not revealed, and indeed could not, the depth of His 
heart of love. Though in the promised land, the people 
had not entered GOD'S rest: they were still, as to 
their souls, wandering in a barren wilderness. " The 
feast of tabernacles" instead of being the crowning feast 
of the Lord, was but "a feast of the Jews." Wearied 
souls were still unsatiated, The True bread-corn had 
yet to be bruised, (Isa. liii. 10 ;) the wine had yet to be 
pressed from the grape, (Ps. xxxviii. 2;) and the oil 
had yet to flow from the beaten olive. (Isa. liii. 5.) 

Was this closing feast all that could be reached under 
the law ? Was Israel to know no deeper spring of joy, 
no more lasting fountain of gladness than had been pro- 
vided through this feast of tabernacles ? The pent-up 
heart of the blessed Lord could be restrained no longer. 
Straitened though He felt, till He should have accom- 
plished His baptism of judgment, yet He could not look 



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upon this scene without pouring forth in anticipation the 
stream of living water. So He stood in the midst of the 
fading festivities, and cried, " If any man thirst, let him 
come unto me and drink." " The Rock Christ" was 
there with its great depths of life — " The wine and the 
milk" were there, though Israel knew it not. Jesus 
manifested Himself openly, as the fountain of Hving 
waters for every parched sinner, in anticipation of the 
time when the full tide of eternal life would flow from 
Him, smitten by the rod of God's power and wrath, 
over a waste desolate world. 

The law, with its weak and beggarly elements, had 
accomplished nothing. It could give no life, no righte- 
ousness, no peace ; and though bright gleams of future 
glory shone out here and there from its types and 
shadows, yet even those gleams of light could only be 
discerned by those who had through faith, been raised 
like Moses, above its grievous yoke ; and who had been 
admitted into a friendship and acquaintance with God, 
which the law could never give. 

What a mighty cry of the blessed Lord was this! 
How it must have sounded forth in the midst of that 
city of unavailing solemnities, in the midst of those 
multitudes, the mirth of whose hearts was but as the 
crackling of thorns under a pot. And that cry which 
then commenced was taken up again by the same 
blessed One when brought into the dust of death. He 
Himself said, I THIRST; and having drank to the very 
dregs the full cup of woe at the hands of God; and 
having tasted the last bitter drop of hatred and malignity 
at the hands of man, He said, "It is finished" — the 
Rock was riven; the water of life burst forth. And still 
from the glory itself the cry sounds forth, before the 
closing day of judgment overtakes the world, "Let him 
that is athirst come, and whosoever will, let him take 
the water of life freely." 

It was the eighth day when these memorable words 
of Grace were poured from the lips of the Son of 



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God; a day especially typifying a resurrection period. 
The Lord Jesus therefore stands forth as Himself the 
resurrection and the life, and speaks of the Holy Spirit, 
which they who believed on Him should receive after 
He was glorified. That Holy Spirit, would be an 
earnest of the inheritance; both a pledge to the believer 
of the future glory; and also revealing the first-fruits of 
that glory to his soul. See I Cor. ii. 9, 10, 1 2. Even now 
through the blessed work and witness of the Comforter, 
the fruits of the promised inheritance are realised. 
"Wine that maketh glad the heart of man, and oil to 
make his face to shine, and bread which strengtheneth 
mans heart," are ministered from the glory to the way- 
worn pilgrim on earth. And though still toiling in the 
wilderness, he can say, "we which have believed do 
enter into rest." Heb. iv. 3. Already he has an earnest 
of the feast of tabernacles. And not only so, but he 
becomes through drinking of the smitten rock, himself 
a channel of living water to thirsty sinners round. 
"He that believeth on me, as the Scripture hath said, 
out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water." 



Prov. x. xi. "The words of a man's mouth, are as 
deep waters ; and the well-spring of wisdom as a flowing 
brook." Chap, xviii. 4. What a blessed contrast this 
to a throat an open Sepulchre; a tongue using deceit; 
lips concealing the poison of asps ; and a mouth full of 
cursing and bitterness! 

And what a wondrous change, to have rivers of 
living water flowing from within ; instead of evil 
thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false 
witness, and blasphemies, as the bitter streams which 
the natural heart can only pour forth. 

But this "feast of tabernacles" has also a prophetic 
aspect to the believer, as well as to Israel in the future 
day of millennial glory. 

By faith, we can even now look forward to that day 
when the Israel of God, the countless multitude gathered 



The mouth 




man is a well of life. 3 



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out of every nation, will be assembled in their eternal 
resting-place, around the throne of God and of the Lamb 
in his temple. The wilderness will be passed, the 
weariness, die hunger and thirst of die journey be known 
no more. The withering power of persecution, and fiery 
tribulation, will have ceased for ever. The cup of joy 
will be full; and blessed freedom from every temptation, 
whether of Satan or of the flesh, will be rejoiced in for 
ever. God's rest will be entered. There, the song 
will be, "Unto Him that loveth us,* and washed us 
from our sins in His own blood." The value of the sin- 
offering will then indeed be appreciated : and the power 
of that blood to redeem, to cleanse, to preserve clean, 
and to present the sinner fauldess before the presence of 
God's glory, will at length be realised. 

And now, as we journey on towards that resurrection- 
day, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God, faith's 
foretastes of the future will be mingled with a constant 
reference to Him who was made sin for us. The glory 
is inseparable from the cross ; and the cross can never 
be severed from the glory. 

One of the six goats' hair curtains may have been 
intended to perpetuate the remembrance of the sin- 
offering, as connected with Israel's last feast, that of 
tabernacles. 

It may be remarked that, on the great day of atone- 
ment, another goat was offered for sin, besides that above 
mentioned. (Num. xxix. xi.) In the case of all the 
skb-offerings, sacrificed during the feast, the blood was 
not carried into the holiest, but was put upon the horns 
and poured out at the bottom of the altar of burnt- 
offering. Selected portions of the inwards were also 
burnt upon the same altar. The remainder of the victim 
became the portion of the priest. The only exception 
to this rule was the goat, (Lev. xvl) the blood of which, 
bang carried into the holiest, the whole sacrifice was 

* This. U acknowledged to be the correct translation. The original Greek 
according to the best Authorities having the word "feted*" in the present tense, 
instead of in the past, " hath loved,'* 



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burnt with fire outside the camp, and no portion 
consumed on the altar of burnt offering 

The feasts above alluded to have also a prophetic 
character, bearing on the second coming of the Lord 
Jesus. But it is not the object of the present exposition 
to enter into this deeply interesting subject. 

There were two other occasions on which goats were 
offered as sin-offerings for Israel, as a people : the one 
(Lev. ix.) on the consecration of the priesthood : the 
other (Num. vii.) at the dedication of the altar. In the 
former case, the priests, Aaron and his sons, having 
themselves experienced the virtues of the sacrifices offered 
for them by Moses, took their place of priesthood, on 
the behalf of Israel, on the last day of their consecration, 
an eighth day. In the latter, each tribe was represented 
by its prince ; and each prince presented precisely the 
same offerings and sacrifices at the dedication of the 
altar. Thus each Israelite could claim the value of the 
priesthood for himself; the whole people having been 
identified with the sacrifices on the eighth day of con- 
secration ; and the need of each tribe was equally 
expressed ; and each stood alike accepted, through the 
offerings presented at the dedication of the altar. 

So it is, even now, as it regards the Church of God. 
Christ has loved it, and given Himself for it, (Eph. v. 25,) 
and this love, and the value of this sacrifice, is equally 
true towards each individual in the Church. He loved 
us, and gave Himself for us, Eph. v. 2. He loved ME, 
and gave Himself for ME, Gal. n. 20. And if we 
measure the amount of our need and misery by reason of 
sin, each of us requires the whole virtue of die perfect 
sin-oftering : the entire work of the great High Priest is 
indispensable for each, and each stands accepted in the 
Beloved, according to the full and unspeakable glory, 
dignity, and value of His person. Two other breadths 
of the second goats' hair curtain may have allusion to 
these sin-offerings, presented on the day of consecrations, 
and on the dedication of the altar. 



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Hitherto, we have considered the goat, as offered for 
a sin-offering on behalf of Israel collectively. The same 
animal might also be selected by an individual Israelite, 
for a burnt-offering, Lev. L 10 — for a peace offering, 
iii. 12 — and for a sin or trespass-offering, iv. 28, and 
v. 6. Thus the whole eleven curtains of goats' hair may 
embody a memorial of every sacrifice presented by an 
Israelite, but especially of the sin-offering presented for 
the whole people. Breadth for breadth, the beautiful 
inner curtains were accurately covered up by the goats' 
hair. Indeed, the whole building was enveloped in this 
fabric •, as if to enunciate the great truth, that God could 
have no tabernacle amongst men, and could not display 
His glory and beauty in the midst of them, unless His 
dwelling-place proclaimed, in every part, the fact that 
sin and infirmity had been fully met by a perfect sacrifice : 
and even death had yielded up a record of purity and 
holiness, fit to be perpetuated for ever in His presence. 

It has been before remarked, that these curtains of 
goats' hair are particularly specified as the tent ; while 
the beautiful curtains are called the tabernacle,, 

Exod.xxvi.7. — To be a covering, (or rather) tent, upon, 
the tabernacle. 
II. — Couple the tent together, that it may 
be one. — xxxvi. 18. 
12, 13. — Curtains of the tent. 
„ „ 14. — Covering for the tent. 
„xxxv.Il. — The tabernacle, his tent, and his 
coverings. 

,,xxxvLl4. — For the tent over the tabernacle. 

xl. 19. — Spread abroad the tent, over the 
tabernacle. 

Num. iii. 25. — The tabernacle and the tent. 

A twofold object was attained by this construction. 
The tabernacle formed a dwelling-place for God in the 
midst of His people. It was also a tent, where they 
could congregate for worship, for help, and blessing. 
The goats hair curtains recording the fact of the kid of 



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the goats having been slain for sin 5 Jehovah was enabled 
to manifest His glory in the midst or His people, and to 
abide with them, notwithstanding their waywardness 
and evil. 

Speaking from the tabernacle thus covered with its 
tent of goats' hair, God could say, " I have not beheld 
iniquity in Jacob : neither have I seen perverseness in 
Israel." The breath of the accuser was prevented from 
entering the holy places of God's dwelling : for an 
outspread record of abundant sacrifice proclaimed a 
full answer of atonement made to every accusation 
respecting sin : and the goats' hair curtains protected the 
tabernacle of God, breadth for breadth, from Israel's 
defilement. North, south, east, west, and heavenward, 
these eleven curtains witnessed to Gods holiness, by 
proclaiming wide and far, that sin had been judged in 
the slain lamb ; that iniquity was covered •, and a hiding- 
place prepared, where the justified sinner was com- 
passed about with songs of deliverance. 

Also the tent of congregation was so fashioned as to 
keep in constant remembrance the important truth, that 
atonement must precede worship : and the priests them- 
selves, who ministered in the holy place, might have 
learned, from the arrangement of the tabernacle, the 
order of our song of praise. " Unto Him that loveth us, 
and hath washed us from our sins in His own blood, 
and hath made us kings and priests unto God and His 
Father; to Him be glory and dominion for ever and 
ever. Amen." Rev. i. 5. 



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THE COVERINGS. 



"And thou shalt make a cover- 
ing for the tent of rams' skins 
dyed red, and a covering above of 
badgers' skins. — Exod. xxvi. 14. 



"And he made a covering for 
the tent of rams' skins dyed red, 
and a covering of badgers' skin* 
above that. — Exod. xxxvi. 19. 



There were two coverings ; one of rams' skins dyed 
red, and another of badgers' skins ; besides the two sets 
of curtains, which formed the tabernacle and tent. The 
curtains were measured: the coverings were not. On 
referring to Rev. xi. i, "And there was given me a 
reed like unto a rod : and the angel stood, saying, Rise, 
and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them 
that worship therein. But the court, which is without 
the temple, leave out, and measure it not ; for it is givea 
unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread 
under foot, forty and two months." We perceive that, 
to measure the temple, &c, was synonymous with 
claiming it as a place valuable to God. While the court, 
which represented the city, not being measured, was still, 
for a season, to be left in the hands of the Gentiles. 
In the type before us, the two sets of curtains being 
measured, would seem to signify, that they were costly, 
and precious to God; and being such, would have an 
eternal value : while the coverings were only provided 
for a time, having no intrinsic value in them, but 
exhibiting an outward appearance which eventually 
would pass away. 

The Covering of Rams' Skins dyed Red. — As the 
curtains of goats' hair are especially spoken of as a tent 
above the tabernacle, or beautiful curtains •, so the rams' 
skins dyed red are particularly mentioned as a covering 
above the tent, or curtains of goats' hair. Exod. xxvL 14, 
" And thou shalt make a covering for the tent (of) rams* 
skins dyed red." Exod. xxxvi. 19, " And he made a 
covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red." 
Exod. xl. 19, " And he spread abroad the tent over the 



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tabernacle, and put the covering of the tent above upon it." 
Num. iii. 25, " The tabernacle, and the tent, and the 
covering thereof." 'Num. iv. 25, "The curtains of 
the tabernacle, and the tent of congregation, his 
covering, and the covering of the badgers' skins, that 
is above upon it." 

It will be perceived from these quotations, that, though 
" the covering " sometimes includes both the rams' skins 
and badgers' skins, yet the covering of rams' skins is, in 
some instances, exclusively connected with the goats' hair \ 
curtains. The latter, if the explanation of the type 
already given be correct, perpetuated a precious remem- 
brance of the sin-offering, as affording a shelter for God's 
priests in their worship, and approach to God. 

The covering of rams' skins dyed red, seems to depict 
that outward aspect of affliction and sorrow, which the 
blessed Lord presented to the eyes of men, so that they 
considered Him to be marked out as a victim, under some 
peculiar dealings of God's hand in judgment. Many 
were astonished at Him ; " His visage was more marred 
than any man, and His form more than the sons of men." 
Isa. Iii. 14. He was esteemed to be stricken of God, 
and afflicted. Isa.liii.4. Such was the estimation, in which 
the Lord was held, by those who ignorantly gazed upon 
Him when hanging on the tree ; not understanding that ^ 
the object, for which He hung there, was, that He might 
bear our sorrows, and carry our griefs ; and not recog- 
nising, that God was there bruising Him for our 
iniquities, and that, with His stripes, we are healed. 
Men could not fail to perceive the covering of rams' skins 
dyed red — the sorrowand death,in which the blessed Lord 
was steeped. But they saw not the precious goats' hair 
curtains beneath. They estimated not the unspeakable 
value of His sighs, and groans, and tears, and death 
upon the cross for sin. And so it is still. The Socinian, 
the Neologian, can admire the ways and words of Jesus 
in His life on earth ; can present Him as a perfect 
specimen of what man should be. But the costly pre- 



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BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



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A FULL EXPOSITION 



THE TABERNACLE 5 
THE HOLY GARMENTS, 



Garments for Glory & Beauty; 

THE CAMP, 
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AUTHOR OF THE HOLT VESSELS OF THE TABERNACLE, 
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ckrosness of His death is unheeded and unknown. The 
thought of sacrifice, and shedding of blood, is repulsive, 
instead of attractive, to these Satan-bound souls. They 
picture the blessed Lord on the cross as a hero, bearing 
sufferings and indignities from the hands of men ; they 
know Him not as the sin-offering, of unspeakable value 
to the sinner, and to God. 

The expression, " dyed red," or reddened, seems to 
have the same import, as regards the rams' skins, as the 
word " red" has respecting the kejfer, selected in that 
peculiar type described in Num. xix. In this chapter 
a red heifer was to be chosen for sacrifice. It was to be 
without spot or blemish; ungalled by any yoke; marked 
in its very birth, by its colour, for the slaughter ; while 
intrinsically pure and spotless. In like manner, the red- 
dened rams' skins implied, that they had been taken 
from slaughtered victims. 



THE COVERINGS OF BADGERS' SKINS. 

Much question has arisen respecting the animal, in our 
translation called the badger. The Septuagint ren- 
ders tachash vaxiv&iva, or skins of a blue colour. Upon 
comparing the conjectures of many writers on this sub- 
ject, that suggested by the late Colonel Hamilton Smith 
seems to be the most probable, viz. that they were skins 
of a blueish-grey colour, from an animal of a stag-goat 
species,* common in the East. Be this as it may, this 
covering was not measured, and therefore has reference 
rather to the outward aspect than to the intrinsic costli- 
ness of the material. We read of badgers' skins being 
usfed for sandals, (Ezek. xvi. io ; ) and throughout the 
details of the tabernacle, these skins were employed for 
external coverings to protect the vessels on the march 
from the sun or rain. 

Again, referring^^^Rr^timate in which the Lord 

D 



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Jesus was held by the unbeliever, we find it written of 
Him, " He hath no form nor comeliness : and wheawe 
shall see Him, there is no beauty that we should desire 
Him. He is despised and rejected of men. He was 
despised, and we esteemed Him not." Isa. liii. 2, 3* 
Persecution, opposition, rejection, a life of sorrow ©n 
account of the ruin and misery which He saw around 
Him ; the havoc that sin and Satan bad caused ; a life 
spent in ceaseless watchings, prayings, fastings, and 
going about doing good, had wrought their results on 
the blessed Lord ; so that in Him, there was no beauty 
to attract the outward eye. And at length when lifted 
up in shame and ignominy on the tree, bearing ia 
addition to the bufferings of men and Satan, the out* 
pouring of the wrath of God; men beheld One frail 
whom they would rather hide their faces in dislike, than 
gaze upon in love and admiration. No one, who looked 
merely upon the rough badger-skin exterior of the 
tabernacle, would have- conceived that it was the 
dwelling-place of God. The eye of faith alone be- 
helcl in Jesus " the glory as of the Only Begotten of- 
the Father." 

The visage marred, those sorrows deep ■ 
The vinegar and gall, ; i 

These were His golden chains of love, 
His captive to enthrall. 

The priest, who had title, by reason of his consecra* 
tion through the blood, to enterj within the holy place, 
saw around him only glory and beauty. 

The Church of God, in her wilderness journey, 
strikingly presents the same features as we have beea 
considering in this type. " I am black, but comely*" 
she can say : black, as to outward appearance and the 
estimate formed by sense; like the tents of Kedar, the 
rough dark camels' hair dwelling of the wandering 
shepherd; black, not by reason of evil or sin, but because 
the sun of persecution and tribulation in the service of 
Christ had marred all outward -beauty : but comely 



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within, as the curtains of Solomon, the curiously 
wrought tapestry of divers colours, resplendent with 
the beauty and glory of her Lord. 

" I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusa- 
lem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon. 
Look not upon me, because I am black, because the 
sun hath looked upon me." Cant. i. 5, 6. InPsa.xlv. 
the Queen, the king's daughter, is seen after the wilder- 
ness journey is passed. The way-worn exterior is no 
longer presented. It is a resurrection-scene of complete 
and eternal glory. " Upon thy right hand standeth the 
queen, in gold of Ophir. The Kings daughter is all 
glorious within (her palace :) her clothing is of cloth 
interwoven with gold. She shall be brought unto the 
King in raiment of needle-work." Even now, Christ s 
estimate of the Church is, that she is as one pearl of 
great price, (Matt, xiii.) for the sake of which, He has 
parted with all, making Himself poor : for He "loved the 
church, and gave Himself for it, that He might sanctify 
and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word ; 
that He might present it to Himself a glorious church, 
not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing ; but that 
it should be holy and without blemish." Eph. v. 25 — 27. 

The tabernacle must have appeared, to the eye of a 
stranger, as a long dark coffin-like structure. So also 
must the ark, that Noah built as a place of refuge, have 
seemed to men around a strange ungainly black wooden 
building. Christ in His death, presents no object of 
attraction to the natural heart ; while to the believer He 
is, by reason of that very death, altogether lovely. In 
like manner, the Church of God is as the filth and 
offscouring of all things to the world. But the Lord is 
able to say of her, "Thou art all fair, my love: there 
is no spot in thee." 

False prophets in Israel wore a rough garment to 
deceive. In modern days, men have affected an outward 
garb of humility, and separation from the world : whild 
beneath the serge garment and rope of the recluse, or 

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the unadorned vestments of some nominal Christian 
sects, has lurked a heart of unsubdued pride, and an 
eager desire for human approbation. The flesh, to 
accomplish its own ends, can mortify itself. There may- 
be a shew of wisdom in will-worship and humility, and 
neglecting of the body. But by these very things, the 
flesh may be satisfied. The true badger-skin exterior 
should be the result of the walk and ways of a risen 
heavenly man, in the midst of an unredeemed .wilderness 
earth. We must be first transformed, by the renewing 
of the mind, into the likeness of Jesus, and walk 
according to the rule of the new creature, if we would 
not be conformed to this world. Gal. vi. 15, 16. The 
unregenerate earthly man may make a fair shew in the 
flesh ; may become a devotee, and thereby pacify his own 
conscience, and gain the esteem of men. But the Lord 
seeth not as man seeth : for man looketh on the out- 
ward appearance-, but the Lord looketh on the heart. 
And the day is fast approaching, when realities will take 
the place of false appearances. The true follower of 
Jesus will, by reason of fellowship with God, and a 
heart set on things above, unconsciously acquire a 
stranger, and pilgrim-like character. He will be little 
esteemed amongst men, and may have a Galilean name 
of reproach. But he is a king and priest tb God, 
and will be soon manifest in the glory of his Lord. 
The blessed Lord Himself was despised, as of Nazareth. 
But this very name of contumely was one of distinguished 
holiness : for it implied entire separation to God. 



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THE DOOR OF THE TABERNACLE. 



"And thou shalt make an hang- 
ing for the door of the tent, of 
blue, and purple, and scarlet, and 
fine twined linen, wrought with 
needlework. 

"And thou shalt make for the 
hanging five pillars of shittim 
wood, and overlay them with gold, 
and their hooks shall be of gold : 
and thou shalt cast five sockets of 
brass for them." — Exod. xxvi, 
36, 37- 



"And he made an hanging 
for the tabernacle door of blue, 
and purple, and scarlet, and 
fine twined linen, of needle- 
work. 

"And the five pillars of it with 
their hooks: and he overlaid their 
chapiters and their fillets with 
gold; but their five sockets were 
of brass." — Exod. xxxvi. 37, 38. 



The hanging, which formed the door of the tabernacle, 
was made of the same materials as the vail, arranged in 
the same order, "blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine 
twined linen." The only difference between the two 
was, that the latter was of cunning work, Cherubim : 
the former of needlework, without Cherubim. 

The word, here translated needlework, is in some places 
rendered "work of the embroiderer." Exod. xxxv. 35 • 
xxxviii. 23. Also "divers colours." (1 Chroh. xxix. 2; 
Ezek. xviL 3,) and once, "curiously wrought." Psa. 
cxxxix. 15. This word on the whole seems to mean, 
minutely variegated* 

And probably the difference between this work and 
cunning work may be, that in the "door curtain," "gate 
of the court," and the under girdle of the high priest, 
where the word needlework occurs, the colours were 
skilfully intermixed : but in the vail and curtains, a 
pattern of Cherubim was cunningly or ingeniously 
embroidered. 

The priests, who entered within fee door of thfc 
tabernacle, alone beheld the cherubim of glory worked 
into the vail and roof of the tabernacle; whilst* the 
worshipper in the court saw the same colours intermingled 
in the door-curtain. May not this be intended bo teach 
us, that every worshipper of God t recognises the beauty 



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and perfection of Christ, as God manifest in the fl^sh : 
his eye rests upon the door-curtain. _ But the nearer 
we approach to God as His priests, the more intimate 
our fellowship with Him in heavenly places •, the more 
shall we discern the glories of Jesus, and realise His 
power, majesty, and strength. He will be the one 
object that fills our soul, and under the shadow of His 
wings shall we abide. We behold the same beauteous 
colours, but the glory of the Cherubim also is displayed. 
Many a believer does not, as he should, realize his 
priestly standing before God. Hence worship, prayer, 
and praise, are often* delegated to certain consecrated 
men, who by common consent, even of many of the 
L&rd's people, are supposed to have a nearer access to 
God, and a power to handle holy things, which others 
in God's church do not possess. But the rending of 
the vail abolished the standing of an earthly tabernacle; 
destroyed all distinctions in the flesh ; opened heaven 
itself as the only holy place; and directly Christ entered 
there in resurrection, "the High Priest of good things 
to come," the eternal redemption, which He had 
obtained, brought every believer equally nigh to God; 
so that now all are holy brethren, partakers alike of the 
same heavenly calling as their great High Priest. Christ 
is the door of Salvation. "I am the door: by me if, any 
man enter in, he shall be saved." The door; not into 
an earthly sheepfold, nor into a, nominal church, but 
the door to God; the door into light, truth, life, and 
holiness. 

With regard to the colours, of which the door-curtain 
was made, they were the same as those which composed 
the vail and the curtains. The reader is referred to what 
has already been written on this subject, under the head 
of the Vail. 

The following are the only places where this hanging 
Is called the door of the tabernacle. 

Exod. xxxv.— Where Moses enumerates the things 
which are to be made, he specifies, (v. 1 5,) the hanging 



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for the door at the entering-in of the tabernacle, or, as 
it might be translated, the door-hanging, for the door 
of the tabernacle. 

Exod. xl. 5. — The hanging, the doorof the tabernacle* 
„ 6. — And thou shalt set the altar of burnt 
offering before the door of the taber- 
nacle, the tent of the congregation. 
„ 28. — And he set up the hanging, the door 
for the tabernacle. 
In all other cases, where this hanging is mentioned, it 
is called either the door of the tent (Exod xxvi. 36; 
and xxxvi. 37,) or the door of the tent of the congre- 
gation. The reason of this may be, that this door 
afforded an entrance for the congregation, by means 
of their priests, towards God who dwelt within the 
tabernacle; rather than a way of exit for God out of 
the tabernacle. His place of abode was within that 
holy building; His glory was displayed there; and His 
olessed purpose was, to remain uninterruptedly dwelling 
in the midst of the people. 

The door ot the tabernacle was, to the ordinary 
Israelite, what the holy places were within to the 
priests the place where God's presence was realized. 
The altar of burnt offering was set at or before the door 
of the congregation-tent. Exod. xxix. 42, and xl. 6. 
God was to be approached only through sacrifice. The 
door of entrance into His presence was closely connected 
With the altar, upon which victims were constantly 
burning; upon which blood was sprinkled, and at the 
bbftom of which blood wais poured. In fact we may 
say an Israelite had no dealings with God, according to 
the prescribed ritual, except about sacrifice or through 
sacrifice. If he came into God's presence, it was to 
bring either a burnt-offering, a meat-offering, a peace- 
offering, or a sin-offering. ! 

His three yearly seasons of drawing nigh to God were 
marked with numerous sacrifices. His basket of first- 
fritfts could be accepted only through the altar. The 



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sweet savour of a lamb slain, ascended morning by 
morning, to God for him from that altar at the door of 
the tabernacle. And in the evening, when his daily toil 
ceased, he lay down to rest under the shelter of the slain 
lamb, again presented to God for him in the same place. 
His sabbath was ushered in by additional sacrifices, 
offered to God : and each opening month commenced 
with fresh memorials of the great truth, that " without 
shedding of blood there is no remission and that 
there could be no acceptance of any man's person, save 
through the death of another. Thus the true Israelite 
would in spirit, spend his life at the tabernacle-door in 
the presence of God. So also the believer now, is to 
know nothing in this world, but Jesus Christ, and Him 
crucified • to hear, see, walk, live, in the remembrance 
of Jesus, and the preciousness of His blood; and thus to 
abide continually before God. 

The command to Abram was, " I am the Almighty 
God: walk before* ra*,and be thou perfect." Gen. xvii. I. 
" Enoch walked with God." Gen. v. 2A. And the precept 
to Israel was, " Ye shall walk after trie Lord your God, 
and fear Him, and keep His commandments, and obey 
His voice, and ye shall serve Him^ and cleave unto Him." 
Deut. xiii. 4. Could we but keep in mind this triple 
cord of responsibility and blessing ; to live in the power 
and presence of Almighty God, so that we consciously 
pass our days in His sight. I. Thess. L 3. To walk 
also in fellowship with Him, that His counsels, His will, 
inight be ours ; that we might delight in pleasing Him, 
and dwelling in the light of His countenance ; and lastly, 
to follow His guidance; to know the path He would have 
us to tread, so that it might be as the path of the just, 
shining more and more unto the perfect day. Could we 
thus realize by faith our high calling, we should taste 
somewhat of that fulness of joy which is in His presence; 
and dwell under the shadow of the Almighty, in security, 
happiness, and peace. As one of old sang, "I had 
rather be a door-keeper (margin ; I would choose rather 



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to sit at the threshold) in the house of my God, than to 
dwell in the tents of wickedness." Psa. lxxxiv. 10. 

This door-curtain was suspended by hooks of gold, 
from five pillars of shittim wood overlaid with gold, 
crowned with capitals, or .chapiters, of gold. Thus the 
manifested beauty and glory of Jesus, as the door of 
salvation, the way to God, leads us to contemplate 
Himself, according to the five syllables of His name 
recorded in Isa. ix. 6, " His name shall be called 
Wonderful ; Counsellor the flighty. God ; the Ever- 
lasting Father 3 the Prince of Peace." 

We gaze upon His work on the cross ; we hear His 
seven utterances from thence ; and we turn to see from 
whence this great sight proceeds^ and bow, and worship 
Him; the mystery — God manifest in the flesh; the 
Wisdom of God ; the Mighty God ; the spring and 
source of all things the commencement of the everlast- 
ing ages ; the Prince of Peace. . 

Each pillar, a type of Him, had its crowning chapiter. 
And the crowning glory of the Lord is, that He is 
Prince of Peace : the One by whom it is the purpose of 
God to reconcile all things to Himself : the One in 
whom He has even now reconciled us to Himself. We 
see Jesus, who was for a little while made lower than 
the angels, crowned with glory and honour. 

Each of these door-pillars stood in a socket of brass. 
The vail pillars, and the boar.ds pf the tabernacle, stood 
in sockets of silver. The object of this difference may 
be to exhibit the truth, that Christ is the door by reason 
of His sufferings in death •, brass being used for the 
altar, on which the sacrifices were consumed ; and brass 
being the metal often tfsed in Scripture, to denote power 
to endure or sustain the fire. • 

The following are the references in the Scriptures to 
the various sacrifices offered, before the door, or before 
the tent. of the congregation, before the Lord. 

Burnt-offering of the Herd . . Lev. i. 3. 

Peace-offering of the Herd * . „ iii. 2. 



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Peace-offering of a Lamb . . Lev. iii. 8. - 
Sin-offering for the Priest . . iv. 4. 
Sin-offering for the People . . ,, iv. 14. 
Offerings for purification after 

child-birth ...... „ xii. 6. 

The Leper and his offerings • „ xiv. II, 23. 
The man or woman having had an 

issue, with their offerings . „ xv. 14, 29. 
The two goats on Day of Atone- 
ment „ xvi. 7. ' '- 

Law respecting the tent-door, 

with reference to all animals 

killed for food .... „ xvii. 2, 4, 8, 9. 
Trespass-offering .... „ xix. 21. 
The Nazarite with his sacrifices Num. vi. 10, 13, 18. 
The congregation to be gathered 

there on the Consecration of 

the Priesthood .... Lev. viii. 

Levites Num. viii. 9. 

Seventy Elders „ xi. 16. 

The Pqests to abide there all the 

days of their consecration . Lev. viii. ; also x. 7. 
Offerings on the eighth day, 

brought before the tabernacle , , ix. 
Women assembled there . . Exod. xxxvii. 8. 
Assembly gathered at the door Num. x. 3. 
God standing there .... „ xii. 5. 
The Glory of the Lord . . „ xiv. 10. 
Korah,&c.,standingintJiedoor ,, xvi. 18. 
Congregation gathered against 

Moses ,, xvi. 1 9. 

Blood of Red Heifer sprinkled 

before the tabernacle . . „ xix. 
Moses and Aaron came to the 

door ,, xx. 6. 

Daughters of Zelophehad . . „ xxvii.-2. 
Pillar of Cloud over the door . Deut. xxxi. 15. 
Lots cast before the Lord . . Jos. xix. 5 1. 



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THE BOARDS AND BARS OF THE 
TABERNACLE. 



"And thou shalt make boards 
for the tabernacle of shittim wood 
standing up. 

"Ten cubits shall be the length 
of a board, and a cubit and a half 
shall be the breadth of one board. 

•• Two tenons 6hail there be in 
one board, set in order one against 
another: thus shalt thou make for 
all the boards of the tabernacle. 

'♦And thou shalt make the 
boards for the tabernacle, twenty 
boards on the south side south- 
ward. 

" And for the second side of the 
tabernacle on the north side there 
shall be twenty boards : 

"And for the sides of the taber- 
nacle westward thou shalt make 
six boards. 

•'And two boards shalt thou 
make for the corners of the taber- 
nacle in the two sides. 

"And they shall be coupled to- 
gether beneath, and they shall be 
coupled together a bove the head 
of it unto one ring : thus shall it 
be for them both they shall be 
for the two corners, 

"And they shall be eight boards, 

" And thou shalt make bars of 
shittim wood ; five for the boards 
of the one side of the tabernacle. 

" And five bars for the boards 
of the other side of the tabernacle, 
and five bars for the boards of the 
side of the tabernacle, for the two 
sides westward. 

"And the middle bar in the 
midst of the boards shall reach 
from ehd to end. 

"And thou shalt overlay the 
boards with gold, and make their 
rings of gold for places for the 
bars : and thou shalt overlay the 
bars with gold." — Exod. xxvi 
15—29. 



" And he made boards for the 
tabernacle of shittim wood stand- 
ing up. 

" The length of a board was ten 
cubits, and the breadth of a board 
one cubit and a half. 

"One board had two tenons, 
equallv distant one from another: 
thus did he make for all the boards 
of the tabernacle. 

"And he made boards for the 
tabernacle ; twenty boards for the 
south side southward : 

"And for the other side of the 
tabernacle, which is toward the 
north corner, he made twenty 
boards, 

"And for th* sides of the ta- 
bernacle westward he made six 
boards, 

" And two boards made he for 
the corners of the tabernacle in 
the two sides. 

"And they were coupled be- 
neath, and coupled together at 
the head thereof, to one ring; 
thus he did to both of them in 
both the corners. 

" And there were eight boards. 

" And he made bars of shittim 
wood ; five for the boards of the 
one side of the tabernacle, 

" And five bars for the boards 
of the other side of the tabernacle, 
and five bars for the boards of the 
tabernacle for the sides west- 
ward, 

" And he made the middle bar 
to shoot through the boards from 
the one end to the other. 

"And he overlaid the boards 
with gold, and made their rings 
of gold to be places for the bars, 
and overlaid the bars with gold." 
Bxod. xxxvi. 20— ^34. 



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The frame-'wark or walls of the tabernacle were made 
of boards of shittim-wood, overlaid with gold ; each 
board stood ten cubits high, and a cubit and a half 
broad. Twenty of these, standing side by side, formed 
the south wall of the tabernacle ; and twenty, similarly 
placed, formed the north side. Six were placed at the 
east end, where also two additional boards stood in the 
corners, to give increased stability to the structure. The 
length of the tabernacle would therefore be twenty times 
a cubit and a half, or thirty cubits : the breadth, six 
boards of a cubit arid a half, or nine cubits. To this 
must be added the thickness of the boards north and 
south, which (though not specified in the directions 
given to Moses) may yet be gathered to have been half 
a cubit. This may be ascertained by the following 
calculation. The first set of curtains was twenty-eight 
cubits long ; and when thrown over the golden boards, 
there remained a cubit on each side of them uncovered. 
These two uncovered cubits were completely covered 
by the next set of curtains, which were thirty cubits 
long. Exod. xxvi. 13. Allowing therefore ten cubits 
for the height of the boards on the south side, another 
ten also for those on the north side, making together 
twenty cubits, we have ten cubits left for the width of 
the tabernacle. Of this, the six boards at the east end 
will occupy nine cubits : and allowing a half-cubit for 
the thickness of the boards on the south and north sides 
respectively, we get exactly the thirty cubits, the full 
measurement of the goats' hair curtains, which are 
specified as entirely covering up the tabernacle. 

Each of the boards terminated, as to the lower ex- 
tremity, in two tenons, which were inserted into mortises 
in two sockets of silver. The boards were also sustained 
in their upright position, and linked together by five bars 
of shittim-wood, overlaid with gold, which ran through 
rings or staples of gold inserted in the boards. The middle 
bar of the five ran the whole length of the tabernacle, 
uniting all the twenty boards together. The other four 



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bars, of which two were placed above, and two below 
the middle bar, are not described as running all the 
length, but perhaps only extended half the distance, 
viz. fifteen cubits each. A similar number of bars 
coupled the boards composing the north side, and 
also the west end of the tabernacle. On the whole 
therefore there were forty-eight boards, and fifteen 
bars. All these were made of Shittim wood, overlaid 
with gold. 

Each board of shittim-wood, overlaid with gold, seems 
to pourtray the Lord Jesus Himself, the Son of God, 
the Son of Man. The shittim-wood, incorruptible wood, 
being a shadow of that great truth, that He " partook of 
flesh and blood ; " " the Seed of the Woman " the 
Second Man$" "from heaven yet "the Son of 
David," " of the fruit of his loins -," and at the same 
time, " the Son of the Highest born of the virgin, 
" the Man Christ Jesus ; " made " in the likeness of 
sinful flesh though, unlike any other man that ever 
lived on earth, incorrupt and incorruptible ; having a 
body prepared for Him by God, in order that He might 
die ; but without taint of mortality or death in Him. 

The gold also presents the other great truth, that He 
is " the Mighty God ; " " the brightness of God's glory " 
"the only-begotten of the Father;" "the Son" from 
everlasting, and to everlasting. Each board of the 
tabernacle, each bar, each pillar, reiterates again and 
again these great verities, on which salvation depends, 
on which the whole basis of Christianity rests, and on 
which the new creation, with all its glories, subsists, 
viz. the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the 
Father, made of a woman, God and Man, one Christ. 

The boards are like the ribs of truth, the massive 
frame-work ; without which no dwelling-place of God 
could be created ; no meeting-place between God and 
man provided. If the wood could corrupt, or if the 
fine gold could become dim ; if the taint of mortality, or 
mouldering flesh, be connected, by human theory or 



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speculation, with the glorious Emihatiuel; the tabernacle 
of God must tremble and totter: the great truths of 
salvation are shaken : and a mis-shapen mass of ruin 
takes the place of the divinely-ordered palace of tht 
Most High. 

Moses was enjoined by God, again and again, to 
make and rear up the tabernacle with its vessels, ac- 
cording to the pattern shewed him in the mount. He 
was not to speculate on the materials to be used, or the 
shapes or measurements. All was defined by God ; 
and accurately did he conform to the directions he had 
received, and the pattern he had seen. So that " as the 
Lord commanded Moses" is the closing sentence of 
approval, as each portion successively was erected or 
arranged by him : and finally, God manifested His 
presence in the cloud without, and the glory within, as 
a token of His full satisfaction in the work of His 
servant. (Exod. xl.) 

A reasoning and speculative mind is inconsistent with 
a humble worshipping spirit. God has laid down His 
own definitions, His measurements and dimensions of 
truth. The Father alone knoweth the Son. It is our 
place reverently to bow, and believe what He has 
recorded touching the Lord Jesus. Uzzah may think 
that the ark of the Holiest is in danger; David having 
himself, contrary to God's word, fashioned a new cart 
to bear it. But Uzzah was not spared by God, though 
his motive might appear unobjectionable : and David was 
at the same time made to tremble, and solemnly 
rebuked by the sudden judgment. 

One result of fashioning creeds and confessions of 
faith as the vehicles of truth, and not holding God's own 
word to be sufficient, is, that unholy hands are often 
stretched out, to defend or maintain these arrangements 
of human wisdom : and coldness and deadness of soul, 
and lifeless profession result, instead of the power and 
vigour of the truth in the souls of God's children, 
manifested in their life and conduct. Orthodoxy, as it 



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is called, ever appeals to human writings and human 
standards, which however true, can never embrace the 
fulness of God's word, and which may be held in the 
head, and subscribed to by the hanjl, without any living 
faith or power of the Holy Spirit. When will the 
children of God learn that His Word is sufficiently full, 
and sufficiently accurate ? 

The massive framework of the golden boards and 
bars formed a compact structure, over which the curtains 
and coverings were suspended. They were to the 
curtains, what the poles are to a tent. They upheld 
and sustained the glorious display of the blue, purple, 
scarlet, and fine linen cherubim, as also the goats' hair 
curtains. Thus what the Lord Jesus Himself was and 
is, viz: Son of God, Son of Man, that He has made 
manifest in His life, and above all, in His death on the 
cross : and His blessed work there, derives all its 
unspeakable value, and eternal efficacy, from HIMSELF. 
It is faith in HIM that is Salvation. "God so loved 
the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that 
whosoever believeth in HIM should not perish, but have 
everlasting life." John iii. "He that believeth on the 
Son hath life." May there not be a tendency to separate 
too much the work of the Lord Jesus from His person? 
to preach the death of the blessed Lord, without suffi- 
ciently preaching also the Lord Himself ? The Apostle 
determined not to know anything among the Corinthians, 
but Jesus Christ* — Him crucified. I Cor. ii. 2. And 
his great object of pursuit, for his own personal blessing 
and joy, was to know Him. Phil. iii. 10. 

The boards and bars have the same relation to the 
tabernacle itself, as the truth contained in the first two 
cHapter3 of the Epistle to the Hebrews has to the rest 
of the Epistle. In the first and second chapters, the 
great foundations of faith are laid. The Lord Jesus 

* The omission of the "and" which is sanctioned by the late authorities, 
gives this text additional iorce, "I determined not to know anything among 
you, save Jesus Christ— Him crucified." 



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Christ is presented to us as the Son ; the brightness of 
God's glory, and the express image of His person; the 
Son of the Father; God, the Creator — the Sustainer of 
all things -, and who will change all things. He is also 
presented to us as the Son of Man, partaker of flesh 
and blood in order to die; the first-b^rn from the dead; 
all things put under Him-, anointed above His fellows; 
not ashamed to call them brethren. On these great 
truths respecting Christ, depend all the other great 
verities connected with the value of His sacrifice; the 
glory and power of His priesthood ; the eternal salvation 9 
the eternal redemption, and the eternal inheritance, which 
are obtained for us by His own blood. The Apostle 
also in the Epistle to the Colossians, unfolds the majesty, 
fulness, and glorious pre-eminence of the Lord Jesus : 
because the believers to whom he wrbte, were in 
danger from philosophical speculations, and Judaising 
teachers. The completeness of their salvation; the 
loftiness of their standing; and the unbounded treasures 
of wisdom and knowledge within their reach, all resulted 
from the dignity, power, and glory of Him who was 
their Head. 

We shall find that every false doctrine, which affects 
the faith or calling of the believer, may be traced to 
some misapprehension or error respecting the Lord Jesus 
Himself. If a bar, or board, or ring were wanting, the 
whole strength of the tabernacle would be weakened. 
It would cease to be a firm compact building, fitly 
framed together. 

There is one verse respecting the corner-boards, which 
is of difficult interpretation. It runs thus in our transla- 
tion : " And two boards shalt thou make for the corners 
of the tabernacle, in the two sides. And they shall be 
coupled together beneath, and they shall be coupled 
together above die head of it unto One ring : thus shall 
it be for them both : they shall be for the two corners." — 
Exod. xxvi. 23. 

And they were coupled beneath, and coupled together 



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at the head thereof unto one ring. Thus he did to both 
of them, at both the corners." — Exod. xxxvi; 29. 

The latter part of this description may be translated 
thus: 

And they shall be doubled (or twinned) beneath, and 
together they shall be (finished or perfected) upon its 
head to the same ring. Thus shall it be for those two •„ 
for the two corners they shall be. Exod. xxvi, 24. 

Exod. xxxvi. 28, is precisely similar. 

The word doubled is the same word, whence twin is 
derived. 

The difficulty of this passage is, First , the meaning of 
the boards being doubled beneath. Secondly, the meaning 
of the words, upon its head. Thirdly, the same ring : or, 
to one ring. 

The general description of the boards, (Exod. xxvi. 
15 — 17,) and the words " Thus shalt thou make for all 
the boards of the tabernacle," and the fact, that the 
corner-boards are reckoned with the other western-boards 
in verse 25, " they shall be eight boards," would seem 
to imply, that these corner-boards were the same size 
and shape as the others. If this be so, they must have 
stood in the corners of the tabernacle, at the north and 
south Yides, at the western end, and may have been 
grooved (or twinned) into the other boards from beneath 
to the top, where a ring or staple may have bound them 
to the sides and end of the tabernacle. However this 
may have been ; the object of these corner-boards was, 
to add strength to the whole structure, and knit the sides 
and end together. 

Our thoughts naturally turn to the two occasions on 
whidh the Lord is spoken of in Scripture, with reference 
to the corner : 

Isa. xxviii. 16. — " Behold, I lay in Zion, for a found- 
ation, a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner-stone, a 
sure foun(latk)n. ,, 

Psa. cxviii. 22. — "The stone, which the builders 
refused, is become the head-stone of the corner." 



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, Here we have presented to us, a corner-stone as 
foundation ; and a corner-stone crowning the building : 
the beginning, and the end: the whole strength of the 
edifice depending on the firmness of the foundation 
coiner-stone ; and the whole compactness, and knitting- 
together of the building as one, depending on tne head- 
stone of the corner. God laid the foundation in the 
death of His Son : He completed the building in His 
resurrection. The walls of living stone rest securely on 
this Rock of Ages, and are bound everlastingly together 
by the top-stone. The corner-boards of the tabernacle 
may have some reference to these blessed truths. 



THE ATONEMENT MONEY. 

"And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, when thou takest the sum 
of the children of Israel after their number, then shall they give every 
man a ransom for his soul unto the Lord, when thou numberest them * 
that there be no plague among them, when thou numberest them. 

"This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that aire 
numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary: (a shekel is 
twenty gerahs :) an half shekel shall be the offering of the Lord. 

" Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty 
years old and above, shall give an offering unto the Lord. 

" The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less than 
half a shekel, when they give an offering unto the Lord, to make an 
atonement for your souls. 

"And thou shaft take the atonement money of the children of Israel, 
and shaft appoint it for the service of the tabernacle of the congregation ; 
that it may be a memorial unto the children of Israel before the Lord, 
to make an atonement for your souls," — Exod. xxx. n — 16. 

We have another metal presented to us, in the construc- 
tion of the tabernacle — Silver. f 

The word in the Hebrew is frequently translated 
Money. It was indeed, the precious metal ordinarily in 
use, in all transactions of buying and selling : and even 
at this day, in many countries, it is the current money of 
the merchant. Francs, dollars, dialers, scudi, are all 
coins of silver : and mercantile transactions are generally 



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calculated in one or other of these coins, in most of the 
countries of Europe, and Indeed of the world. 

We have two memorable instances in Scripture, where 
life was bartered for silver ; Joseph for twenty, and the 
Son of God for thirty pieces. The idea therefore, of 
price or value, especially attaches to this metal. It ranks 
also with us, as one of the precious metals : and though 
not displaying the brilliant glory of the gold, it is yet 
especially beautiful, by reason of its soft purity and 
unsullied whiteness : and like the gold, it corrodes not, 
and wastes not in the fining pot, though subjected to the 
intense heat of the furnace. • 

The silver, used in the construction of the tabernacle, 
was all derived from the Atonement money. 

The whole range of God's truth rests upon two great 
verities : — the Lord Jesus, the Son of God, the Son of 
Man — and His work of atonement on the cross. 
Throughout the history of God's ancient people, type 
after type, and shadow upon shadow, reiterated the 
absolute necessity of atonement. And while the Law 
prescribed commandments, to obey which, Israel fatally 
pledged themselves, it at the same time, contained abun- 
dant ritual observances, which testified to man's incapa- 
bility and need, and prophesied of One, who while they 
were yet without strength, should, in due time, die for 
the ungodly. As a covenant of works, it was a minis- 
tration of death. But to one who was really a child of 
Abraham, it must have shone out, like the face of Moses, 
with a prophetic glory; and have pointed onwards to the 
Lamb of God; in whom all the shadows of good things 
to come passed into substance. 

. This type before us, of the atonement-money, preached 
a very clear and blessed Gospel. It told out the great 
truth, that birth in the flesh availed nothing. An Israelite 
might trace up, in unbroken succession, his descent from 
Abraham, or from one of Jacobs sons. Still, that 
sufficed him not, if he desired to be entered on the roll 
as one of Gods soldiers and servants. The Jews, in 



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the time of the Lord, could say, "We be Abraham's 
seed and. the Samaritan sinner claimed Jacob has her , 
father. . But they were captives of the devil, and of fleshly 
lusts ; and their human pedigree had not raised them out 
of the dominion of sin. God had therefore enjoined, 
that, whenever Israel were numbered as His people, 
every man must give a ransom for his soul. The price 
was fixed by God Himself. Each man, whether poor 
or rich, must bring the same. One could not pay for 
another; but every one must tender his own ransom- 
money, of pure silver, and of perfect weight. "Half a 
shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, (a shekel is 
twenty gerahs,) a half-shekel shall be the offering of the 
Lord." \Exod. xxx. 13.) Other Gospel truths here shine 
out. When the question came to be one of ransom ; the 
poor and the rich, the foolish and the wise, the ignorant 
and the learned, the immoral and the moral, stood on the 
same level. Each person was estimated by God at the 
same price. He proved Himself no respecter of persons. 
And so it is still. The third chapter of the Epistle to 
the Romans defines the state of every one in the whole 
world, and levels the way for the Gospel. John the 
Baptist prepared the way or the Lord by his voice, calling 
all to repentance, declaring all to be in one condition, 
needing change of heart. And the Lord Jesus began to 
speak of the great salvation to hearts thus prepared. 
The chapter above referred, to makes the path straight 
for the proclamation of justification through faith in 
Christ, by pronouncing that all are under sin ; that every 
mouth must be silent ; that all the world is guilty before 
God ; and that there is no difference between the religious 
Jew, and the irreligious Gentile : for, "all have sinnetf, 
and come short of the glory of God." 

Another truth enunciated in this type is, that salva- 
tion must be an individual, personal matter; between the 
soul and God. Every man has to bring his own half- 
shekel. One of the devices of Satan, at the present 
day — and it ;s spread far and wide — is the way in which 



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he obscures this truth, by inducing whole communities 
to believe they are Christians ; made such, either by 
baptism, or by some formal profession of religiousness ; 
and placing, in the lips of thousands, " Our Saviour," 
and " Our Father ;" and thus beguiling them into the 
thought, that they are included in a general redemption 
of mankind, which affects the whole human race. Con- 
stantly therefore, in speaking to persons, we find the 
reply : — O yes, we are all sinners : and Christ has died 
for us all. 

Each individual Israelite had to present himself to the 
priest, bringing with him his own piece of money as a 
ransom : and his name would then be entered in God's 
book. The Lord Jesus, in the 6th of John says; 
" Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink 
His blood, ye have no life in you." Eating and drinking 
are actions which one cannot perform for another. The 
food, taken into the mouth, becomes one's own, and 
ministers strength and nourishment to the body. So, 
the death of Christ must be appropriated by each to 
himself. The soul has to say, My Saviour; My Lord ; 
My God. / have been crucified with Christ. Christ 
loved me, and gave Himself for me. Just as assuredly 
as the Israelite of old, had to eat the manna he had 
collected for his own sustenance; or according to his 
eating, to make his count for the lamb. 

The half-shekel was to be of silver ; the unalloyed, 
unadulterated metal. Three things are probably here 
presented to us in type : the Lord Jesus as God — as the 
pure and spotless One — and as giving His life a ransom 
for many. The silver, being a solid imperishable pre- 
cious metal, may have this first aspect : its chaste white- 
ness representing the second ; and its being ordinarily 
employed a$ money or price, may point out its fitness 
as a type of the third. 

The weight was also defined by Gdd : — "the shekel of 
the sanctuary;" kept as a standard in the tabernacle-, and 
perhaps bearing some stamp or inscription to authenticate 



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it. Its weight was twenty gerahs. The half-shekel, 
brought by each man who desired to be numbered, was 
to be compared with this. God kept the just weight 
and the just balance ; and his priest would neither take 
dross instead of silver, nor receive less weight of the 
precious metal than was required by the l^ord. With 
confidence the true-hearted Israelite, would ring out the 
silver sound, from his half-shekel before the priest : with 
confidence would he see it put into the balance. And, 
in the blessed antitype, with confidence does the believer 
sound out, in the ears of God, and of the great High 
Priest of His sanctuary, his full dependence on Christ 
and' His precious blood. He knows that that price is 
up to the full estimate demanded by God. He has one 
standard of perfection and purity, against which He 
weighs the hearts, spirits, and actions of rhen. Every 
thing short of this standard, every one who fails to 
reach this sterling value, will be condemned; like the 
Babylonian prince, who was weighed in the balances, 
and found wanting. To come short of the glory of 
God, is to be in the distance and darkness of corruption 
and death. . How wondrous the grace, which has pro- 
vided One, in whom we are raised from the depth of 
human misery, degradation, and ruin, to the height of 
the throne and glory of the Most High ! How passing 
knowledge, that love of God, which has not hesitated 
to plunge into judgment and wrath, His only-begotten 
Son, and to shed the blood of Christ like water, in order 
to redeem, from filthiness and sin, the worthless and the 
vile ; and to number them among the hosts of light and 
glory, in the courts above ! 

There is a manifest allusion to the atonement-money 
in 1st Peter i. 18. " Forasmuch as ye know that ye were 
not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, 
from your vain conversation, received by tradition from 
your fathers • but with the precious blood of Christ, as 
of a Lamb without blemish and without spot.'* An 
allusion, by way o£ contrast. What men consider 



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precious metals, and free frcm impurity and corrosion, 
God calls " perishable" and "corruptible." He says, 
that gold and silver " canker" and " rust." 

The man who amasses wealth is an object of praise 
and envy. " Men will praise thee when thou doest well 
to thyself." (Psa. xlix. 1 8.) But in this epistle, gain is 
denominated filthy lucre* The redemption, which God 
has paid for us, is no amount of corruptible things, as 
silver and gold. Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor 
the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt-offering. Nothing 
less than the precious blood of Christ would avail. God 
has valued our salvation at no less cost, than the pouring 
out of His soul unto death. 

The Hebrew word, from which the words ransom 
and atonement are derived, has a variety of senses all 
bearing on the same truth. Thus, we find, the word 
includes the thought of covering over our sin ; as a 
covering of pitch covers over the wood on which it is 
spread. (Gen. vi. 1 4.) 

The blood of atonement blots out the page of sin, 
and hides it from the eye of God. The secret sins, 
which have stood out in their glaring evil, in the light 
of His countenance, are hidden by the blood sprinkled 
on the mercy-seat. It also means, to appease or pacify. 
Thus Jacob sent a present to {atone or) appease his 
brother Esau. (Gen. xxxii. 20.) "The wrath of a 
king is as messengers of death: but a wise man will 
{atone or) pacify it." (Prov. xvi. 14.) "That thou 
mayest remember, and be confounded, and never open 
thy mouth any more, because of thy shame, when I am 
{qtoned or) pacified towards thee." (Ezek. xvi. 63.) 

This is the sense of the word in the New Testament — 
propitiation; God*s wrath being appeased in Christ through 
the shedding of His blood. 1st John ii. 2 ; and iv. io* 

Pardon and forgiveness are included in the word. 
Deut. xxi. 8, "The blood shall be (atoned, or) for- 
given them." 

Hezekiah prayed, " The good Lord (atone, or) par- 



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don every one." 2nd Chron. xxx. 1 8. Also, to reconcile., 

" A sin-offering brought in (to atone, or) to reconcile 
withal, in the holy place/' (Lev. vi. 30. 

" And when he hath made an end of (atoning, or) 
reconciling the holy place." Lev. xvi. 20. 

" Poured the blood at the bottom of the altar, and 
sanctified it, to make (atonement, or) reconciliation upon 
it." Lev. viii. 15. 

" So shall ye (atone, or) reconcile the house." Ezek. 
xlv. 20 ; also 15 and 17. 

In the New Testament also, the word atonement is 
synonymous with reconciliation* 

" To make reconciliation for the sins of the people." 
Heb. ii. 17. 

" We have now received the atonement." Rom. v. 1 1. 
(Margin — Reconciliation.) 

" Reconciling of the world." Rom. xi. 15. 

€t That he might reconcile both unto God in one 
body by the cross." (Eph. ii. 16. 

" By Him, to reconcile all things to Himself." Col. i. 20. 

To put cff> or expiate. — " Mischief shall fall upon thee : 
thou shalt not be able to put it off." (Margin — Expiate.) 
Isa. xlvii. 1 1 . 

To disannul. — " Your covenant with death shall be 
disannulled." Isa. xxviii. 18. 

Ransom, or, satisfaction. — " Deliver him from going 
down into the pit : I have found a ransom." Job. 
xxxiii. 24. 

" A great ransom cannot deliver thee." Job xxxvi. 18. 

" Nor give to God a ransom for him." Psa. xlix. 7. 

Satisfaction. — " Ye shall take no satisfaction for the life 
of a murderer." Num. x?cxv. 31. 

In the New Testament. — " To give His life a ransom 
for niany." Matt. xx. 28 Mark x. 45. 

Lasdy: To purge or cleanse. — " Purge away our sins, 
for Thy name's sake." Psa. lxxix. 9* 

" By mercy and truth, iniquity is purged." Prov. xvi. 6. 

" This iniquity shall not be purged." Isa. xxii. 14. 



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" By this, therefore, shall the iniquity of Jacob be 
purged. Isa. xxvii. 9. 

" The land cannot be cleansed of the blood." Num. 
xxxv. 33. 

We shall perceive, from these various quotations,, that 
the same Hebrew word translated Atonement, signifies 
also, Covering over; Appeasing; Forgiveness; Recon- 
ciliation ; Expiation ; Disannulling ; Ransom or Re* 
demption ; Satisfaction ; and Cleansing. 

One sense of our word Atonement is, At-one-ment ; 
two opposing parties being brought together in agree- 
ment as one. And the means whereby this is effected, 
the payment of a price, ransom or satisfaction. So, this 
beautiful type of the half-shekel of silver, shadows 
forth the precious blood of Christ, as the redemption 
price provided by God. And, when the sinner estimates 
its all-sufficient value in the presence of God, he answers 
the action of the Israelite in paying down the silver half- 
shekel ; as it is beautifully expressed in 1st Pet. ii. 7 : 
" Unto you which believe, He is precious :" or, as it 
might be rendered, " He is the preciousness ;" your full 
satisfaction, and value also before God, 

We have also another important aspect of truth pour- 
trayed in this type — viz. that redemption brings us to, and 
Jits us for God. The Israelite, who paid his ransom- 
money, was numbered ^s a soldier and a servant for God: 
A place was assigned him in the battle-field : and he had 
his position in the camp, appointed with reference to the 
tabernacle, the dwelling-place of God in the midst of the 
hosts. From henceforth Jehovah was his Leader, his 
Lord, his King. In like manner, the believer is redeemed 
to God, by the blood of Christ, from the world, and 
from slavery to sin and Satan ; that he may be a soldier 
and a servant of the Most High; to be led, guided* and 
sustained by Him, who has called him out of darkness, 
into His marvellous light. 

Two other words deserve our notice in this passage. 
Exod. xxx. 13, 14. "Every one that passeth among 



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them that are numbered and the word "cfferittg," 
1 3 — 15. The allusion, in 13, 14, is to the sheep 
passing under the rod of the shepherd, as he numbers 
them. Ezek. xx 37. "I will cause you to pass under 
the rod: and I will bring you into the bond of the 
covenant." The priest took the place of a shepherd, 
counting the sheep of Gods hand. And as the true 
mark of the sheep came under his eye, in the ransom- 
money offered by each, he entered each in the book of 
the covenant. So the good Shepherd has laid down 
His life for the sheep; and they are entered in the 
Lamb's book of life, because the atonement-price has 
been paid for each. 

The word Offering is a peculiar word in the Hebrew, 
signifying something that is lifted off the ground, and 
presented on high ; and is the word translated heave- 
offering. All the various offerings brought by the 
Israelites, as contributions for forming the tabernacle, 
and enumerated (Exod. xxv. 2 — 7,) are called heave- 
offerings. This atonement- money was a peculiar piece 
of silver, separated off to God, and lifted, as it were, 
from the earth, with the special object of being paid into 
His treasury, as a ransom for the soul. So has the Lord 
Jesus been lifted up, first on the cross, to pour out His 
blood a ransom for many; and secondly, He has been 
exalted, and made very high, "to be a Prince and a 
Saviour, for to*give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness 
of sins." Acts v. 31. 

This ordinance was transgressed by David, as related 
in 2nd Sam. xxiv., 1st Chron. xxi. Israel had settled 
down in self-contentedness and pride; David their king 
and shepherd, himself drinking into the same spirit. 
Satan, by God's permission, was allowed to tempt the 
king, and provoke him, by whisperings of vanity and 
self-exaltation, to number Israel. The desire in David's 
heart was, not that God might be glorified, and His 
promise made manifest, in the vast increase of His people; 
but that he, the king, might congratulate himself on the 



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number of his subjects. "Number ye the people, that 
I may hiowP "Bring the number of them to me, that 
I may know it." Joab, to whom the command was 
given, though himself an ambitious worldly-minded man, 
yet was keen-sighted enough to perceive, that this desire 
of his master was not of God. He even had some 
insight into Davids sin. He looked upon Israel as a 
people belonging to Jehovah ; and on David, as 
committing a trespass in having them numbered for 
himself. But, like all unbelievers, though he could 
point out the fault, he was not able to direct David to 
the remedy. He did not allude to the atonement-money. 

One result of this numbering was, that even cities of 
the Hivites, and the stronghold of Tyre, were included 
in the tale : which could never have been the case, had 
the silver half-shekel been required. At the present 
day, unconverted inhabitants of earth are too often 
classed as of the Church of God, by reason of the same 
neglect, viz : that they are not required to confess openly 
their confidence in the precious blood of Christ, before 
being reckoned among the hosts of God. 

Davids heart soon smote him, after the numbering 
was completed : he fully confessed his own sin and 
folly-, he at once cast himself on the mercies of God for 
pardon, and preferred being dealt with in chastisement 
immediately from the Lord, rather than fall into the 
hands of men. Accordingly, the plague, (which had 
already been threatened, in Exod. xxx. 12.) broke out 
amongst the people: and the destroyer stayed not his 
hand until the Lord, listening to the humiliation of 
Pavid, and appeased by the Durnt-offering presented 
at the threshing-floor of Oman the Jebusite, said — 
"It is enough." David, in his intercession, manifests a 
soul restored to the Lord*, and proves that he has dis- 
covered his former error: for, he speaks of Israel as 
sheep, and as the people of the Lord; whereas he had 
numbered them as fighting-men, and for his own glory. 

Also the price of the spot for the altar is paid in 



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shekels of silver. There may be some reference in this, 
to the atonement-money. The apparent discrepancy, 
between the fifty shekels, mentioned as the purchase- 
money in 2nd Sam. xxiv. 24, and the six hundred 
shekels of gold in 1st Chron. xxi. 25, may be reconciled 
on the supposition, that the former money was paid for 
the mere spot, on which the altar itself was erected; 
whereas the latter, was the purchase-money for the 
whole place of the threshing-floor. 

The blessed words — It is enough — were again, in 
principle, uttered by Jehovah from heaven, when He 
raised the Lord Jesus from the dead. Satisfaction had 
been completely made : the sword of vengance had been 
buried in the heart of Gods own Son-, the precious 
blood had been poured out; the full redemption-price 
had been rendered; and Jesus was raised from the dead; 
at once the proof of the perfect value of His own death, 
and to receive the due reward of His loving faithful 
obedience. " It is enough " may be a fitting superscription 
for the half-shekel ransom-money. 

It appears that the question asked of Peter, (Matt, 
xvii. 24.) "Does not your Master pay tribute?" (or, 
according to the margin, the didrachma) had reference 
to this ransom-money. Probably the payment, which 
had been instituted in Exod. xxx. of a half-shekel, when 
the Israelites were numbered; had in course of time, 
been converted by the Jewish rulers into a kind of poll- 
tax, payable for the uses of the temple. Peter, with his 
usual readiness, or rather rashness, answered the question 
in the affirmative, without referring, as he should have 
done, to the Lord Himself for a reply. And when he 
was come into the house, Jesus anticipated his request 
for the ransom-money, (to the payment of which, he 
had just committed the Lord) by putting the question, 
"What thinkest*thou, Simon? of whom do the kings of 
the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, 
or of strangers?" The Lord thus addresses him 'as 
Simon 9 instead of Peter. The Apostle had relapsed into 




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the natural man : and Jesus uses the name, which Peter 
had received from his earthly parents, instead of the new 
name, given him on his confession of faith. 

Peter had forgotten the late glorious scene of the 
Transfiguration, when the voice had sounded from the 
excelle'nt glory, "This is my beloved Son: hear ye 
Him :" and he had committed two errors. Instead of 
hearkening to Jesus, and learning of Him, he had acted 
on his own self-confident judgment: and instead of 
owning the Lord, as the Son of God, he had lowered 
Him down to the position of a stranger, or captive, from 
whom a ransom was demanded by God. 

This serves to explain the Lotd's question quoted 
above. Peter replies to it — to his own condemna- 
tion — "Of strangers." Jesus saith unto himj "Then 
are the children free." Jesus came to declare the 
Father. "He that hath seen me, hath seen the Father." 
He had come to redeem them that were under the 
law; that those who believed on Him might receive 
the adoption of sons. Liberty of sonship, and not 
the bondage of servantship, not the slavery of bondmen 
• confined under rigid commandments, was the liberty 
that Christ came to proclaim. The law, even in its 
type of the atonement-money, did not intimate the 
blessing of sonship. Grace and truth, which came by 
Jesus Christ, placed the believer in the freedom of new 
birth ; as many as received Christ, were born of God. 
But Peter had not yet received the spirit • of sonship. 
The Holy Ghost had not yet been sent from the risen 
Christ ; and thus the apostle mingled up and confounded 
adoption and bondage, and lowered the Son down to 
the position of a stranger. 

This is an instructive lesson to our souls: for the 
spirit of bondage i3 constantly working within us. It 
is of the flesh ; of nature. It springs from Simon, the 
Son of Jonas ; instead of from Peter, a child of 
God. If we have known God, or rather, are known 
of God, we are no longer aliens or strangers, but 



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children and heirs 5 and the spirit of slavery cannot 
dwell with the spirit of the Son, Law and grace can 
never be united. 

The Lord Jesus, having claimed for Himself and Peter 
the liberty of children, adds: "Notwithstanding, lest we 
should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast ar hook, 
and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou 
hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money, 
(a stater:) that take and give unto them for me and 
thee." Thus, one piece ot silver, brought up from the 
depth of the sea, was paid into God's treasury-, in which 
piece Jesus and Peter were both included. There seems 
to be a wonderful significance in this. The sea yielded 
up the precious ransom-money. The depths, with their 
billows and waves of wrath and death, were, so to 
speak, the birth-place of atonement. Jesus rose not 
alone, but inseparably linked on with His Church — one 
with Him in, all His own preciousness — presented in 
Him to God m glory — laid up and hidden in Gods 
treasury above. 

Whatever God's demand against Peter, the blessed 
Lord was involved in the same demand: Peters re- 
sponsibility became Christ's: — "for me and thee:" — 
and thus is Jesus now in the presence of God for 
us, to answer every liability; to render payment in 
the full for all our infirmities and sins ; to save, to the 
very end, all that come unto God by Him. He has 
bound us up with Himself, in one bundle of life : and 
we can never look upon Him now, without also- 
beholding, in union with Him, the whole ransomed 
church of God, one precious piece of silver in God's, 
temple above. 



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THE USE OF THE ATONEMENT MONEY. 



" And thou shalt make twenty 
hoards on the south side south- 
ward. 

"And thou shalt make forty 
sockets of silver under the twenty 
boards; two sockets under one 
board for his two tenons, and two 
sockets nnder. another board for 
his two tenons. 

" And for the second side of the 
tabernacle on the north side twen- 
ty boards. 

"And their forty sockets of 
silver; two sockets under one 
board, and two sockets under 
another board. 

"And for the sides of the 
tabernacle westward thou shalt 
mode six boards. 

"And two boards shalt thou 
make for the corners of the 
tabernacle in the two sides. 

"They shall be eight boards, 
and their sockets of silver, sixteen 
sockets; two sockets under one 
board, and two sockets under 
another board." — Exod. xxvi. 
18 — 25. 



" And he made boards for the 
tabernable ; twenty boards for the 
south side southward. 

"And forty sockets of silver 
he made under the twenty boards ; 
two sockets under one board for 
his two tenons, and two sockets 
under another board for his two 
tenons. 

" And for the other side of the 
tabernacle, toward the north cor- 
ner, he made twenty boards. 

"And their forty sockets of 
silver; two sockets under one 
board, and two sockets under 
another board. 

'•And for the sides of the 
tabernacle westward he made six 
boards. 

. "And two boards made he for 
the corners of the tabernacle in 
the two sides. 

"There were eight boards; 
and their sockets were sixteen 
sockets of silver, under every board 
two • sockets." — Exod. xxxvi. 
23—30. 



" And the silver of them that 
were numbered of the congrega- 
tion was an hundred talents, and 
a thousand seven hundred and 
threescore and fifteen shekels, after 
the shekel of the sanctuary. 

" A bekah for every man, half 
a shekel, after the shekel of the 
sanctuary, for every one that went 
to be numbered, from twenty 
years old and upward, for six 
hundred thousand and three thou- 
sand and five hundred and fifty. 

"And of the hundred talents of silver were cast the sockets of the 
sanctuary, and the sockets of the vail; an hundred sockets of the 
hundred talents, a talent for a socket. 

" And of the thousand seven hundred seventy and five shekels he 
made hooks for the pillars, and overlaid their chapiters, and filleted 
them." — Exod. xxxix. 25 — 28. 



"So were all those that were 
numbered of the children of Israel, 
by the house of their fathers, from 
twenty years old and upward, all 
that Were able to go forth to war 
in Israel. 

" Even all they that were num- 
bered were six hundred and three 
thousand and five hundred and 
fifty." — Num. i. 45, 46. 



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The silver, derived from the atonement-money 
numbered Israelites, was chiefly appropriated 
sockets of the tabernacle. Each board stood upon 
sockets ; two tenons, at the extremity of each 
dropping into holes or mortises in the two s 
As the number of the men that paid the ransom-m 
was 603,550, half of this (viz. 301*775) is the nu 
of shekels, because each man paid half a shekel ; 
as there were loo talents, and 1,775 shekels, 
hundred talents forming the hundred sockets, must 
been obtained from the 300,000 shekels. That- 
3,000 shekels would form a talent or socket ; and 
.socket would contain the ransom-money of 6,000 ; 
3,000 shekels : and each board, therefore, stood u 
the ransom-money of 12,000 men ; for each board st 
in two sockets. 

The whole massive framework of the tabernacle st" 
as to its foundation, upon the atonement-money paid ' 
the hosts of Israel. Each man could affirm, that 
very dwelling-place of God rested on the ransom-mo 
which he had paid for his soul. He could look u J 
the sockets, and say — my silver half-shekel has 
to make up the hundred talents, of which they 
formed. May we not, in like manner, say that the n 
creation of God, His everlasting dwelling-place in glc 
rests upon the redemption of the Church ? If 
ransomed sinner were to fail of reaching the heave 
city, a living stone would be wanting in the su~ 
structure : and there would also be a defect in the v 
foundation of the city itself. 

Redemption is the basis on which God builds 
new heavens and the new earth. The precious value 
the blood of Christ will be made manifest in every 
of the new creation. All will tell out the costliness 
the price that has been paid : and the very dwell 
place of the Most High, heaven itself, owes its stab* 
to the ransom-nioney that has been provided for 
redemption of each individual saint. 



3 MH64 



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BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



THE HOLY VESSELS OF THE TABERNACLE, 
with Illustrations, in Metals and Colours. 

PUBLISHED BY 

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Price 35s. 

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&2- 

~ PRICE TWOPENCE. 

No. 4.] [April ist, 1864. 

A FULL EXPOSITION 

or 

THE TABERNACLE; 
THE HOLY GARMENTS, 

AND THE 

Garments for Glory & Beauty; 
THE CAMP, 
And the Service of the Levites. 

BY 

HENRY WILLIAM SOLTAU, 

AUTHOR Or THE HOLT VESSELS OF THE TABERNACLE* 
THE SCARLET LINE, &C, &C 

A SERIES OF DRAWINGS WHICH HAVE BEEN ALREADY DESIGNED 
WILL, IT IS HOPED, BE ENGRAVED, SO AS TO FORM A SEPARATE 
VOLUME OF ILLUSTRATIONS, WHEN THE LETTERPRESS SHALL HAVE 
BEEN COMPLETED. 

LONDON: 

Messrs. Morgan & Chase, 3. Amen Corner, Paternoster Row,"^»C. ; 
W. Yapp, 70, Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square, W. 

.... _ - 

FORD, SHAPLAND, & Co., Printers, Tichborne Court, 280, High Holborn, London. 

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The unspeakable value of the cross will be proclaimed 
throughout eternity, from every part, from every glo- 
rious feature of the new creation, as well as from every 
inhabitant of the heavenly city. The kingdom that 
cannot be moved, derives its stability and firmness from 
the foundation on which it rests. 

The foundation of the temple has truths connected 
with it, in striking analogy with those typified in the 
foundations of the tabernacle, of which we have been 
speaking. Mount Moriah was the spot where the Lord 
provided for himself a lamb. Two great truths of 
redemption were manifested ; first, in Abraham the 
father, offering up his only-begotten son : next, in the 
substitution of the ram provided by God instead of the 
sentenced victim, Isaac. It was therefore a place whereon 
redemption was stamped in marked features : Moriah, 
the land of vision, where this great sight was to be 
seen : Jehovah-jireh also, the Lord will provide Himself 
a lamb. 

Besides this, the same spot was afterwards the 
threshing-floor of Oman the Jebusite ; a place from 
whence wheat was gathered into the barn. It was here 
also that the angel of the Lord sheathed his weapon of 
slaughter, by reason of the burnt sacrifice, and the word 
enough pronounced by God. Thus the foundation of 
the temple was laid on a rock, remarkable as having 
been a place where a substitute had been provided by 
God ; where the sword of judgment and justice had 
been sheathed ; and where a sufficient atonement had 
been made. 

The silver sockets of the tabernacle proclaimed the 
same truths. And it will be found that God has laid 
the beams of His chambers of glory above, in the deep 
waters of death, which rolled over the soul of His 
blessed Son, the Lamb of God ; the Rock laid as a 
foundation. 

The corner-foundation-stone has been already alluded 



to, when considerinj 




;orner-boards. It may be 



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well however, again to refer to the passages in Isaiah 
and the Epistle of Peter, as we are contemplating the 
sockets of the tabernacle, the foundations on which that 
building of God rested. The whole passage in Isa. xxviii. 
v. 14 — 19, should be read together. 

" Hear the word of the LORD, ye scornful men, 
that rule this people which is in Jerusalem. Because ye 
have said, We have made a covenant with death, and 
with hell are we at agreement ; when the overflowing 
scourge shall pass through, it shall not come unto us : 
for we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood 
have we hid ourselves. Therefore, thus saith the Lord 
GOD : Behold, I lay in Zion, for a foundation, a stone, 
a tried stone, a precious corner-stone, a sure foundation : 
he that believeth shall not make haste. Judgment also 
will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet: 
and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies $ and 
the waters shall overflow the hiding-place. And your 
covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your 
agreement with hell shall not stand : when the over- 
flowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be 
trodden down by it. From the time that it goeth forth, 
it shall take you : for morning by morning shall it pass 
over, by day and by night : and it shall be a vexation, 
only to understand the report." / 

The spiritual rulers of Israel, like the Pharisees in the 
days of the Lord, had built up a refuge of their own, an 
elaborate structure of self-righteousness, resting on a 
foundation of pride and self-will, and constructed of 
religious observances, and conformity to the traditions 
and commandments of men — a refuge of lies, a hiding- 
place of falsehood, and having no other than a sandy 
foundation. (Matt. vii. 26.) The superstructure and 
the foundation were .alike as to materials : vain, 
rotten, unstable ; the work of man from beginning to 
end. 

In contrast with this, God laid in Zion the mountain of 
holiness, for a foundation, a stone, the firmness and ever- 



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lasting stability of which He had tried, like silver tried in 
the furnace : a precious corner, the costliness and value of 
which, God alone could estimate, according to His own 
weight and balance, the shekel of the sanctuary : — a 
sure foundation : no superficial sandy surface ; but a 
foundation of rock, laid in the depths, firm, immovable, 
the Rock of Ages. All that is erected on this, partakes 
of the same lasting character. He that believeth shall 
not make haste, shall not be ashamed or confounded, 
shall not be shaken by the storm or tempest. Faith 
rests on this sure foundation, in contrast with works 
which rest on the sand. Directly God laid his founda- 
tion-stone, which is Jesus Christ, He takes the line and 
plummet into His own hands, and measures and tests 
the uprightness of every edifice of man. "Judgment 
also will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the 
plummet." He has one, and one only standard, THE 
RIGHTEOUS ONE. All that comes short of this 
height of perfection, all that deviates from this tested 
uprightness, will be tried in judgment. The floods of 
God's wrath will come : the torrents will descend from 
above : the hurricane of His fury will beat : and all 
that is not of Christ, and on Christ, will fall and perish 
in hopeless confusion. " The hail shall sweep away the 
refuge of lies ; and the waters shall overflow the hiding- 
place. "When the overflowing scourge shall pass through, 
then ye shall be trodden down by it." God has 
promised to shake all things that can be shaken, 
that we may be assured of the eternal stability of Him, 
on whom our souls rest — the eternal preciousness of 
His blood — the sufficient and everlasting righteousness 
of Him, in whom we are accepted — the solid foundation 
on which God's everlasting tabernacle rests. 

In 1st Peter ii. 4 — 8, three separate passages of the 
Old Testament are put together : Isa. xxviii. 16 ; Ps. 
cxviii, 22; Isa. viii. 1 4. "The living stone, elect, pre- 
cious, laid in Zion :" "the stone disallowed indeed of men, 

but made the head of the corner:" "and a stone of 

f "> r io}r ft t r:o. E 2 



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stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which 
stumble at the word." 

An allusion having been made, (ist Peter i. 19) to 
the precious blood of Christ, as the true redemption- 
price, in contrast with silver and gold, as atonement- 
money ; the Spirit of God in the apostle seems to have 
contemplated Isaiah xxviii. in connection with the vain 
conversation, received by tradition from the fathers — 
the refuge of lies, and hiding-place of falsehood, of 
verse 15. Another allusion to the same chapter occurs 
also a little further on. " As new-born babes, desire 
the sincere milk of the word." (1st Pet. ii. 2.) " Whom 
shall he teach knowledge ? And whom shall he make 
to understand doctrine ? Them that are weaned from 
the milk, and drawn from the breasts." (Isa, xxviii. 9.) 
Again, it appears there is a reason for linking on Isaiah 
xxviii. with Isaiah viii. I a, besides the fact of the stone 
being spoken of in botfi places. In chap, xxviii. 13, 
the effect upon Israel generally, of the line upon line, 
and precept upon precept, concerning Christ, would be 
to cause them to go and fall backward, and be broken, 
and snared, and taken : as in chap. viii. 14, it had 
been declared, that Christ should be for a stone of 
stumbling, and for a rock of offence, to both the houses 
of Israel ; for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem. " And many among them shall stumble and 
fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be taken." 

It is deeply interesting thus to trace the wonderful 
connection of the Scriptures together, and the one per- 
vading mind and spirit who indited the whole. 

As in the case of the structure built upon sand, the 
same worthlessness and instability were stamped, as well 
on the building, as on the foundation: so the living 
stones, built upon the living Stone, partake of the value, 
preciousness, life, and durability of their foundation. 

When the Lord Jesus was on earth, He was openly 
refused by the Jewish builders. ("His own received 
Him not." ' ' We will not have this man to reign over us." 



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"Not this man, but Barabbas.") They esteemed Him not : 
but God raised up this disallowed Stone, and crowned 
Him with glory and honour; setting Him over the works of 
His hands ; putting all in subjection under His feet ; and 
giving Him to be the head over all things to the Church. 

Moreover : Christ crucified was, and is the stumbling- 
stone to the Jews. Rejected by them when on earth, 
and still more abhorred by them by reason of His death, 
He is at this day the rock of offence, the gin and snare, 
in which they have been snared and taken. They have 
fallen upon that stone, and been broken. 

But not only is it so, as to that nation. Disobedience, 
or unbelief of the word, (which are synonymous 
terms,) characterises the masses of Gentiles around us. 
Christendom occupies much the same place as to the 
stone, as did the Jewish nation of old. Christ is still 
disallowed as the sole foundation laid by God. He is 
not "the preciousness," and the onlypreciousness,to many 
that call themselves by His name. His death, the shame 
and obloquy of His cross, the shedding of His blood as 
a ransom, are still causes of offence to very many nominal 
Christians. And in high places in the land, among those 
who are the builders of the day, the atonement is 
disallowed; the word of God is impugned ; and refuges 
of lies, and coverts of falsehood, are erected on all sides. 
But the storm is not far distant. Soon will the stone 
fall, and, grind to powder those who have thus disallowed 
Him, Gods precious chosen One. Soon will the Gentile 
image be crushed to atoms under the foot of the King 
of Kings ; and like the chaff of the summer threshing- 
floors, driven by the wind, not a vestige will remain of 
the proud scornful nations of Christendom. The day of 
visitation is coming, when God will destroy the wisdom 
of the wise, and bring to nothing the understanding of 
the prudent : (" Where is the wise ? where is the scribe ? 
where is the disputer of this world?") — a day of such an 
overflowing scourge, that it shall be a vexation, only to 
understand the report. 



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One concluding remark, respecting the silver sockets. 
The goats' hair curtains would exactly reach the silver 
foundations, in which the boards were fixed. Thus the 
whole tent of the congregation would proclaim one 
blessed testimony; viz. that atonement had been made-, 
that a full price had been paid and accepted by God ; 
that a sufficient sin-offering had been slain ; and therefore 
a place of reconciliation, a meeting-place between God 
and the people had been established ; in which He could 
abide in the midst of them, notwithstanding their 
waywardness, murmurings, and shortcomings-, and to 
which they might with confidence draw nigh at any time. 

The number 12 is remarkably connected with the 
boards and sockets. There were 48 boards, or four 
twelves; these stood in 96 sockets, or eight twelves: 
and each board rested on the atonement-money of 
12,000 Israelites. 

The four pillars of the vail stood on the remaining four 
silver sockets; which with the 96, made up the 100. 



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THE SILVER TRUMPETS. 

"The Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 

"Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou 
make them; that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, 
and for the journeying of the camps. 

"And when they shall blow with them, all the assembly shall assemble 
themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 

"And if they blow with but one trumpet, then the princes, heads of 
the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee. 

" When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east 
parts shall go forward. 

"When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie 
on the south side shall take their journey: \ they shall blow an alarm 
for their journeys. 

"But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall 
blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. 

"And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets: 
and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your 
generations. 

"And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth 
you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be 
remembered before the Lord your God, and ye shall be saved from 
your enemies. 

"Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in 
the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over 
your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that 
they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord 
your God." — Num. x. i — 10. 

It may be well to consider this type in connection with 
what has been said respecting the silver sockets : as the 
appointment of these trumpets seems to owe its signifi- 
cance to the fact, that they must have been made of 
silver atonement-money. 

It is true, that all the silver paid in half-shekels as 
ransom-money, was used in forming the hundred sockets, 
and hooks, and capitals of the court-pillars. But there 
was an additional numbering, recorded in Num. iii. 
40 — 51, in which the first-born of males of Israel were 
numbered, amounting to 22,273. For these the Levites 
were substituted. But the number of the Levites was 
tess by 273 than the first-born of the tribes. God 
accordingly directed that these 273 first-born Israelites, 



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should be redeemed at the price of five shekels a head,, 
'5 after the shekel of the sanctuary : — the shekel is 20 
gerahs." Here was another source from which silver 
was derived for the use of Aaron and his sons, in the 
service of God. How at every turn in the history of 
this people, the great subject of redemption is made 
prominent! Type is crowded upon type, expressive of 
the one great aspect of redemption, viz : Substitution. . 

The life of the Passover-lamb in Egypt was substituted 
for the life of each family of Israel, gathered in each 
house, under the shelter of the blood. Again: God 
claimed Israel's first-born as His, because He had 
substituted for them, in destruction, the first-born of 
Egypt. 

Every sacrifice on which the hand was laid, betokened 
substitution. The atonement-money was another aspect 
of the same truth. The Levites were substituted for the 
first-born : and lastly, five shekels a-head was a price 
substituted for the redemption of those, on behalf of 
whom there were no living Levites to minister before God. 

How blessedly all this crowd of types finds its substance 
in Christ, the Lamb of God, the all-sufficient substitute- 
provided by God. 

The two trumpets were to be made of silver, of one 
piece, that each might give the same sound ; and though- 
that sound was, by doubling it, to be increased in power - 
yet the note given forth from each trumpet was to be- 
precisely the same, in perfect unison. One clear shrill 
blast was to rouse the camp, either to assemble themselves; 
together before the tabernacle of the Lord, or to march 
on their journey. These are first specified (v. 2) as 
the two great objects for which the trumpets were 
made : and, as the chapter proceeds, they enlarge into- 
four principal occasions on which these instruments of 
silver were to be employed. 

First : " When they shall blow with them, all the 
assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door 
of the tabernacle of the congregation. And if they blow 



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with but one trumpet, then the princes, which are the 
heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves 
unto thee." v. 3, 4. 

The sound of these silver trumpets was to be the voice 
to assemble Israel to their king or leader Moses, at the 
door of the tabernacle. The call was sent forth from in- 
truments made of the silver redemption-money. They 
sounded out a cheerful yet solemn note, summoning 
Israel, as redeemed and numbered for God, to assemble 
in great congregation in the presence of the Lord ; and 
to hear from the lips of His servant Moses, words of 
encouragement, direction, or reproof. The very sound 
that fell upon their ears, reminded them of the fact that 
they were God's people ; redeemed at a price ; numbered 
as His own ; delivered from the bondage of Egypt, to be 
the servants and soldiers of the Most High. 

The exhortation in Hebrews x., " not forsaking the 
assembling of ourselves together," is based on the same 
truth. Believers individually, having the heart sprinkled 
from an evil conscience, and personally clean through 
the precious blood of atonement, are upon that ground, 
to draw near to God in the holiest ; and next, upon the 
same ground, to assemble in congregation for worship, 
prayer, praise, and mutual exhortation. They gather 
around the High Priest over the house of God, within 
the vail ; in contrast with Israel, who gathered themselves 
to Moses at the door of the tabernacle. Let us bear in 
mind, that we meet not in order to gain access to God, 
nor to make a way of approach to Him, but because we 
have been already redeemed, and because the way has 
been made open into His presence by the death of Christ. 
The voice of the Great Shepherd calls us together ; the 
voice that speaks peace and salvation to our souls. Silvery 
sounds of grace and truth proceed from His lips, poured 
into them from His heart. He preaches righteousness 
in the great congregation, and refrains not His lips. 
And when He sounds at last the great trumpet of 
redemption, the blessed and mighty blast of which will 



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reach every ransomed ear, He will gather aronnd Him 
by that sound, the great and glorious company that no 
man can number, redeemed out of every kindred, and 
nation, and tongue, at the cost of His precious blood. 
Then will the great congregation at length be assembled, 
in the glorious tabernacle not made with hands ; and the 
eternal song of praise be raised to our God, by the Lord 
Himself, the chief musician ; and one vast Hallelujah 
chorus from heaven and earth will echo the joyful sound. 

The law was given by Moses, and was accompanied 
with sounds of terrific majesty. The trumpet waxed 
louder and louder, and the voice of words was so appalling 
that the people intreated that the word should be spoken 
to them no more, and even Moses said, " I exceedingly 
fear and quake." Here was truth proclaimed, apart from 
grace; righteousness apart from mercy. But grace and 
truth came by Jesus Christ. In Him these two attributes 
of God marvellously blended. Like the two trumpets 
of silver which were sounded together, and produced one 
harmonious note ; so the testimony borne by Gods 
blessed Son, and manifested by Him in His death on the 
tree, was ever one of mingled grace and truth ; peace 
and righteousness love and holiness ; mercy and judgment. 

Secondly : " When ye blow an alarm, then the camps 
that lie on the east parts shall go forward. When ye 
blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie 
on the south side shall take their journey : they shall 
blow an alarm for their journeys. But when the con- 
gregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but 
ye shall not sound an alarm. And the sons of Aaron, 
the priests, shall blow with the trumpets : and they shall 
be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your 
generations." v. 5 — 8. 

The same sound that summoned Israel into the 
presence of God, for worship or instruction, also aroused 
them for the march. The notes given forth by the 
silver trumpets on both occasions were identical, though 
they were sounded after a different fashion : for in the 



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case of their journeys, the priests were to blow an alarm. 
There might be no foe apparently at hand. The path 
over the desert might seem to be straight-forward and 
plain enough. Nevertheless, they were always to set 
out on their fresh march under the sound of an alarm. 
For the foe was at hand, although they might not know 
it. The way was difficult and dangerous, although it 
might appear smooth. Just so is it with the Church of 
God, and with the individual believer. Every fresh step 
in the way, every change, is attended with danger and 
temptation. Satan, the unperceived enemy, hovers about 
the path of the saint. He lays fresh snares, and digs 
new pit-falls, at every turn. The soldier of Christ has 
to march on in careful watchfulness, ,not ignorant of the 
devices of the foe, conscious of his own high calling, as 
a redeemed one of the Lord ; and therefore fearing lest 
he should sully his spotless garments, or dishonour the 
great Captain of his salvation. 

An allusion to this is apparently made in 1st Peter, L 
17 — 20. The, apostle exhorts the saints, upon two 
grounds, to pass the time of their sojourning here in fear ; 
because they could call God their Father, invoking Him 
to their aid on that account ; and because tliey had been 
redeemed, not with corruptible things, as silver and gold, 
but with the precious blood of Christ. As strangers 
therefore and pilgrims, he exhorts them to march to the 
sound of an alarm ; not under fear of wrath or judgment, 
but in godly fear, reverence for Him whom they could 
call their Father, and remembering the vast price that 
had been paid for their redemption. 

And so it will ever be. The more we estimate the 
cost at which we have been ransomed, and the love of 
Him who spared not His own Son, the more we shall 
walk carefully and watchfully in the midst of this 
ensnaring world. The sighs, and groans, and agonies 
of Christ on the tree, sounds of redemption ; will cause us 
to walk circumspectly, and with godly fear, even though 
no danger may seem to be imminent. 



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Thirdly : " If ye go to war in your land against the 
enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm 
with the trumpets : and ye shall be remembered before 
the Lord your God, and ye shall be saved from your 
enemies." v. 9. 

There are only two occasions recorded, in which these 
trumpets of silver were used in war. The first, Num. 
xxxi. 6, when Israel avenged themselves on the Midian- 
ites ; a thousand of each tribe being selected to go forth 
against the foe, accompanied by Phinehas the son of 
Eleazer the priest, with the holy instruments, and the 
trumpets to blow in his hand. 

The other instance is 2nd Chron. xiii. 1 2 . The enemy 
in this case, was no longer a Midianite host, or a 
Canaanite nation ; but alas ! it was a portion of Israel 
opposed to Judah. Abijah the king still preserved the 
worship of the true God, and set the battle in array 
against Jeroboam, although the latter numbered an army 
of double the size. Jeroboam relied on his idols of gold, 
and the multitude of his host ; Abijah trusted in the 
presence of the living God, and His priests with sound- 
ing trumpets to cry alarm against the foe. Jeroboam 
was able completely to surround the army of Abijah, 
so that the battle raged, both in front and in the rear. 
But in this extremity, they cried unto the Lord, and the 
priests sounded with the trumpets : and as the men of 
Judah shouted, it came to pass that God smote Jeroboam, 
and all Israel, before Judah. 

These are instructive scenes. Perils arise both from 
open adversaries, and from false brethren ; from Satan's 
hosts, manifestly opposing truth, and from Satan, trans- 
formed into an angel of light; and his ministers, as 
ministers of righteousness. The sound of the silver 
trumpets was to alarm Israel, when marching in seeming 
security. The same sound was to alarm God, when 
Israel was about to be overpowered by the foe. 

In like manner, the fact that we are redeemed by the 
blood of Christ, is ever to be ringing in our ears, to make 



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us careful and watchful on our journey. And when we- 
feel the oppression of the enemy ; when the rulers of 
the darkness of this world attack us in our own land, and 
seek to overwhelm and overpower us ; we have but to 
claim God as our Father, Christ as the Captain of our 
Salvation ; and let the cry of distress sound in the ears of 
the Lord of Hosts, and the victory is surely ours. We 
shall be remembered before the Lord our God, and be 
saved from our enemies. — " Be strong in the Lord, and in 
the power of His might." — " Be strong in the grace 
which is in Christ Jesus." — " In all these things we are 
more than conquerors, through Him that loved us."—* 
" Thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through 
our Lord Jesus Christ." 

v Fourthly : " Also in the days of your gladness, and 
in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your 
months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt 
offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace-offerings, 
that they may be to you for a memorial before your God : 
I am the Lord your God." v. io. 

The ear of the true Israelite must have been habituated 
to the blast of these silver trumpets. He had been called 
into the presence of God by them ; He had marched to. 
their sound in the wilderness ; Gods aid had been invoked 
through them, to his rescue in the midst of the battle* 
Days of joy, and solemn days, when he had to afflict his 
soul before the Lord, were ushered in by the same holy 
notes : and each fresh period of time, as the month opened 
with the new moon, was marked by the like musical 
tones falling on his ear. Scarcely a day therefore would be 
past, without his thoughts being re-awakened to the fact 
that he had been redeemed to God. And as the burnt- 
offerings, and peace sacrifices, periodically presented on 
God's altar, preserved a constant odour of a sweet savour 
before the Lord ; the blowing of these trumpets over 
these offerings was intended to remind Israel, that the 
value of these sacrifices was theirs ; and to call Gods 
attention to the blessed fact, that they were accepted as 



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His people through the shedding of blood, and the 
substitution of another in their stead. 

In like manner, the whole life of a redeemed sinner 
is to be pervaded by one constant thought, that he is not 
his own, but belongs to God. A redemption-sound is 
to be mingled with his hours of joy, or of sorrow. And 
if he takes note of time in its rapid flight, it should be 
that he may learn to redeem it, by rendering himself a 
living sacrifice, holy, and acceptable to the Lord, which 
is his reasonable service. Is not this truth in type, pre- 
sented by the beginnings of months marked out in 
Israel's history, by the blowing of the silver trumpets 
over the sacrifices. 

The expression, "redeeming the time," apparently im- 
plies more than merely using the time profitably. It has 
the thought in it, of buying back the past by means of a 
right use of the present. And is not this ever the way 
of grace? God would have us profit by past neglect, 
failures, and sins. 

He not only mercifully averts, through the blood of 
Christ, their sad results in judgment; butthrough adeeper 
acquaintance with the value of the cross, gained by the 
humbling retrospect of the past, He desires that we 
should be better able to occupy the present moment to 
His glory. Vain regrets profit nothing. But the be- 
liever may profit much by retracing past mistakes and 
sins, and marking the abundant grace and wisdom, in 
which God has met every short-coming and folly. Love 
for Him will be thus increased. He that has had much 
'forgiven will love the more. Mis-spent time may be 
redeemed by wise and diligent use of precious expe- 
riences thus gained. Even as unconverted sinners, we 
have each passed through our own peculiar training, 
which if rightly understood, serves to fit us for some 
especial work for God. What would Paul the aposde 
have been, had he not previously spent his days as Saul 
of Tarsus, the persecuting Pharisee ? 

Surely each believer will have his own peculiar joy in 



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the work of Christ for himself, as he will have to record 
his own peculiar history of evil. 

May our souls, our lives, be filled with the remem- 
brance of the price that has been paid for us ; and may 
we be able, in some measure to say with Paul, " The 
life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of 
the Son of God, who loved me, and gave Himself 
for me." 



• THE FLOOR OF THE TABERNACLE. 

The bare desert formed the floor of the tabernacle ; a 
singular contrast to the glorious curtains, and golden 
boards and vessels. To the priests who entered the 
holy place, and to the High Priest on the day of atone- 
ment, who within the vail, sprinkled the blood under 
the cloud of glory thaf rested on the mercy-seat, it must 
have seeemed singularly out of place, that a dwelling, 
designed for smch holy uses, and so resplendent with 
costliness, beauty, and glory, should have been pitched 
in the howling wilderness, on the naked ground. But 
such was God's appointment. The dust of the earth, 
of which man was made, and to which the sinner, man, 
was to return — dust, which was the serpent's food — 
and dust, which betokened death and ruin, formed the 
floor of Gods dwelling-place. This anomalous con- 
nection of beauty and barrenness ; of preciousness and 
worthlessness ; the incorruptible with the perishable ; 
of glory and vanity ; affords a very striking type of the 
present dispensation. 

The heavens have been opened over our head. We 
worship and hold converse with God in the highest 
glory. And yet our members are here upon this earth ; 
and we walk in the midst of a groaning creation, in a 
world defaced by sin ; marred by the presence and 
power of death ; still lying under the curse, and tr aversed 
as to its whole length and breadth, by the serpents path. 





II* 

The blessed work of Christ, and the mighty power of 
His resurrection, have as yet accomplished nothing with 
regard to this lower creation. Redemption, instead of 
effecting any improvement in things around us, has 
delivered us out of this present evil world ; has translated 
us out of the power of Satan, who rules and reigns 
here, into the kingdom of Gods dear Son. The power 
of Satan, the state of men in general, and the condition! 
of creation itself, remain totally unaffected by the death 
and resurrection of the Lord Jesus. The devil goes 
about still as a roaring lion, seeking whom/ he 
may devour. He is still the god of this world — the 
prince of this world — the prince of the power of the 
air. The whole world lieth in the wicked one ; and 
man's heart has not received one gleam of heavenly- 
light. He remains even in grosser darkness-, notwith- 
standing the wondrous cross and glory of the Lord 
Jesus Christ. One universal groan reaches the ears of 
the Lord of Hosts from the whole creation, resulting 
from the vanity— death — bondage of corruption, to- 
which it is subject. And we ourselves, by reason of 
the very intercourse with God, into which we have been 
brought by the blood of Christ, and because of the very 
hope of glory, which through the Spirit's power we 
already taste by anticipation, even we ourselves, groani 
within ourselves, feeling what a wilderness this is 
through which we are hastening ; and eagerly waiting 
for the time, when these vile bodies shall be made like 
the glorious body of our risen Lord. No wonder the 
Lord's people have such strange and mingled experiences . 
In one sense, they are already raised with Christ : ia 
another, they yet expect the resurrection. 

By faith they can say, that even now they are seated 
in heavenly places in Christ Jesus : and yet they find 
themselves toiling in the midst of a restless* unprofitable,, 
heartless world ; and having to wage a ceaseless warfare 
with the rulers of darkness. With truth they are able 
to declare, that they have already died, and that their 



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life is hid with Christ in God: and yet, at the very same- 
time, they have to put to death their members upon the 
eaith, which are full of sin and uncleanness. Already,, 
by the help of the Holy Spirit, (the first-fruit of the land 
of glory,) they behold a new creation, altogether of God„ 
stretching out, with its unspeakable joys and glories, 
everywhere around ttyem. Yet still they sojourn in a. 
world where Satan's seat is, and where all is old, and 
full of decay and corruption. They are even now,, 
created anew in the image of their glorious God : but- 
the old man, with its affections and lusts, is yet present,, 
and has constantly to be resisted. They are not in the 
flesh, but in the spirit; for the Spirit of Christ dwells 
in them : but alas ! daily and hourly, the flesh continually 
lusts. Heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ; but 
strangers and pilgrims : kings and priests , yet beggars 
and outcasts : possessing all things, and having nothing z 
utterly helpless, and yet able to do all things, through 
Christ that strengthens them: with (as it were) heads 
in the glory, and feet in the wilderness. Such are the 
experiences of the people of God, during the present 
dispensation, whilst the tabernacle of glory is connected 
with the wilderness-path. 

The floor of the tabernacle is only once mentioned,, 
(Num. v. 17,) in connection with that remarkable ordeal 
to which a wife was to be subjected, if the spirit of 
jealousy came upon her husband. The priest was. 
commanded to take holy water in an earthen vessel, and 
to put into it some of the dust that formed the floor of 
the tabernacle. He then wrote certain fearful curses 
in a book, and blotted them out with this water, so that 
it was as it were pervaded with these curses. The 
suspected # wife stood uncovered before God, with the 
jealousy-offering in her hands, consisting of the tenth part 
of an ephah of barley-meal 9 a memorial to bring iniquity* 
to remembrance; and she solemnly pronounced Amen*. 
Amen, to the curses. A handful of the offering was- 
then burnt upon the altar, and the woman drank the 



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watei, which if she was guilty, became bitter within her, 
and caused corruption and curse to be made manifest in 
her body. The jealous husband taking this course, 
freed himself from any participation in her iniquity. 
The woman if guilty, alone bore it, and was a curse 
among her people. # 

May not this be looked upon in two aspects ? First, 
as a type of Israel, once the wife married to Jehovah, 
now suffering under the fearful judgments of His wrath, 
the fury of His jealousy, because of their departure in 
heart from Him, and because of their guilt in putting to 
death His own Son; that death, like the barley meal — ■ 
an offering of memorial, calling their iniquity to 
remembrance, instead of purging it away : — an evil 
and adulterous generation, which though secretly 
conscious, to a certain extent, of its own rebellion 
against God; has yet boasted itself in the law, and said 
Amen, Amen, to the curses pronounced against the very 
iniquity which it has committed. 

Secondly. — Is not this type to be interpreted also by 
contrast^ The Husband, instead of clearing Himself 
from the iniquity of His wife, by allowing her to drink 
the bitter water, has Himself taken the cup, and drained 
it to the dregs. God, in the fire of His jealousy, because 
of man's departure in heart from Him, mingled a cup of 
wrath and indignation, and placed it in the hands of His 
own beloved Son. *<The cup which my Father hath 
given me, shall I not drink it ? " O what a draught 
did that cup contain ! holy water, mixed with dust and 
curses, God's holy indignation against sin; a hatred and 
antipathy to it in every shape, which none but Himself, 
the Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty could feel 
and know, concentrated as it were, in that fearful cup. 

Death, the penalty on sin, with all its kingdom of 
terrors; and curses pronounced to the full because of a 
broken law; these were the ingredients mixed by the 
hand of God, and given by Him to His own beloved 
Son to drink; in order that we, who have indulged our 



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sinful lusts, and gratified our self-will, and revelled far off, 
might escape the holy vengeance due to us as sinners. On 
the cross, Jesus drank of "the wrath of the Almighty." 
He was "filled with bitterness, and made drunken with 
wormwood." "His heart was melted like wax: all 
His bones were out of joint." The "hot displeasure" 
of God, as a fire, burned within Him. He was 
"brought into the dust of death." The Spirit of God, 
in the Psalms, seems to have selected language, expressive 
of excruciating bodily suffering, in order to represent to 
our souls the fearful agony of spirit, which the blessed 
Lord endured, whea Himself bearing our sins in His 
own body on the tree. He refused the vinegar and gall 
at the hands of man, when He had tasted it. But He 
drank "the water of gall," and "the wine of astonish- 
ment," from the hands of God. Believers are often too 
apt to dwell exclusively on the bodily sufferings of our 
blessed Lord on the cross, instead of contemplating, as 
far as we are permitted to do, the unspeakable sorrows 
of Jesus in His soul under the stripes of God, "when 
it pleased Jehovah to bruise Him ; when His soul was 
made an offering for sin, and He poured out His soul 
unto death." May we not, with deep reverence, view 
many passages in the Psalms in this light; and transfer 
the expressions we find there, respecting sufferings in 
the bones, the loins,' the throat, &c, to the soul and 
inward mental feelings and untold woes of the blessed 
Lord ; when He tasted death on behalf of the wife 
of His affections — the Church — rescued out of an 
adulterous world, and to be presented ere long, to 
Himself, without spot or blemish, or any such thing. 



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THE COURT OF THE TABERNACLE. 



"And thou shalt make the 
court of the tabernacle: for the 
south side southward hangings for 
the court of fine twined linen of 
an hundred cubits long for one 
side. 

" And the twenty pillars thereof 
and their twenty sockets brass ; 
the hooks of the pillars and their 
fillets silver. 

"And likewise for the north 
side in length hangings of an 
hundred cubits long, and his 
twenty pillars and their twenty 
sockets of brass ; the hooks of the 
pillars and their fillets of silver. 

"And for the breadth of the 
court on the west* side shall be 
hangings of fifty cubits: their 
pillars ten, and their sockets ten. 

" And the breadth of the court 
on the east side eastward fifty 
cubits. 

" The hangings of one side of 
the gate shall be fifteen cubits : 
their pillars three, and their 
sockets three. 

"And on the other side shall 
be hangings fifteen cubits: their 
pillars three, and their sockets 
three. 

" And for the gate of the court 
shall be an hanging of twenty 
cubits, of blue, and purple, and 
scarlet, and fine twined linen, 
wrought with needlework : and 
their pillars shall be four, and 
their sockets four. 

•'All the pillars round about 
the court shall be filleted with 
silver; their hooks shall be of 
silver, and their sockets of bras*. 

"The length of the court shall 
be an hundred cubits, and the 
breadth fifty every where, and the 
height five cubits of fine twined 
linen, and their sockets of brass." 
Exod. xxvii. 9 — 18. 



"And he made the court: on 
the south side southward the 
hangings of the court fine twined 
linen, an hundred cubits. Their 
pillars twenty, and their brasen 
sockets twenty : the hooks of the 
pillars and their fillets silver. 

"And for the north side the 
hangings were an hundred cubits, 
their pillars were twenty, and 
their sockets of brass twenty ; the 
hooks of the pillars and their 
fillets of silver. 

"And for the west side were 
hangings of fifty cubits, their 
pillars ten, and their sockets ten : 
the hooks of the pillars and their 
fillets of silver. 

" And for the east side eastward 
fifty cubits. The hangings of the 
one side of the gate were fifteen 
cubits ; their pillars three, and their 
sockets three. -And for the other 
side of the court gate, on this hand 
and that hahd, were hangings of 
fifteen cubits ; their pillars three, 
and their sockets three. 

" All the hangings of the court 
round about were of fine twined 
linen. And the sockets for the 
pillars were of brass; the hooks 
of the pillars and their fillets of 
silver; and the overlaying of their 
chapiters of silver; and all the 
pillars of the court were filleted 
with silver. 

" And the hanging for the gate 
of the court was .needlework, of 
blue, and purple, and scarlet, and 
fine twined linen : and twenty 
cubits was the length, and the 
height in the breadth was five 
cubits, answerable to the hangings 
of the court. And their pillars 
were four, and their sockets of 
brass four ; their hooks of silver, 
and the overlaying of their chapi- 
ters and their fillets of silver." 
Exod. xxxviii. 9 — 19. 



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The Tabernacle, that is to say, the covered building, 
stood in the midst of an open space of ground, a 
hundred cubits long by fifty broad, which was enclosed 
by a hanging of fine twined linen, and a hanging for the 
gate, suspended on pillars ; twenty of which stood on 
the south side, twenty on the north, ten on the west, 
and ten on the east ; sixty pillars in all. The Word 
of God does not state of what these pillars were made. 
The sockets and capitals alone are mentioned ; the former 
✓ as being of brass, the latter of silver. But as in 
Exod. xxxviii. 24, to the end, (where the quantities of 
gold, silver, and brass, used in making the tabernacle, are 
expressed,) no mention is made of either of these three 
metals as employed in forming the pillars of the court, 
it may be inferred that they were of shittim-wood. 



THE GATE OF THE COURT. 

At the east end of the court, the curtain for the gate 
hung from four pillars. This hanging was twenty 
cubits long ; and as the width of the court was fifty 
cubits, there were thirty cubits left. The gate being in 
the centre, these thirty cubits were divided, fifteen on 
each side : three pillars, with the hanging of fine twined 
linen suspended from them, filled up these respective 
spaces. • 

The word Hanging (mah-sahch) is in the Hebrew, • 
exclusively used for the vail — for the door of the 
tabernacle— and for the gate of the court. When 
connected with the vail, it is often translated Covering. 
Exod. xxxv. 12 ; xxxix. 34; xl. 21 ; Num. iv. 5. 
It is once translated Curtain. " The curtain for the 
door of the court." Num. ill. 26. The peculiar use of 
this word serves to connect together in type, the vail, 
the dpor of the tabernacle, and the gate of the court. 
Each of these hangings covered or hid the interior from 



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the eyes of one approaching from the outside. Each 
had the character of a door : indeed, the word door is 
once used for the gate of the court. (Num. iii. 26.) 
"The curtain for the door of the court." All three 
were made of the same materials, arranged in precisely 
the same order ; " blue, and purple, and scarlet, and 
fine twined linen :" and all three were of the same 
dimensions, as regards their area, for, the gate of the 
court was twenty cubits long by five high, making a 
hundred square cubits. The door-curtain and vail each 
occupied a space of ten cubits wide by ten high, or a 
hundred square cubits each. 

The same truth seems therefore to be embodied in 
each of these typical curtains. The same Jesus, God 
manifest in the flesh, is pourtrayed in each There 
could be no access to God, of any kind, whether of 
comparatively distant worship, or of closest intimacy, 
but through the one door, the Lord Jesus. " I am the 
door." John x. 7. 

The Israelite, who came to the brazen altar with his 
sacrifice or gifts, must first pass through the gate of the 
court. The priest, that placed incense* on the golden 
altar within the tabernacle, entered through a second 
door-curtain. The high priest, who alone had access 
into the holiest, passed through the vail, a third hanging 
of the same kind ; and realised the thrice repeated truth 
of the only way to God. 

Cain was the first who tried another path : and instead 
of being able to draw near, his very attempt ended in his 
going out from the presence of God, into the land of 
banishment. The path, thus at first trodden by only 
one evil man, has since become a broad way, " the way 
of Cain." Thousands follow in his footsteps, and think 
to worship and to offer, without passing through the door* 

Salvation and worship are inseparably united. The 
Samaritan, who had his holy mount Gerizim, and a 
liturgy derived by tradition from Jewish sources, though 
acknowledging the name of Jehovah, worshipped an 



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unknown God, as much as the Athenian, who knew not ' 
the very name of the true God : for neither the one nor 
the other knew God's way of salvation. 

The Lord Jesus, in John x., seems to have these two 
thoughts in His mind. Himself the door to God ; and 
the door of salvation. The Pharisees, who had usurped * 
the place of shepherds in the Jewish fold, had cast out 
one of the true sheep. The Good Shepherd found this 
outcast one, and spoke to him : and the sheep immediately 
heard His voice. The Lord then proceeded to speak 
the parables recorded in John x., respecting the Shepherd 
and the sheep. He had first proved Himself the Shep- 
herd, by entering in by the door, the way appointed by 
God. To Him the porter had opened. 

It has been suggested, and probably with truth, that 
the porter, who ushered the Lord Jesus into the fold, 
was John the Baptist. He had been sent to prepare the 
way of Jehovah, and stood in a remarkable place, at the 
end of all the prophets, proclaiming the kingdom of 
heaven as at hand, and announcing the Lamb of God. 
The sheep, hearing the Shepherd's voice, followed, and 
were led by Him out of the fold. 

Up to the time of the Lord's death, there had been a 
people, separated off from the other nations of earth, 
into a locality chosen by God, and fenced in with a pale 
of ordinances and commandments ; the effect of which 
was still to preserve them folded off from the rest of 
mankind. But directly the Lord Jesus had established 
His title to be the Good Shepherd, by giving His life 
for the sheep — from that time, no bond of creed 
or confession, of ordinances or liturgical ceremonies,' 
distinguished the sheep from other men. Jesus Him- 
self became alone the object, the life, and the leader 
of each individual member of His flock. The badge and 



following Him. To draw to Himself, away from every 
support; to be the one object of the heart's affection; to 
be known, trusted, loved, followed, and worshipped, 



safety of the sheep 




His voice, and 



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-was, and is the great purpose of Christ. And so, in 
this beautiful chapter, He presents Himself as leading 
them out, and putting them forth, in order that no 
hedges or barriers might keep them in the right track, 
but that they might alone be dependent on His voice, 
and trace His footsteps. 

The Lord then speaks of Himself as the door of 
the sheep ; a remarkable expression : not the door of a 
sheep-fold; but the door of the sheep. The door of 
their life, of their existence as sheep. The door which 
-constituted them sheep ; the door to God, the Father 
and Owner of the sheep. Again the Lord repeats the 
words, "I am the door," and then adds, " By me if 
any man enter in, he shall be saved." He gives the 
general invitation, "if any man." Jew or Gentile, enter 
into Gods presence by Him, salvaltion is the immediate 
result. He opens wide the door to the whole world, 
as we find throughout this Gospel of John. 

"Whosoever believeth . . ." iii. 15. "If any man 

•eat . . ." vi. 51. "If any man thirst " 

vii. 37. "If any man enter in . . ." x. 9, are all so 
many intimations of salvation presented in Christ to the 
world, instead of being narrowed up, as heretofore, to 
Israel. The brazen serpent; the manna; the smitten 
Tock ; and the gate of the court, are all thus offered to any 
one, be he who he may, Greek or Jew, circumcision 
or uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bond or free. 

"And shall go in and out, and find pasture." The 
sheep, saved by entering in through Christ and Him 
•crucified, would be safe henceforth in all circumstances ; 
and would find pasture, whether in immediate worship 
within the tabernacle before the Lord, or whether 
passing through the wilderness paths of the world. In 
contrast with Israel of old, who were obliged to go 
up to Jerusalem, in order to feast in the presence of the 
Lord ; and who, if they wandered from their own land, 
could not sacrifice, or serve God. 

One privilege of a believer now, having life through 



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Christ, and union with Him, is to find in every 
circumstance of common life, an occasion for trusting 
God, and for the exercise of faith, and for blessing to 
the soul. Pasture now springs up in the wilderness. 
As the Apostle expresses it, "The life, which I now 
live in the. flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of 
God, who loved me, and gave Himself for me." The 
valley of Baca, the dry valley of grief, becomes a well •„ 
the rain also fills the pools. Psa. lxxxiv. 6 

"I am come, that they might have life, and that they 
might have it more abundantly." John x. io. Christ is 
the door of life ; the way, the truth, and the life ; eternal 
life already to every one that enters in by Him. Life in 
all its fulness also in the day of resurrection : in accordance 
with the words before spoken by the Lord in chap. vi. 
40, 54. "This is the will of Him that sent me, that 
every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on Him, 
may have everlasting life : and I will raise Him up at the 
last day. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, 
hath eternal life: and I will raise him up at the 
last day." 

' ' I am the .good shepherd. The good shepherd giveth 
his life for the sheep." chap. x. 1 1. Again the Lord returns 
to the fact of His being the Shepherd ; but now adds the 
word good, and proves His right to that title by giving 
His life for the sheep. For them, He would die ; He 
was the Shepherd that was to die. To them, He was 
the door, by whom they could draw nigh to God ; the 
way of life. The Shepherd and the door are remark- 
ably interchanged. 

"I am the good Shepherd, and know my sheep, and 
am known of mine, like as the Father knoweth me, and 
as I know the Father : and I lay down my life for the 
sheep." ver. 14, 15. The Lord Himself was the Lamb 
of God. He knew the shepherdly care and love of the 
Father. In like manner as the Father knew Him, He 
knew His own sheep ; and as He knew the Father, His 
own sheep knew Him. 



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"And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold. 
Them also I must bring; and they shall hear my voice; 
and there shall be one jlock, and one Shepherd, ver. 1 6. 
Our version has inaccurately used the word fold, instead 
of jlock, in the latter clause of the verse just quoted. 
There was indeed a Jewish fold: but out of that, the 
sheep were to be brought : and other Gentile sheep, who 
had never been of any fold, Jesus would also bring to 
Himself. Lifted up on the cross, He would draw all 
men unto Him. Jew and Gentile would lose all 
characteristics of the flesh, and become sheep alike 
belonging to one flock of God. Saved by the death of 
the good Shepherd, and placed under the care of the 
great Shepherd of the sheep. 

There seems therefore, in this discourse of our Lord, 
to be an intimation that the door-gate of the tabernacle- 
court would be alike open to Gentile as well as Jew. 
The righteous, whoever they might be, justified in the 
way of faith, would enter this gate of the Lord, 
{Ps. cxviii. 20,) this door of faith, opened to the 
Gentiles. 

This Gate of the Court, or hanging, was suspended 
from four pillars. Being twenty cubits long, ample space 
would be allowed between each pillar for the admit- 
tance of the altar of burnt-offering, which was five 
cubits in breadth. The curtain for the door of the 
tabernacle hung upon five pillars : as it was ten cubits 
wide, the separation between each pillar would be two 
cubits and a half, which would exactly admit the ark of 
the testimony. 

It is possible that these measurements had reference 
respectively to these two principal vessels of the court 
and tabernacle, 

In Exod. xxxviii. 18, where the gate of the court is 
again described, these words are added : " And the 
^height in the breadth five cubits, answerable to the hang- 
ings of the court." The height is here considered breadth. 
This may arise either from the fact that the gate of the 



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court was so hung, as to make the spaces of entrance 
exactly five cubits square, so that the breadth and 
height were equal ; or because of the contrast between 
the mode of measuring the court-gate, and the mode 
adopted in measuring the curtains of the tabernacle. In 
the case of the curtains, their height from the ground is 
called their length ; whilst their extent from west to 
east is called their breadth. This is exactly reversed in 
the gate of the court, where the length is its breadth 
from south to north, and its breadth its height. 

The court itself, with the exception of the gate already 
mentioned, was closed by a hanging of fine-twined linen, 
five cubits high. As it has been before remarked fine 
linen seems to be used in Scripture as a type of righte- 
ousness — a righteousness equal to all the demands of 
God ; enabling him who possesses it to stand in God's 
glory : in contrast with sin, by reason of which, all 
come short of the glory of God. The Israelite, who 
entered through the gate of the court, would be encom- 
passed, shut in, and protected, by this hanging of fine 
twined linen. Though in a wilderness, he stood on 
holy ground ; and the fine linen by which he was sur- 
rounded, shut out from his eye the dreary barren pros- 
pect, through which he was wending his way. The 
lovely tabernacle of God stood partially revealed to his 
gaze. The courts of the Lords house, overshadowed by 
the cloud of glory, were before him. The altar, with 
its lamb for the burnt-offering, sent up an odour of a 
sweet savour on his behalf. The laver, filled with 
water, told him of a fountain, filled with life and purity, 
which would cleanse away even the ordinary defilement 
contracted whilst passing through a wilderness of death. 
He had entered through the gate of the court, the 
appointed doorway : within, every object proclaimed 
life, peace, righteousness, acceptance, and nearness to 
God. Well might the Psalmist say, " How amiable are 
thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts ! My soul longeth, 
yea even fainteth for the courts of the Lord : my heart 



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and my flesh crieth out for the living God." Ps. lxxxiv. 
1,2. Moreover, no deadly foe could enter those pre- 
cincts. The presence of the living God, manifested over 
the ark of His strength, abode there. The hosts of His 
people encamped in close and well-ordered ranks all 
round; and the court of the tabernacle itself was screened 
even from the gaze of an adversary. 

Thus this court presented a place of security, of 
holiness, and of intercourse with God. Jerusalem on 
earth will hereafter afford some such place of refuge for 
the nations of the earth. On referring to Rev. xi. I, 2, 
we distinctly learn, that Jerusalem, the holy city, was in 
type represented by the court of the temple. 

The court of the tabernacle had much the same 
analogy as regards the tabernacle itself, as the court of 
the temple had with respect to the temple. So that we 
may without much fear of mistake, suppose that the 
earthly Jerusalem, as it will hereafter be fashioned, 
subsequently to the Lord's return, is prefigured by the 
court of the tabernacle. It will be a strong city ; its 
strength consisting in salvation. " In that day shall this 
song be sung in the land of Judah : We have a strong 
city ; salvation will God appoint for walls and bulwarks." 
The righteous nation will enter in through its gates ; 
righteous, because justified by faith in the Lord Jesus ; 
the sheep who have entered in by that door. " Open 
ye the gates, that the righteous nation, which keepeth 
the truth, may enter in." The Rpck of ages will mani- 
fest Himself there. Living waters will flow from that 
city. A fountain will there be opened to the house of 
David for sin and uncleanness. It will be the city of 
the Great King. God will be known in her palaces for 
a refuge. The house of prayer for all nations will 
stand there. The uncircumcized and the unclean will 
no more enter within those walls. It will be a city of 
solemnities. The light of God's glory will stream down 
upon it from the heavenly courts above, the dwelling- 
place of the risen saints of God ; those mansions of 



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glory, which Christ is gone to prepare. Blessed time ! 
when Satan shall be bound ; and the Lord, the Prince 
of Peace, will reign gloriously with his church, (the 
sharer of His throne, and the army of His power,) and 
will subdue all things under His feet. 

The pillars of the court were surmounted with 
chapiters or capitals of silver, with fillets and hooks of 
the same precious metal ; the fine linen curtain, which 
enclosed the court, being suspended from these silver 
hooks. The silver, thus . employed, was the remaining 
portion of the atonement-money. " And of the thou- 
sand seven hundred and seventy-five shekels, he made 
hooks for the pillars, and overlaid their chapiters, and 
filleted them." Exod. xxxviiL 28. 

The fact of the fine linen curtain hanging from silver 
hooks, fillets, and capitals, which were made of the 
atonement-money, very significantly directs our thoughts 
to the inseparable connection between Christ our righte- 
ousness, and Christ our redemption. 

These two truths have, in systematic theology, been 
too often severed ; so that it has been taught, that we 
are saved from sin by the death of Jesus ; and that we 
are made righteous by the imputation of His life of 
obedience. 

This virtually depreciates the wondrous cross, and 
loosens the fine linen hangings of the tabernacle-court 
from the silver capitals. The truth is, that the justifi- 
cation of a sinner depends alone on the death of the 
blessed Lord Jesus> succeeded by His resurrection, as a 
necessary consequence of the value of His death. 

The one offence of Adam ruined us all. Sin was 
introduced by him into the world : and death, with all 
its miseries, entered in consequence. Every child of 
Adam inherits the complete ruin in spirit, soul, and body, 
which was the result of his sin. Filthkiess of the flesh 
and spirit, a desperately wicked heart, a carnal mind at 
enmity with God, together with mortality, and its 
inseparable attendant, corruption, are the melancholy 



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ills, to which men in the flesh are heirs. One finished 
righteousness has for ever cancelled all this list of fearful 
evils, and justified ruined sinners for life and glory. 
The payment of the true atonement-money, the precious 
blood, not only cancels every debt which stands against 
the sinner, but entitles him to be entered in the book of 
life as a son, and servant of God. In Rom. v. 9, we 
find justification attributed immediately to the blood : and 
in a subsequent part of the same chapter, it is attributed 
to one righteousness, v. 18. This verse, ("as by the 
offence of one, judgment came Upon all men to condem- 
nation ; even so, by the righteousness of one, the free 
gift came upon all men unto justification of life ") would 
be more accurately translated, if "one offence" were 
substituted for 11 the offence of one" and " one righteousness" 
for " the righteousness of one" It manifestly exhibits a 
contrast between the one breach of commandment, com- 
mitted by Adam, and the one perfected righteousness 
accomplished by Christ on the cross. The word trans- 
lated " righteousness " (dikaioma) see also Rom. viii. 
4, is peculiar. It expresses a completed act, a finished 
righteousness ; and must refer, not to a variety of actions 
spread over a whole life, but to some deed of perfection, 
in itself complete, which has made righteousness manifest 
in every possible sense, in entery variety of aspect. Such 
was the cross of Christ. Faithfulness, obedience, sub- 
jection, and dependence upon God, were there perfectly 
exhibited by the bklssed Lord* He trusted, though cast 
off : He prayed, though unanswered 5 He loved, though 
overwhelmed with wrath and judgment. He vindicated 
the honour, majesty, and truth of God, though himself 
unprotected^ unavenged, and given over to shame and 
dishonour. He justified the holiness of God at the very 
time He was bruised by His hand for no iniquity of His 
own. The two great commandments, "Thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all 
thy soul, and with all thy mind," and " Thou shalt love 
thy neighbour as thyself," upon which hang all the 



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law and the prophets, had their fulfilment under circum- 
stances of trial, to which no other being has ever been, 
or could ever be subjected. And the two were so 
marvellously blended, that they became as it were but 
one. For the blessed Lord loved man because He loved 
God. He died to save the sinner, because that sinner 
was dear to His own heart, being dear to the heart of 
God. " Thine they were, and Thou gavest them 
me . . . All mine are thine* and thine are mine." 

Adam's offence was the disobedient act of eating the 
fruit of the forbidden tree. Christ's righteousness was 
manifested in suffering curse, shame, obloquy, death, on 
the tree, in obedience to the will of God. He tasted 
death : His bread was ashes. 

The tree of knowledge of good and evil was pleasant 
to the eyes. It attracted and rivetted the gaze of the 
woman ; and as she looked she forgot the commandment, 
"Thou shalt not eat thereof." The Lord stedfastly set 
His face toward the tree of the curse-, it was the one 
object that filled His sight. He beheld it wherever He 
turned. A groaning creation around called up the cross 
before Him. The sin, misery, death, and ruin, of every 
perishing sinner that crossed Him in His path, were so 
many appeals to His heart, urging Him (may it not be 
said?) on to Calvary. Every sacrifice; every smoking 
victim; every flame of fire on the altar; every feast; 
every sound in the temple; told the same tale; and in 
type and shadow presented to Him the fearful tree. 
The bread that He brake ; the ears of corn which afford- 
ed a scanty meal to His disciples; the waves that rose 
and filled the sinking bark in which He sat j all, all had 
voices to His ear, telling Him of the bruising, the stripes, 
the smiting, and the judgment to which, each moment 
as it passed hastened Him on. 

The whole world, the heavens above, the earth be- 
neath, the trees, the withering grass, the fading flowers, 
everything seemed designed to perpetuate to His eye 
and ear, the one purpose of His entrance into this world 



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— the Cross : and in humble true hearted obedience t 
the will of God, He kept the tree in sight. 

And who can tell the wondrous appreciation of good 
and evil realized by the Son of Man, when hanging on 
the Cross, the holy judgment of God on account of sin, 
caused Him to sink in deep mire, where there was no 
standing; and when He confessed the innumerable ini- 
quities of others as His own, estimating to the full the 
fearful evil of every act of disobedience and insubjection ; 
and feeling the dreadful heavy weight of the wrath of 
God pressing upon His soul ? And what instruction of 
wisdom was poured into the heart of the Lord ! What 
a tongue of the learned did He gain from that Cross ; 
that He might speak a word in season to him that was 
weary ! 

The Epistle to the Romans, having contrasted the one 
offence, with the one righteousness; next changes the 
terms, and proceeds to contrast the disobedience of one, 
by which many were made sinners, with the obedience of 
one, by which many were made righteous. Justification, 
having been previously attributed to the blood, is here 
declared to be the result of Christ's obedience. That 
obedience therefore, is His death upon the Cross. If 
the sin of an ungodly person be blotted out by the blood 
-of Christ, that person must be righteous : there can be 
no neutral condition. If sin be not imputed, righteousness 
is imputed This is very plainly declared in chap. iv. 
where the blessedness of the man to whom God imputes 
righteousness, is described by a quotation from Psa. xxxii. 
which speaks of the blessedness of the man to whom the 
Lord will not impute sin, because it has been forgiven 
and covered. 

Moreover, righteousness and life are inseparable. The 
death of Christ can never be severed from His resurrec- 
tion. He was delivered because of our offences, and 
raised because of our justification. Sin having been 
borne, atoned for, put away, purged, by the Lord in 
His death, the believer is quickened together with Christ, 

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A FULL EXPOSITION 

or 

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129 



is accepted in Him, is righteous in Him. " He is the 
Lord our Righteousness." "He hath made Him to be sin 
for us, that we might be made the righteousness of God 
in Him." 4 

The type we are considering seems to present some 
shadowy outlines of these blessed truths. The wor- 
shipping Israelite saw that the boards of the tabernacle 
owed their stability and sustainment to the fact of a full 
atonement-price having been paid : since they were sunk 
deep into, and rested firmly on the silver sockets. He 
would also perceive, that the fine linen curtain, with 
which he was encompassed, hung securely from silver 
chapiters, which were part of the same ransom-money. 
So the believer stands before God, upon the ground that 
he has washed his robes, and made them white in the blood 
of the Lamb. He is righteous, because a full atonement 
has been made : and he perceives that the new heavens and 
the new earth, (the whole of God's glory in the new 
creation,) are the result of the complete answer for sin, 
which the blessed Lord has made on the cross; and 
that heayen itself, the true holy places, into which Christ 
the great High Priest has entered, is erected upon the 
sure foundation laid in His death. 

May not the silver sockets, and silver capitals, also 
present unto us Christ, as . the foundation-stone, and 
head-stone? He is the first and the last. The 
beginning and the ending. The socket and the capital. 
The Rock of Ages. The Father of eternity, on whom 
rest all the everlasting purposes, counsels, and glories of 
God. He bears up the pillars of the heavens and 
earth. He is crowned with glory and honour. Head 
over all things; filling all in all. The commencement 
and the completeness of righteousness, holiness, power, 
wisdom, and glory. 

The size of the court was determined by the length 
and breadth of the fine linen hangings. The pillars, 
from which these hangings were suspended, must have 



stood within the 




Any one therefore, who 

J\ p 



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approached the tabernacle without entering the gate, 
could not know upon what the curtains hung. He 
would see the fine linen, but would not be aware that 
it hung from hooks and capitals of silver. f 

This is like the Socinian's gaze at Christ. He to* a 
certain extent, appreciates the righteous character of 'the 
Lord Jesus : he may speak of His spotlessness and 
purity, and may admire the righteous precepts which 
the Lord has spoken. But he enters not by the door, 
and therefore perceives not the glory and costliness of 
the ransom paid on the Cross. He values not the 
precious blood, and knows not Christ as the Son of 
God. The perfection of righteousness and obedience, 
as manifested by the blessed Lord when suffering under 
the wrath of God, aie unknown to this follower of Cain. 
He sees no beauty in the marred visage and form of the 
Blessed One when made sin for us. Salvation must 
ever precede true worship. The Lord Jesus can never 
be rightly known, till He is known as the Saviour, who 
has given His flesh and blood, in order that the sinner 
may eat, and live for ever. 

A distant view of the tabernacle and its court would 
present nothing attractive to the eye. The spectator 
would only see the top of a long dark coffin-like 
structure, surrounded by a white linen hanging. The 
priests, who had entered through the door, were those 
alone who beheld the wondrous costliness and beauty 
of the building as viewed from within. And so it must 
ever be, as it regards our contemplation of Him, to 
whom this type directs us. A distant view of Christ is 
ignorance and unbelief. Faith draws near: because 
faith owns the fact that we, who were once afar off, 
are made nigh by the blood of Christ. 

The vail is rent : the way into the holiest is laid open. 
The glory of the Lord can now be gazed upon with 
unveiled face. No bounds, about a mount that might 
be touched, keep at a distance either the worshipper, or 
even the ruined sinner. No terrific sounds, or sight of 



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i3i 



wrath and judgment, scare away the affrighted beholder* 
No privileged class are now entitled to wrap up in 
mystery the things of God, and to keep far off the 
helpless stranger. The leper full of leprosy, the un- 
clean Gentile dog, the sinner dead in trespasses and sins, 
jnay at once approach the very throne of glory. He has 
but to come, to return : at his first step, he is healed, 
cleansed, and fully made meet for the immediate presence 
of God. Christ in all His fulness, Christ in all His 
glory, is the gift of God to the lost, far-off sinner. And 
-one glance by faith on the Lord Jesus is life, and healing, 
and nearness to God. The saved sinner is not only 
loved, and washed in the blood, but made a king and a 
priest, and stands as high as any other of the redeemed 
family, having but one priest, but one intercessor, the 
Lord Jesus Himself. Superstition, which is another 
form of unbelief, talks of holy mysteries of reji^on, and 
appropriates peculiar ceremonies to a consecrated class ; 
seeking to shroud in obscurity the bright and glorious 
truths, which God has made as manifest as the sun in 
the heavens, and as free for all as the very air we 
breathe. It exalts poor wretched sinners, by some 
human contrivance, into a place of professed nearness to 
God, which others are not supposed to have. A priestly 
or ministerial class, to whom is entrusted by men the 
office of dispensing the sacraments, thus in a measure 
closes the rent vail, usurping the priestly place, formerly 
held by Aaron and his sons, but now for ever abolished ; 
practically adopting the words — " Stand by, I am holier 
than thou." 

All these attempts are, in reality, denials of the full 
efficacy of the blood, and the full glory of the resurrec- 
tion. Ever since the wondrous cross, a human being is 
cither in the first Adam, utterly ruined, sinful, dead as 
it regards God, and at an unspeakable distance from 
Him; or, he is in the last Adam, quickened, raised up, 
seated in heavenly places, and thus brought and ever 
kept near to God iu.jChrist. To be one with Christ; 



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l 3 2 



to have Christ as the life ; to eat the flesh and drink 
the blood of the Son of Man, and thus to have that life 
sustained ; to have Christ as the object of the heart's one 
affection, and as the prize ultimately to be reached ; to 
contemplate Him, and to have Him dwelling in the heart 
by faith ; to abide in Him, and thereby bear much fruit ; 
to behold Him, and thus to be changed into His likeness 
from glory to glory ; these are the pursuits and privileges 
of every child of God : this is the life of a believer. It 
was for this David longed. " One thing have I desired 
of the Lord ; that will I seek after : that I may dwell in 
the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to behold 
the beauty of the Lord, and to enquire in His temple." 
Ps. xxvii. 4. And again, "How amiable are Thy 
tabernacles, O Lord of Hosts ! My soul longeth, yea 
even fainteth for the courts of the Lord : my heart and 
my flesh crieth out for the living God." Ps.lxxxiv. 1,2. 
And, " O God, thou art my God : early will I seek 
thee. My soul thirsteth for thee, my flesh longeth for 
thee, in a dry and thirsty land, where no water is ; to 
see thy power and thy glory, so as I have seen thee in 
the sanctuary."' Ps. lxiii. 1,2. 

All difficulties are solved, when the believer enters the 
sanctuary, and learns the purposes, and mercy, and love 
of God, as therein manifest. Two Psalms remarkably 
declare this. In the lxxiii., the writer draws a vivid 
contrast between the outward prosperity of the ungodly, 
and the sorrows and afflictions of the righteous. He is 
stumbled at the seemingly strange and unequal dealings 
of God; and is induced, by this survey of mere present 
things, and circumstances, almost to regret his own path 
of godliness and purity. But, when he enters the 
sanctuary, all is made plain to him. There, he discerns 
the end of the wicked. He learns his estimate, as a vain 
dream, the life of apparent prosperity, which they are 
leading. He also perceives that the path of tribulation, 
through which he is passing, is according to the guidance 
of God's counsel, and is the sure way to glory : and the 



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beauty of the Lord so engrosses his soul, that he 
exclaims — "Whom have I in heaven but thee? and 
there is none upon earth that I desire beside thee." 

In Psalm lxxvii., the same psalmist describes his own 
feelings of dismay and desolation, because he receives 
not an immediate response from God to his petitions ; 
the deliverance he expected does not come. In the 
sanctuary, however, he learns God's way — His un- 
changeable course of acting — the eternal purposes of the 
most High. God's great power to redeem is there 
displayed. He ever acts upon the same principles, 
throughout the circumstances of the believers life. He 
hath delivered, doth deliver, and will deliver. 2nd Cor. 
i. io. And the mighty work of redemption, which He 
has already displayed in Christ, and which was typified 
in Israel's deliverance out of Egypt, is the sure pledge 
that He will ever so deal, in mercy and in power, with 
His own. If looked at down here, God's way is in the 
sea, and His path m the great waters. His footsteps are 
not known. Everything seems to be left in confusion. 
Satan has his way apparently unchecked : and man 
cannot understand the mystery of God's dealings. But 
let the saint get his acquaintance with God, and with the 
ways of God, from the sanctuary : let him trace the 
marvellous counsels of wisdom and love, which God 
has, step by step, unfolded in the gift of His blessed 
Son ; and then let him wait, and patiently expect to see 
the same skill of wisdom and power, unravelling every 
tangled intricacy of human life, and bringing to pass His 
eternal purposes of love and mercy ; so as to lead His 
people by the right way like a flock, skilfully guided 
into their rest and everlasting joy. 

The Tabernacle must have been pitched on level 
ground ; so that those who walked in its precincts stood 
secure. An allusion is made to this in Psa. xxvi. David, 
trusting in the Lord, knew that he should not slide. 
He loved the habitation of God's house, the place where 
Bis honour dwelt. Here he found fellowship and 



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safety. His foot stood in an even place; and in the- 
congregations he blessed the Lord. And so it must 
ever be. If we walk in the light, as He is in the light,, 
we walk securely. There will be no sliding of the 
foot: but our feet will be like hinds' feet; and we shall 
be able to stand firmly on our high places. "We shall 
also have fellowship one with another ; true oneness of 
heart, and communion in the blessed things of peace, 
joy, and glory, which appertain to us. Moreover, 
while thus abiding in the holy place, we shall experience 
the value of the blood as cleansing us from all sin As- 
regards all wrath and condemnation, we have been 
already justified by the blood. But, in proportion as. 
we abide in the secret place of the Most High, we 
shall discover sins, spots, and defects, of which we: 
were unconscious when out of His presence. The* 
garment which seems to be white, when viewed by the 
light of a taper, will appear comparatively dark and 
soiled, when brought into the blaze of sun-light. So it 
is with the believer. If he be content to pass his- 
time in the busy activities of life, apart from constant 
intercourse with God, he will not have a tender 
conscience, or a soul enlightened as to sin, in its defiling 
and polluting power. He will not perceive the many 
stains he is daily contracting from the flesh and from 
the world. 

But if he make the dwelling-place of the Most High 
his habitation, and seek to walk in the light of the 
glory of God, he will find the unspeakable value of 
that precious blood, which has not only cleansed, but 
still maintains its efficacy, and cleanseth from all sin, 
presenting him spotless in the very brightness of God's, 
unveiled light, and enabling him to abide without fear 
in the presence of the Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God 
Almighty. 



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» 35 



PINS AND CORDS. 

"All the vessels of the taber- "And all the pin9 of the taber- 
nacle in all the service thereof, nacle, and of the court round 
and all the pins thereof, and all about, were of brass. — Exod. 
the pins of the court, shall be of xxxviii. 20. 
brass. — Exod. xxvii. 19. 

It will be observed that in the directions given above 
by the Lord to Moses, cords are not specified, but in 
Exodus xxxv. 18, where Moses enumerates to the 
children of Israel, the things that are to be made, he 
mentions "the pins of the tabernacle, the pins of the 
court, and their cords** Also in Exodus xxxix. 40, 
when the children of Israel bring that which they had 
made unto Moses, amongst other things are mentioned, 
" the hangings of the court, his pillars, and his sockets, 
and the hanging for the court gate, his cords, and 
his pins" 

On turning to Numbers iii. 26, we find committed to 
the charge of the Sons of Gershon, " the hangings of the 
court, and the curtain for the door of the court, which 
is by the tabernacle, and by the altar round about, and 
the cords of it for all the service thereof." The same is 
again repeated in Numb. iv. 26, with this exception, 
that instead of "the cords of it" & e expression is 
"their cords" Again, Numb. iii. 37, part of the charge 
of the Sons of Merari is stated to have been "the pillars 
of the court round about, and their sockets, and their 
pins, and their cords." The same is repeated, Numb, 
iv. 32. From these texts it may be conjectured that 
there were pins, first for the tabernacle itself. Exod. 
xxvii. 19.; xxxviii. 20.; xxxv. 1 8.-, xxxviii. 3 1. 

Secondly, for the court. Exod. xxvii. 19.; xxxviii. 
20.; xxxv. 18.; xxxviii. 31. 

Thirdly, for the court gate, xxxix. 40. 

On comparing these texts with Numb. iii. 37, and 
iv. 32, it will appear that the pins for the court, and for 
the court gate, were especially connected with the 



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pillars, from which the hangings forming the court 
and the gate were suspended. 

The word "pin" is elsewhere translated "nail" 
Judges iv. 21, 22.; v. 26, being the tent pin, or iron 
nail which Jael struck into the temples of Sisera. So 
also in Isaiah xxxiii. 20.; liv. 2, it is used for the 
stakes, or pins of a tent. 

By means of these pins of brass, the tabernacle and 
the court were securely fastened to the desert ground; 
so that no storm, or flood of waters could sweep away 
this structure, although many of the ^materials were 
such as to be easily affected by the wind or rain. May 
we not be reminded by this type, of the stedfast purpose 
of Christ, to pursue the path marked out for Him by 
the Counsels of God, even though that path ended in 
the storm of judgment, and in the billows of wrath. 
Neither the fierce attacks of the Tempter, nor* the 
anticipated fearfulness of the death He had to die, 
turned Him aside from the settled purpose of His heart. 
"I come to do Thy Will O God/' And though He 
experienced the deep feelings expressed in the 55th 
Psalm, 4, 5, 7, verses. "My heart is sore pained within 
me ; and the terrors of death are fallen upon me. 
Fearfulness and trembling are come upon me, and 
terror hath overwhelmed me. And I said, Oh, that I 
had wings like a dove, for then would I fly away and 

be at rest , I would hasten my escape from 

the windy storm, and tempest." Yet He could say, 
"but I will trust in thee" He knew how to cast His 
burden upon Jehovah, even Him that abideth of old — 
upon one that shall never suffer the righteous to be 
moved. His heart was fixed, and God was His 
exceeding joy. 

What a wondrous object of contemplation is the 
blessed Lord, as revealed to us in the Scriptures of 
truth. Weak, yet immoveably firm. Himself the 
Mighty God, yet dependent for every thing on God His 
Father. Setting His face stedfastly towards Jerusalem 



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137 



in order to suffer there; and crying out in deep distress, 
"O my Father if it be possible let this cup pass from 
me ! nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt." 
Upholding all things by the word of His power, even 
whilst exclaiming, " I am a worm and no man." Oh ! 
the wondrous power of that weakness. Oh ! the 
marvellous victory of that death. Oh ! the eternal 
stability of Him, laid low in the depths of the grave. 

The desert seemingly afforded a shifting foundation 
for a tabernacle of glory — but the solid sockets, and 
pins of brass, deep set in the ground, made all secure. 

The pin, or nail, is elsewhere in the prophets a type 
of Christ. "Out of him (Judah) came forth the corner, 
out of him the nail, out of him the battle bow, out of 
him every oppresser together." Zech. x. 4. 

Here are manifestly three references to Christ — the 
corner, the nail, and the battle bow. The chief corner- 
stone, and head-stone of the corner, see Isaiah, Psalms, 
and the 1st Epistle of Peter, which Scriptures have 
already been referred to in this exposition. 

The " nail" firmly securing all God's counsels of 
love, mercy, and blessing, and connecting them with 
this earth, so that notwithstanding the desolateness and 
ruin of such a wilderness ; uninterrupted intercourse can 
be maintained between believers and the Most High ; 
and unceasing blessings can flow down from Him 
to us. 

The Lord Jesus is also prophesied of as the nail, in 
Isaiah xxii. 20 — 25. " And it shall come to pass in that 
day, that I will call my servant Eliakim the son of 
Hilkiah : and I will clothe him with thy robe, and 
strengthen him with thy girdle, and I will commit thy 
government into his hand : and he shall be a father to 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah. 
And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his 
shoulder ; so hfc shall open, and none shall shut ; and 
he shall shut, and none shall open. And I will fasten 
him as a nail in a sure place : and he shall be for a glo- 



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rious throne to his fathers house. And they shall hang 
upon him all the glory of his fathers house, the offspring 
and the issue, all vessels of small quantity, from the 
vessels of cups, even to all the vessels of flagons. In that 
day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall the nail that is 
fastened in the sure place be removed, and be cut down, 
and fall ; and the burden that was upon it shall be cut 
off : for the Lord hath spoken it." 

Shebna was Hezekiah's treasurer and ruler of his 
palace. His great sin, as recorded in this 22nd of Isaiah, 
seems to have been an attempt to perpetuate his name, 
by marking out for himself a sepulchre near Jerusalem, 
(as he that heweth him out a sepulchre on high,) and 
graving an habitation for himself in a rock. Like Ab- 
salom who sought to hand down his name to posterity 
by a pillar that he built. So Shebna made even a place 
of death to be a monument for the glory of his own 
name. Thus glorying in his shame. 

God will not permit any one to boast of death, save 
Him that has triumphed over it, even His Son, the Lord 
Jesus Christ. A sepulchre hewn out of a rock to gratify 
the pride of a worthless sinner, could not be permitted 
by God, who foresaw that one, even His own beloved, 
would be laid in a similar tomb, having humbled Him- 
self to death, even the death of the cross. Vain man 
tries to cover his shame and nakedness with* a self- 
righteousness of his own devising when living, and even 
adorns and decks out his tomb, and builds a massive 
mausoleum* as if to make death glorious, and to per- 
petuate his own name in the very place where God has 
marked His judgment upon sin. Shebna's tomb was 
also a denial of resurrection ; a resurrection to judgment. 

Thus God saw in this treasurer, a man, bent upon 
pride and self-exaltation, making death a treasure and 

* The word mausoleum, is derived from the name of a prince, Mausolus, who 
was burled in a tomb so sumptuous and elaborately wrought, that it wasfeccounted 
one of the seven wonders of the world. One of God's wonderful works in this 
world is His power to emptv a tomb. One of man's wonderful works is ertttiitg a 
tomb which shall conceal death, whilst; perpetuating a record of it. 



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an occasion for human glory, instead of reckoning it as 
it is in truth, the wages of sin, and a sad evidence of 
man's ruin and shame. Isaiah is sent to this treasurer, 
and says, " What hast thou here ? And whom has thou 
here ?' Two solemn questions : the first, what is thine 
occupation here ? The second, and who are you that are 
thus occupying yourself ? Two questions which might 
be well put to all the worldly-minded, who are seeking 
to make a lasting name and reputation for themselves 
here on earth. Is this the fitting employment for this 
*" little while," this short span of life? And who are 
those who thus are engrossed in pursuits which can only 
«nd in death and the grave ? Where is their power, 
where is their continuance, where is their worthiness ? 

The prophet proceeds to sentence this proud self- 
willed treasurer to a mighty captivity in a foreign land, 
where the Lord would cover him with other garments 
than those of glory — garments of shame. And theri 
the prophecy is given respecting the Lord Jesus, under 
the type of Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was to 
supersede Shebna in the office of treasurer and ruler of 
the house. The word Eliakim" means "my God 
shall establish" and "Hilkiah," "the portion of Je- 
hovah." Two very significant names, prophetic of the 
Lord Jesus ; who having been called as the Lord's 
servant, the Lord's portion; and who having made 
Jehovah to be His portion, has been established by God, 
set up in resurrection glory, gaining an eternal name and 
reputation out of the grave. God has through Him 
spoiled principalities and powers, and made a show of 
them openly, triumphing over them in the cross. 

The prophecy then proceeds, (after a promise of the 
robe, girdle, and government to be bestowed on Eliakim,) 
in the words quoted of the Lord in Rev. nil 7. " And 
the key of the house of David will I lay upon his 
shotilder ; so he shall open and none shall shut, and 
he shall shut and none shall open." This key seems 
to include the rule of tfye house of David, and the power 



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to open the treasures of that house. And then follows : 
" Lwill fasten, him a nail in a sure place, and he shall 
be for a throne of glory in his father's house." It will 
be observed that the word " as a nail," is not in the 
original. Here then again we have the Lord Jesus 
spoken of as a nail fastened in a sure place. And it is 
remarkable that the word " sure" has the same deriva- 
tion as the Hebrew word " amen" The Lord Jesus is 
the nail because He is the amen — the holy and the true 
— the faithful and true witness — the beginning of the 
creation of God. All " the promises of God in Him 
are yea, and in Him amen." They hang securely de- 
pendent on Him like vessels of various capacity, filled 
with the wine of joy and blessing. And on Him also 
hangs all the glory of His Father s house, the offspring 
and the issue. The nail driven down into the place of 
death, there bruized and made nought him that had 
the power of death ; and haying this secure foundation, 
the nail has become the strength of all pod's building. 
All rests on Him. All hangs for support and sustain- 
ment on Him. And He is the beginning of that new 
and glorious creation, which shall endure for ever. 

In the conclusion of this remarkable prophecy, we 
have another nail spoken of, which though " fastened 
in a sure place shall be removed, and be cut down and 
fall ; and the burden upon it shall be cut off." 

Does not this allude to the future destruction of " the 
man of sin," " the Antichrist?" He will be the nail 
securely fastened by Satan's power — he will have all the 
rule, government, and treasures of this world, that Satan 
can bestow ; and for a time he will prosper, so that his 
covenant with death will appear to be firm, and his 
agreement with hell will stand. But the same day that 
will make manifest to God s ancient people the Jews, 
the Lord Jesus, as a Father and Deliverer to the inhabi- 
tants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah, and as 
a throne of glory to the house of His Father David ; will 
be the day in which this masterpiece of Satan's workman- 



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ship shall be brought to nought ; and the chariots of his 
glory shall be the shame of his lords house, "for 
Jehovah hath spoken it." 

It is remarkable that the prophecy in Zechariah quoted 
above, which alludes to the Lord as " the corner, the 
nail, and the battle bow," proceeding out of Judah, ends 
with the words " every oppressor together." Here also 
there is an apparent allusion to this same antichrist who 
will combine in himself every species of oppression, and 
who will be destroyed when, the corner, the nail, and 
the battle bow of Judah is revealed from heaven as the 
deliverer of Israel, from the great Pharoah of the earth. 



CORDS. 

Some of the Cords were the charge and burden of the 
Merarites. (Num. in. 37 ; iv. 32*) The rest of the 
Cords were the charge and burden of the Gershonites. 
(Num. iii. 26 iv. 26.) This is rather a remarkable 
exception to the arrangement made for the charge and 
burden of the Tabernacle, its curtains and hangings. 

In no other instance did the Merarites and Gershonites 
carry any similar portions of the Tabernacle, but the 
distribution of the burdens was in every other case kept 
quite distinct. "It may be that the object of God in thus 
altering the rule, was to give us a little intimation of a 
truth important to be remembered, viz., that however 
varied and different the gifts and occupations of His 
servants, yet they are members of the one body of 
Christ. There are mutual interests which link them on- 
together. There are common ties* which unite them 
firmly as one assembly of God's people. There are 
bands of brotherhood which inseparably bind them in 
one bundle of life. 

This same word "Cords'* occurs with reference to 
the cords of a tent. " Enlarge the place of thy tent, 



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and let them stretch forth the curtains of thine habita-* 
tions.: spare not, lengthen thy cords and strengthen thy 
stakes.** Isa. liv. 2. " My tent is spoiled, and all my 
cords are broken > my children are gone forth of me v 
and they are not ; there is none to stretch forth my tent 
any more, and to set up my curtains." Jer. x. 20. These 
two texts form a beautiful contrast between the past 
and present desolation of Israel and Jerusalem ; and the 
future prosperity and glory of that city and people after 
the Lords return. ^ 

The Tabernacle cords were evidently fastened to the 
pins, like the cords of a tent, and thereby kept the 
pillars of the court erect, and also being thrown over 
the external coverings of the tabernacle firmly tied 
them down, so that they could not be lifted by any 
blast of wind from the desert. 

It is not stated of what materials they were made. 
We gather from Exod. xxxv. 5—19, that they must 
have been fashioned of the blue, purple, scarlet, and fine 
linen, as these were the only materials which could be 
used for such a purpose. 

Our salvation rests on two great truths. First, on, 
the Person of the Saviour Himself, the Son of God, the 
Son of Man, whose name is Jesus ; and secondly, or* 
the work He has wrought. These are inseparably 
connected together in the word of God, and we cannot 
rightly receive the one without the other. The pia 
would be no use without the cord connected with it- 
The boards of the Tabernacle would not form a dwelling 
place, unless the curtains were placed over them. The 
ordinary way in which we learn the truth of God is, by 
first hearing of the death of the Lord Jesus, and then 
contemplating Him, who thus died. Jesus lifted up 
upon the tree, attracts us by the cords of a man, the 
bands of love. We are drawn to Him away from other 
objects, by learning His wondrous grace and love, in 
thus placing Himself on the tree of curse for our sakes ; 
and then we are led to contemplate the glorious person 



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who there died. And our wonder and worship grow, 
as we ponder on the majesty and excellency, the holiness 
and beauty of Him who suffered for our sakes.' The 
sorrows and love of Him, who loved us and gave 
Himself for us, are like the cords that bind our hearts to 
Himself, and that securely fasten the tabernacle of God — 
Love that endures for ever ; that many waters could not 
quench; that floods could not drown. # Love that 
deserves the name of love. Not won by any attractive- 
ness in us : not purchased by any " substance " we could 
give : any righteousness, any holiness we could bring. 
Love fixed on us from everlasting, spontaneous, out of 
the heart of Christ ; and cleaving to us whilst we were 
yet enemies ; haters of God, despisers of that which was 
good, and exhibiting nothing but death in trespasses and 
sins. Sorrows also equalled only by that love, of the 
same vast unexplored depth. 

Though set up from everlasting, and brought forth 
from all eternity ; and although delighting in God, and 
God's own delight, yet the delights of the Son of God 
were also with the sons of men. And wondrously His 
sympathies, His affections, and His joys, are linked on 
with creatures here below, who have caused the deep 
travail of His soul, and yet who will be the fulness 
of His glory. He will present them faultless in the 
presence of Hi3 glory with exceeding joy. 



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Having thus sought to elucidate the beautiful and 
varied types contained in the tabernacle, it may be well 
to return to Exodus xxv. which gives the list of the 
materials for the construction of that building, and its 
vessels, &c. 



"And the Lord spake unto 
Moses, saying, 

"Speak unjQ- the children of 
Israel, that they bring me an 
offering: of every man thatgiveth 
it willingly with his heart ye shall 
take my offering. 

"And this is the offering which 
ye shall take of them ; gold, and 
silver, and brass, 

"And blue, and purple, and 
scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' 
hair, . 

" And rams' skins dyed red, and 
badgers' skins, and shittim wood, 

"Oil for the light, spices for 
anointing oil, and for sweet 
incense, 

"Onyx stones, and stones to 
be set in the ephod, and in the 
breastplate. 

"And let them make me a 
sanctuary: that I may dwell 
among them. 

"According to all that I shew 
thee, after the pattern of the taber- 
nacle, and the pattern of all the 
instruments thereof, even so shall 
ye make it." — Exod. xxv. i — 9. 



"And Moses spake unto all 
the congregation of the children 
of Israel, saying, This is the thing 
which the Lord commanded, 
saying, 

"Take ye from among you 
an offering unto the Lord who- 
soever is of a willing heart, let 
him bring it, an offering of 
the Lord; gold, and silver, and 
brass, 

"And blue, and purple, and 
scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' 
hair, 

"And rams' skins dyed red, 
and badgers' skins, and shittim 
wood, 

"And oil for the light, and 
spices for anointing oil, and for 
the sweet incense, 

'And onyx stones, and stones 
to be set for the ephod, and 
for the breastplate." — Exod. xxxv. 
4—9. 



The following is a summary of the supposed typical 
import of these materials. 

Gold. — Type of the Divine Glory of the Lord Jesus 
as Son of God. 

Silver. — The preciousness of the Lord Jesus as the 
Ransom for the sinner. 

Brass. — The power of the Lord Jesus to endure the 
Cross, because He is God. 

Blue. — The manifestation of God as love, in the ways 
and death of Christ. 



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Purple. — The manifestation of the God-man, *God 
manifest in the flesh. 

Scarlet. — The manifestation of the true dignity and 
glory of man as seen in the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son 
of man. 

Fine linen; — The righteous man exhibiting to the eye 
of faith M the glory as of the only-begotten of the 
Father, full of grace and truth." 

Goats hair. — The memorial of the death of the Lord 
Jesus as the offering for sin. 

Rams* skins dyed red. The outward aspect of Christ 
as the man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. Born 
in this world to die. * 

Badgers skins. The outward aspect of Christ, as 
having no form nor comeliness to the heart of the 
natural man. 

Shittim wood. Translated by the Septuagint, " incor- 
ruptible wood." The Lord Jesus, the incorruptible man. 
" That holy thing," the Son of God. 

Oil for the light. — The Lord Jesus as the light ; filled 
with the Spirit. 

Spices for anointing oil. — The graces of the Spirit in all 
their fulness manifested by the Christ. 

Spices for sweet incense. — The fragrant graces of Christ 
made manifest on the cross, and perpetuated in His inter- 
cession. 

Onyx stones, and stones to be set in the ephod and the 
breastplate. — The glory and brilliancy of the heavenly 
one reflected also in His saints. 

In these two chapters, ver, 2, 3, and 5, 21, 24 ; also 
chapter xxxvi. 3, 6, the word " offering," is a peculiar 
word in the Hebrew ; translated as in the margin, 
" heave-offering." It occurs again with reference to the 
silver atonement money, (Exod. xxx. 13, 14, 15,) and 
it also peculiarly designates the right shoulder of certain 
sacrifices, therefore called the heave shoulder. 

The meaning of the word appears to be something 
lifted on, high off the ground. It alludes to the com- 



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plete separation of the Lord Jesus to God. One who 
though on the earth, was not of the world ; and who 
was peculiarly lifted up in separation to God on the 
cross, and again raised up to the glory of God in resur- 
rection. 

These " heave offerings " were to be given with the 
heart, willingly, (Exod. xxv. 2 ; xxxv. 5, 22 ;) not of 
constraint or necessity, for God loveth the cheerful 
giver. 

Although the tabernacle and its ritual service was 
connected with the law ; yet as it contained types and 
figures of Christ, and good things to come, the prin- 
ciples of grace here and there break through the rigidity 
of commandments. 

No true worship can be rendered to God, if the soul 
be in legal bondage. Neither can God accept the con- 
strained formal obedience of a slavish heart. The 
willing heart, the free-will offerings, which are the 
result of a conscience and heart at liberty, are His 
delight. He is a God who giveth to all liberally, and 
upbraideth not ; and He expects from His own children 
the expression of His own character. 

The whole life and ways of His beloved Son were 
expressive of self-devotedness to Him; and a delight in 
doing His will. And if we would present any acceptable 
worship or service, we must offer it not only through 
the Lord Jesus, but in the spirit of the Lord. 

" And let them make me a sanctuary, that I may 
dwell among them." (ver. 8.) 

This was the great purpose which God had in view 
that He might have a holy place in the midst of a people 
whom He had chosen » by means of which He might 
not only occasionally visit them, but dwell amongst them.' 
And He has accomplished this blessed purpose through 
Him to whom the tabernacle pointed. Believers in the 
Lord Jesus are the temple of God, (1st Cor. ill. 16 ;) 
they are such corporately as the household of God ; a 
building fitly framed together, growing into an holy 



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temple in the Lord — " builded together for an habitation 
of God through the Spirit." (Eph. ii. 19— 22.) Each 
believer also individually is a temple of God. " Know 
ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost." 
(1st Cor. vi. 19.) These two wondrous facts result 
from the Church being the body of Christ, in whom 
dwelleth the fulness of the Godhead bodily ; and, our 
bodies being the members of Christ. 

The tabernacle was to a certain extent the dwelling- 
place of the priests. They encamped before it, and ate 
the shew-bread in the holy place, and also portions of 
the sacrifices in the court of the tabernacle. 

One great desire of God is to have us (creatures 
though we be of His) in unbroken fellowship with 
Himself for ever ; and also that we may have fellowship 
with Him. If we would preserve the consciousness of 
His presence, we must remember the precept, 2nd Cor. 
vi. 14 — 18 : " Be ye not unequally yoked together with 
unbelievers : for what fellowship hath righteousness with 
unrighteousness ? and what communion hath light with 
darkness ? And what concord hath Christ with Belial ? 
or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel ? 
And what agreement hath the temple of God with 
idols ? for ye are the temple of the living God ; as God 
hath said, I will dwell in them and walk in them ; and 
I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 
Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye 
separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean 
thing ; and I will receive you, and will be a Father 
unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith 
the Lord Almighty." 

Five different words are here used to express every 
shade of fellowship, What fellowship hath righteous- 
ness and lawlessness ? What communion hath light 
towards darkness ? What concord hath Christ towards 
Belial ? Or, what part hath the believer with the unbe- 
liever ? And what agreement hath the temple of God 
with idols ? 



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The first word here translated "fellowship/'implies the 
holding of something together with another. The second 
word, " communion," seems to involve common inte- 
rests, resulting from communion in life. The third is 
well expressed by our word " concord," or agreement 
in sound and voice with another. The fourth means a 
share or part in some common object. And the fifth, 
" agreement," in the way of holding a common sen- 
timent. 

The unbeliever is therefore in this passage, considered 
to be in lawlessness, in darkness, under the sway of 
Belial, and a worshipper of idols. What a fearful 
description this is of the worldly-minded unsaved sinner, 
and yet how true! On the other hand, into what 
wonderful nearness to God is the believer brought, so 
as to have common interests fellowship in life com- 
plete concord of heart ; a share in all the rich treasures 
of glory, and agreement with the thoughts and mind 
of God. 

There are three precepts, (Deut. xxii. 9 — II,) which 
contain very clear directions respecting the conduct and 
service of die believer. One of these is referred to in 
the passage in Cor. quoted above. 

" Thou shall not sow thy vineyard with divers seeds : 
lest the fruit of thy seed which thou hast sown, and the 
fruit of thy vineyard be defiled. 

" Thou shall not plow with an ox and an ass together. 

" Thou shalt not wear a garment of divers sorts, as of 
woollen and linen together." 

The first of these should regulate our testimony in 
the church of God. The divers seeds may be very 
good in their way, and very useful in their proper place. 
But in the church of God the incorruptible seed of the 
word alone is to be used. And the servant of God 
having such a ministry, should follow the example of the 
apostle Paul, using great plainness of speech, declaring 
the testimony of God, not with enticing words of man's 
wisdom, but in demonstration of the spirit and of power. 



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The object before us, when engaged in the work of 
the Lord, should be to raise the heart and conscience 
towards God ; and not the mere pleasing the ear, or 
gratifying the understanding. 

In these days, mixed seed is widely scattered ; and it 
is thought by many Christian^ that a legitimate way of 
spreading the truths connected with Christ and the 
Gospel, is to mix them up with science, literature, 
fiction, and philosophy. But this, however it may be 
done with the best motives, is not in agreement with the 
precept here alluded to ; nor in accordance with the 
ways of the apostle, who when he came to the most 
learned and philosophic people in the world, determined 
not to know any thing among them, save Jesus Christ — 
Him crucified. 

The second precept, "thou shalt not plow with 
an ox and an ass together," refers to our fellowships. 
Th^ yoke would rest unevenly upon the ox and ass if 
they were harnessed together in the plough. One also 
would retard or pull aside the other. Thus an uneven 
furrow would be the result, and the work of tillage 
be imperfectly done. 

Any partnership or yoking together the believer with 
the unbeliever must result in the hindrance of the Lord's 
work, and in damage to the believer himself. It is 
impossible for the two to pull together. Their interests, 
their objects, their desires, their very speech must be 
different ; and the uneven union must result in the 
compromise of truth and godliness on the part of the 
child of God ; by means of which his testimony will be 
marred, and his own soul will lose much of conscious 
fellowship with the Father, and with His Son Jesus 
Christ. 

The third commandment, "thou shalt not wear 
a garment of divers sorts, as of woollen and linen 
together," refers to the every day habit of the child 
of God. 

In a changeable climate, where cold may follow heat 



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in rapid succession ; or where the chilly air of night 
soon dissipates all the warmth of the sun ; it would be 
very convenient to have a garment, woven of woollen 
and linen, so as not to be over hot in the day, and to 
afford sufficient heat at night. 

A believer will avoid a good deal of reproach, and 
escape much contempt if he cleverly adapts himself to 
the various companies with which he may mingle. A 
kind of dress, or outward appearance suited to all society. 

This " Linsey-woolsey " Christianity is certainly 
comfortable as one passes through the world ; but it 
suits not the true believer. He should wear his priestly 
linen garment on all occasions, he should enter no 
society where he is obliged to conceal it. His life should 
be Christ. "To me to live is Christ." And no one 
should be able to question the reality of his faith, or 
the fact of his being not of the world •, although 
many may ridicule his folly, or esteem his ways to be 
those of one not in his right mind. 

May the Lord help us all to be more true to Him, and 
to His Cross. Less conformed to the world, and more 
manifestly transformed by the renewing of our mind, 
that we may prove what is that good and acceptable and 
perfect will of God. 

We "are the temple of the living God." 

Jesus Christ is in us. Therefore we are exhorted to 
come out from among unbelievers and to be, separate, 
and not to touch the unclean thing ; then shall we fully 
know God as our Father, and we shall be living as the 
sons and daughters of the Lord Almighty. 



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»5* 

THE PRINCIPAL WORKMEN. 



•♦And the Lord spake unto 
Moses, saying, 

"See, I have called by name 
Bezaleel, the son of Uri, the son 
of Hur, of the tribe of Judah : 

"And I have filled him with 
the spirit of God, in wisdom, 
and in understanding, and in 
knowledge, and in all manner of 
workmanship, 

"To devise, cunning works, to 
work in gold, and in silver, and 
in brass, 

"And in cutting of stones, 
to set them, and in carving of 
timber, to work in all manner 
of workmanship. 

"And I, behold, I have given 
with him Aholiab, the son of 
Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan : 
and in the hearts of all that are 
wise hearted I have put wisdom, 
that they may make all that I 
have commanded thee : 

"The tabernacle of the con- 
gregation, and the ark of the 
testimony, and the mercy seat 
that is thereupon, and all the 
furniture of the tabernacle, 

"And the table and his 
furniture, and the pure candle- 
stick with all his furniture, and 
the altar of incense, 

"And the altar of burnt offering 
with all his furniture, and the 
laver and his foot, 

"And the cloths of service, and 
the holy garments for Aaron the 
priest, and the garments of his 
sons, to minister in the priest's 
office, 

"And the anointing oil, and 
sweet incense for the holy place : 
according to all that I have 
commanded thee shall they do. — 
Exod. xxxi. x — ix. 



"And Moses said unto the 
children of Israel, See, the Lord 
hath called by name Bezaleel 
the son of Uri, the son of Hur, 
of the tribe of Judah ; 

"And he hath filled him with 
the spirit of God, in wisdom, 
in understanding, and in know- 
ledge, and in all manner of 
workmanship ; 

"And to devise curious works, 
to work in gold, and in silver, 
and in brass, 

"And in the cutting of stones, 
to set them, and in carving of 
wood, to make any manner of 
cunning work. 

"And he hath put in his 
heart that he may teach, both 
he, and Aholiab, the son of 
Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. 

"Them hath he filled with 
wisdom of heart, to work all 
manner of work, of the engraver, 
and of the cunning workman, 
and of the embroiderer, in blue, 
and in purple, in scarlet, and 
in fine linen, and of the weaver, 
even of them that do any work, 
and of those that devise cunning 
work. — Exod. xxxv. 30 — 35, 



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The names of these two Israelites selected by Gcd for 
the principal work of the tabernacle are very significant. 

Bezaleel — means "in the shadow of God." 

Uri— light of (the Lord.) , . 

Hur — white, or splendid. 

"A shadow," is used in scripture as a figure in 
various ways. First, the rapidity with which the 
shadow passes away and leaves no trace behind, is 
very aptly chosen to represent the rapid decline of life. 
Job viii. 9. "We are but of yesterday, and know 
nothing, because our days upon earth are a shadow." 
Psa. cxliv. 4. " Man is like to vanity : his days are 
as a shadow that passeth away." Eccles. vi. 12. "All 
the days of his (mans) vain life, which he spendeth 
as a shadow". Eccles. viii. 1 3, "his days which are as a 
shadow" And the Lord of life and glory in His deep 
expression of weakness on the cross \ cut off in the 
midst of His days ; exclaims, " My days are like a 
shadow that declineth." Psa. cii. II. " I am gone like 
the shadow when it declineth." Psa. cix. 23. 

Secondly, it is used in the sense of defence or 
protection. Num. xiv. 9, and Eccles. vii. 12, it is 
translated defence. In this sense we find a beautiful 
allusion to the shadow of the wings of Jehovah. 
Psa. xvii. 8. " Hide me under the shadow of thy wings." 
Psa. xxxvi. 7. They " put their trust under the shadow 
of thy wings." Psa. Ivii. I. " Yea in the shadow of 
thy wings will I made my refuge." Psa. lxiii. 7. 
" Therefore in the shadow of thy wings will I rejoice." 
The shadow of the Almighty was the safe dwelling- 
place of Christ. Psa. xci. I. Jehovah upon His right 
hand was His shadow of defence. Psa. cxxi. 5. 

Thirdly, it is used as a shelter from heat, and a place 
of refuge and refreshment. Cant. ii. 3. " I sat down 
under his shadow with great delight." Isa. iv. 6, " for a 
shadow in the day time from the heat." xxv. 4, and 
xxxii. 2, "as the shadow of a great rock in a weary 
land." 



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In contrast with these we have the expression, "the 
shadow of death," with its darkness and terrors. Job. x. 
21, 22. ; xxiv. 17. Psa. xxiii. 4.; cvii. 10. 14, etc. 

The name of Bezaleel — in the shadow of God, 
seems peculiarly to point onwards to the Lord Jesus. 
He came forth from the Father, and abode in the bosom 
of God, " the only begotten Son which is in the bosom 
of the Father" Jehovah was His dwelling-place when 
on earth ; and even on the cross, when He was as it 
were laying the foundations in death for the temple of 
God ; still He trusted in the Lord, and He knew that 
He should not be confounded. 

The son of Uri. — Light of the Lord. God is Light. 
His blessed Son is the brightness of His glory, and the 
express image of His Person — and He is the life, and 
especially manifested as such, in giving light unto men. 

The son of Hur. — white, or splendid. Jesus is the 
spotless one whose white and glistening garments on the 
holy mount, were emblems of His own white and 
dazzling purity. Such was the Lord Jesus when here 
beldw ; the workman selected by God to fashion a 
dwelling-place for Him, and to make a kingdom of 
priests unto God and His Father. 

Bezaleel was called by name. 

Filled with the spirit of God. 

In wisdom. 

In understanding. 

In knowledge. 

In all manner of workmanship. 

And to devise curious work. 
- The blessed Lord says of Himself, " Jehovah hath 
called me from the womb ; from the bowels of my 
mother hath He made mention of my name. In the 
shadow of His hand hath He hid me." Isa. xlix. I, 2. 

The spirit of Jehovah rested upon him. 

The spirit of wisdom, 

And understanding. 

The spirit of counsel, 



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And might. 

The spirit of knowledge. 
And of the fear of the Lord. 

Filled with the spirit of God, the Lord Jesus 
displayed in His life and ways deep and wondrous, 
blendings of grace and truth ; and having learnt obedience 
by the things which He suffered, He has marvellous skill 
in dealing with the poor and needy : in seeking and 
finding the lost : in sympathising with the afflicted and 
sorrowful, and in succouring the tried and tempted. 
"With righteousness shall he judge the poor, and 
reprove with equity for the meek of the earth." "He 
shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. A bruised 
reed shall He not break, and the smoking flax shall He not 
quench, He shall bring forth judgment unto truth." 

" Thus saith the Lord, in an acceptable time have I 
heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee r 
and I will preserve thee, and give thee for a covenant of 
the people, to establish the earth, to cause , to inherit the 
desolate heritages. That thou mayest say to the 
prisoners, go forth ; to them that are in darkness, shew 
yourselves." " The Lord God hath given me the tongue 
of the learned, that I should know how to speak a word 
in season to him that is weary." 1 ' The spirit of the Lord 
God is upon me; because the Lord hath anointed me to 
preach good tidings unto the meek : he hath sent me to 
bind up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to the 
captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are 
bound ; to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and 
the day of vengeance of our God ; to comfort all that 
mourn. Isa. xi. 4 ; xlii. 1,3; xlix. 8, 9 ; 1. 4 ; lxi. I, 2. 
Such are some of the "curious works" wrought by this 
servant of the Lord. Himself being the chief object of 
our worship, wonder and adoration, displaying the glory 
as of the only begotten of the Father, 

The other principal workman engaged in the construc- 
tion of the Tabernacle was "Aholiab the son of 
Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan." 



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Aholiab means, tent of my Father. Again a significant 
name embracing also the truth, of God revealed as a 
Father through His blessed Son, in whom dwelt the 
fulness of the Godhead bodily. It was peculiarly the 
delight and constant purpose of the Son to manifest the 
Father. No one else could reveal that name. Philip* 
though ignorantly, yet rightly expressed a blessed truth 
when he said " Lord shew us the Father and it sufficeth 
us." John xiv. 8. He felt that the knowledge of God 
as the Father was sufficient for everything — rest, peace* 
quietness, assurance must be the result. Are we able to 
say it sufficeth us ? — do we find such comfort and confi- 
dence through being able to say by the Holy Ghost* 
"Abba Father," that we lack nothing ? Are our mur- 
muring spirits quieted by this blessed knowledge ? Is 
restlessness, is discontent at an end ? 

What higher word can we utter respecting ourselves 
than to call God, Father ? What greater love can we 
taste from God than to know Him as having begotten 
us to be His children ? " Behold what manner of love 
the Father hath bestowed on us, that we should be 
called the Sons of God.'* 

God commends His love towards us in telling us that 
even whilst we were yet sinners Christ died for us — 
Thus proving to us that His love proceeded from 
Himself — from His own heart ; and is not any result of 
attractiveness or obedience in us. 

The wondrous manner of the love bestowed on us, its 
vastness is evidenced by the Father calling us His Sons. 
The measure of the love is known only as we estimate 
the Father's love for His own Son, " thou hast loved 
them as thou hast loved me." John xvii. 23. The Lord 
answered Philip, by the words, " have I been so long 
time with you,, and yet hast thou not known ME Philip ? 
He that hath seen me hath seen the Father, and how sayest 
thou then shew us the Father. Believest thou not that I 
am in the Father, and the Father in me." John xiv. 9, 10* 

Thus the Lord Jesus was not only God manifest in 



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the flesh ; but He was the full declaration and manifest- 
ation of the Father. 

Ahisamach means, brother of support. 

Probably this name primarily refers to the fact that 
Aholiab was a fellow helper to Bezaleel in the work 
of the Tabernacle. But is it not worthy of remark 
that while we have in Aholiab the name, Father; we 
have in the name Ahisamach, the word brother; and 
may there not be in this a little prophetic hint of that 
truth contained in Hebrews ii. p — 1 1, in which we find 
the Lord Jesus raised from the suffering of death to a 
place of exaltation, where everything is put under His 
feet, and in which also it is declared that " He (the Lord 
Jesus) who sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified are 
all of one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call 
them brethren." He is the dwelling place of God, and 
He is the brother of support to His brethren. 

These two leading artificers were respectively of the 
tribes of Judah and Dan. Judah being the leading 
camp, and Dan the last camp of Israel. Probably they 
were selected from these two tribes, in order that all 
Israel might stand representatively included in these men 
of the first and last camps. 

May there not be also a significance in the names of 
the two tribes here selected. Judah, praise — Dan, 
judgment. The Tabernacle of God is a place for worship 
and praise, because therein is revealed Gods great act of 
judgment upon sin in the sacrifice of the Lamb of God. 

Bezaleel is moreover a type of the Lord Jesus in his 
having been instructed by God to teach others. (Exod. 
xxxv. 34.) " The Lord hath put in his heart that he may 
teach." Throughout this beautiful description of those 
who wrought in the work of the Tabernacle ; the heart 
is especially spoken of. " Wise hearted." Exod. xxviiL 
3 ; xxxi. 6 ; xxxv. io, 25 ; xxxvi. I, 2, 8. " Stirred 
lip in heart." xxxv. 21, 26. "Willing hearted." xxxv. 
22, 29. 

God deals especially with the heart and conscience ; 



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and truth is of little avail, unless it acts not on the head 
only, but oh the hearts affections. Knowledge puffs 
up ; whereas love builds up. The two prayers of the 
apostle, Eph. i. and iii. chaps., remarkably deal with the 
affections of the children of God. In chap. i. 17, he 
prays that " the God of our Lord Jesus Christ the Father 
of Glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and 
revelation in the knowledge of him ; the eyes of yotir 
heart being enlightened ; that ye may know what is the 
hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of 
his inheritance in the saints, and what the exceeding 
greatness of his power to usward who believe." We 
have in our version, " the eyes of your ' understanding* 
being enlightened," but the best authorities substitute 
"heart" for understanding, and this is in accordance 
with the whole tenor of Scripture. The affections have 
to be lighted up by the spirit of wisdom and revelation. 
We must be " filled with wisdom of heart," in order to 
know the three wonderful things presented to us in this 
1st chap, of Eph. 

1 What is the hope of his calling ? 

2 What is the riches of the glory of his inheritance 

in the saints ? 

3 What is the exceeding greatness of his power to 

usward who believe ? 

" The hope of his calling " embraces the hope of 
Christ's coming ; of resurrection ; of seeing Him as He 
is ; of seeing face to face ; of knowing as we are known ; 
of being like Him ; of being for ever with Him ; of that 
fulness of joy which is at God's right hand ; and of those 
pleasures wnich are for evermore. 

, "The riches pf the glory of His inheritance in the 
saints" directs our thoughts to the glorious riches which 
God has, may we not say, heaped up to Himself in the 
saints as His own inheritance. In the Old Testament 
we read that Israel was especially the Lord's inheritance. 
"Thv people thine inheritance." Deut. ix. 26, 29. "The 
Lords portion is His people: Jacob is the lot of his 



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inheritance." xxxii. 9. Solomon also in his dedication 
prayer claims for the people that they are the Lords 
people, and His inheritance; separated from all the 
people of the earth to that end. 1st Kings, viii. 51, 53. 
See also Psa. xxviii. 9 ; xxxiii. 12 ; lxxiv. 2 ; lxxviii. 71 ; 
cvi. 5. In many other passages also of the prophets, the 
same truth is enunciated. Here in Eph., we have the 
saints as God's glorious inheritance above, of which 
perhaps Israel was a faint type below. And surely the 
eyes of our hearts need to be enlightened in order that 
we may have some deeper knowledge of the delight 
which God has and will have in us, as part of His own 
skilful workmanship, new created in Christ Jesus. And 
the riches of the glory which He will possess when the 
Church, the fulness of Him that filleth all in all, shall be 
raised in union with its blessed Head. 

" The exceeding greatness of His power to us ward 
who believe." The Father of Glory has already wrought 
this mighty power in Christ, raising Him from the dead, 
from the very lowest depths of humiliation, and setting 
Him at His own right hand in the heavenly places, far 
above all principality, and power, and might, and 
dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this 
world, but also in that which is to come. This is a proof 
and exhibition of the exceeding greatness of His power 
to usward who believe. And this power already worketh 
in us, whereby He is able to do exceeding abundantly 
above all that we ask or think. And by this mighty 
power He will raise us up eventually into the same glory 
as the risen Lord. To those same super-heavenly places 
into which He hath gone, and to be one in manifested 
union with Him for ever. 

The second prayer in this glorious Epistle, is to be 
" strengthened with might by his spirit in the inner 
man, in order that Christ may dwell in our hearts 
by faith. 

That we, being rooted and grounded in love, may be 
able to comprehend with all saints, what is the breadth, 



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and length, and depth and height, and to know the love 
of Christ which passeth knowledge. 

That we might be filled with all the fulness of God." 

Surely these deep and high and blessed prayers savour 
of heart work. And the blessings which they promise 
-will flow only through the heart's affections and earnest 
♦desires stirred up by the Holy Spirit, towards the Father 
.and the Son. 

Dimly the Tabernacle with its glorious hangings, its 
golden vessels : its deeply sunk silver sockets : its lofty 
capitals : its curiously wrought cherubim of glory upon 
the mercy-seat : its candlestick of elaborate skilful 
"workmanship : its incense of sweet spices : its fragrant 
.anointing oil : its lamb of sacrifice, all ascending as a 
sweet savour : its courts : its camp of well arranged 
hosts numbered in God's book : its cloud of glory, and 
its pillar of light — dimly indeed, and yet perhaps in 
measure, this varied assemblage of types may have 
foreshadowed the objects for which these prayers in the 
Epistle were offered. Certainly He that filleth all in all, 
Christ, who is the first and the last, who is all, and in 
all, is the great subject of the whole type. 



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THE SABBATH. 



"And the Lord spake onto 
Moses, saying, 

" Speak thou unto the children 
of Israel, saying, Verily my sab- 
baths ye shall keep : tor it is a 
sign between me and you through- 
out your generations; that ye may 
know that I am the Lord that 
doth sanctify you. 

"Ye shall keep the sabbath 
therefore ; for it is holy unto you: 
every one that defileth it shall 
surely be put to death : for who- 
soever doeth any work therein, 
that soul shall be cut off from 
among his people. 

" Six days may work be done ; 
but in the seventh is the sabbath 
of rest, holy to the Lord : whoso- 
ever doeth any work in the sab- 
bath day, he shall surely be put to 
death. 

"Wherefore the children of 
Israel shall keep the sabbath, to 
observe the sabbath throughout 
their generations, for a perpetual 
covenant. 

" It is a sign between me and 
the children of Israel for ever: 
for in six days the Lord made 
heaven and earth, and on the 
seventh day he rested, and was 
refreshed." — Exod. xxxi. n — 17, 



" And Moses gathered all the 
congregation of the children of 
Israel together, and said untot 
them, These are the words which* 
the Lord hath commanded, that, 
ye should do them, 

" Six days <shall work be done,; 
but on the seventh day there shall 
be to you an holy day, a sabbath, 
of rest to the Lord : whosoever 1 
doeth work therein shall be put* 
to death. 

" Ye shall kindle no firet- 
throughout your habitations upon 
the sabbath day." — Exod. xxxv* 



It will be seen that the Lord closed His directions con* 
cerning the tabernacle with the commandment respecting 
the sabbath day. (Exod. xxxi. 12 — 17.) Moses com- 
menced his recapitulation of these directions to the people, 
with the same commandment about the sabbath. (Exod. 
xxxv. I — 3.) There is therefore evidently an intimate 
connection between the truths foreshadowed in the 
tabernacle, and the rest typified by the sabbath. 

We read in Genesis ii. " thus the heavens and the 
earth were finished, and all the host of them. And 

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on the seventh day God ended his work which he had 
made ; and he rested on the seventh day from all his 
work which he had made. And God blessed the 
seventh day, and sanctified it ; because that in it he 
had rested from all his work which God created and 
made." 

Everything had been pronounced by the Creator Him- 
self to be good. No sin, no death, had as yet entered 
to mar the works of Gods hands. He could rest, and 
be refreshed in the contemplation of His own work of 
creation ; crowned as it was with man, the perfection 
and head of it all. Quickly however was this beautiful 
scene changed. By the " one man sin entered into the 
world, and death by sin." " The whole creation was 
made subject to vanity •," and from that time to this, 
ceases not to " groan and travail in pain together," 
having been ruined by the entrance of death, and 
thereby subjected to the slavery of corruption. 

From that time we read no more of God resting. 
The first intimation of a sabbath for man is in Exodus 
xvi. where this word occurs for the first time in the 
Bible. God had indeed hallowed the seventh day, having 
Himself rested on it : but it is not called the sabbath, 
which means the rest, until the manna was given to Israel 
in the wilderness. And this is in keeping with the truth. 
The manna (bread from heaven) was rained down in 
profusion for a people stiff-necked and murmuring* 
beautiful shadow of "the true bread from heaven," 
" the bread of God," " the bread of life," given in the 
riches of God's love to a ruined world ; "of which if 
a man eat, he shall live for ever." 

In close connection with the manna, came the sabbath. 
" It shall come to pass, that on the sixth day they shall 
prepare that which they bring in ; and it shall be 
twice as much as they gather daily. And it came to 
pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much 
bread, two omers for one man : and all the rulers of 
the congregation c^t^fi^to Moses. And he said 



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162 



unto them, this is that which the Lord hath said, To- 
morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the Lord. 
Six days ye shall gather it ; but on the seventh day, 
which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none. See, for 
that the Lord hath given you the sabbath, therefore he 
givethyou 'on the sixth day the bread of two days : 
abide ye every man in his place ; let no man go out of 
his place on the seventh day. So the people rested on 
the seventh day." Exod. xvi. 5, 22, 23, 26, 29, 30. 

God had so provided for Israel in giving them this 
strange new bread from heaven, that there was no 
necessity for their working in any way on the seventh 
day. Their wants were fully met ; so that they could 
cease or rest from any labour or toil. And here we 
have for the first time, man able to rest : " the people 
rested on the seventh day." The first occurrence of the 
expression in Scripture since Genesis, chap, ii., where it is 
said, " and he (God) rested on the seventh day." Is not 
this a very significant type of the blessed truth that God 
has provided in Christ, the first and only rest that man 
can know. A perfect and eternal sabbath ? 

Another peculiar word is employed here for the first 
time " the rest of the holy sabbath and is subse- 
quently used in Scripture in connection with the sabbath 
day. " A sabbath of rest." Exod. xxxi. 15 ; xxxv. 2. 
"The day of atonement." Lev. xvi. 31 ; xxiii. 32. 
" The day of blowing of trumpets ;" xxiii. 24 ; where 
it is translated sabbath. " The feast of tabernacles/' 
xxiii. 39 ; where it occurs twice, and is translated 
" sabbath." And " the sabbatical year," xxv. 4, 5 ; " a 
sabbath of rest" — " a year of rest." The word in the 
Hebrew is, shabbah-thohn ; it may mean a resting, a time 
or continued act of resting. It is not unlikely that the 
word, Hebrews iv. 9, "there remaineth therefore a rest, 
(margin, keeping of a sabbath, a sabbatism,) to the 
people of God," is a Greek translation of this Hebrew 
word, although it does not occur in the Septuagint. 

Israel kept their first, and perhaps their only sab- 



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163 



batism, in the wilderness of Sin, when the manna was 
fresh and pleasant to their taste. Who does not know 
the delight, the peace and joy of the first fresh taste of 
" the bread of life ?" The rest of soul which Christ 
gives to those who labour and are heavy laden ? But, 
alas ! how soon is that rest spoiled by the inroads of 
Satan and the world ; and by the restlessness of self- 
will, pride, and the flesh. If we would retain the rest, 
yea, deepen and increase it, we must listen to the Lord's 
words, " Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me ; 
for I am meek and lowly in heart : and ye shall find 
rest unto your souls." Matt. xi. 28, 29. There is a 
rest that Christ gives, There is a rest we have to 
find. 

In Exod. xvi. 29, it is written, " the Lord hath given 
you the sabbath, therefore hegzW^you the bread." We 
first, by faith, receive Christ ; the true bread from 
heaven, given by God, His Father. We eat His flesh, 
the bread which the Son of Man giveth, and rest from 
doubt and fear ; from works of our own, and from the 
heavy burden of our sins. We experience the joy and 
peace of conversion. We cease from our own works, 
as God did from His on the seventh day. But soon the 
struggle comes, the conflict between flesh and spirit. 
Having received rest from Christ as His gift, we have 
next to take His yoke upon us. His yoke of love, and 
obedience to the Father ; another kind of yoke, an easy 
yoke ; another burden, a light burden ; in the place of 
the grievous bondage under sin and Satan, and the 
heavy load of guilt and misery. And we have to learn 
of Him, the meek and lowly one in heart, in order that 
we may find rest to our souls in the midst of temptation 
and trial, and difficulties and perplexities in our path. 
The meekness and lowliness of Christ were evidenced in 
His constant dependence upon God. Never doing His 
own will, or pleasing Himself. Never putting forth 
His own power, but humbly trusting in, and waiting on 
His Father. And His soul was kept in a perfect sab- 

G 2 



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bath of rest. Circumstances, however sudden or unex- 
pected, never disturbed the serenity of His souls confi- 
dence in God; neither did they cause Him to act 
independently of God. He trusted not in any resources 
of His own. He was never surprised into an act of 
independence, though having almighty power. However 
adverse therefore the circumstances, the rest and quiet 
assurance of His soul were unbroken. The tempter 
might seek to insinuate doubts of His Father s love and 
care, but such thoughts found no place in His heart. 
He was deaf to such whispers of the enemy. He was 
blind as to the circumstances around Him, if those circum- 
stances seemed to militate against the faithful love of God. 
Such was His rest all through His pilgrimage below, 
till on the cross the billows and waves of judgment, and 
the noise of the waterspouts of wrath overwhelmed 
Him. And yet even then He trusted, and was de- 
livered. 

When the sabbath was connected with the gift of 
manna, there was no commandment, but the sabbath 
was given ; and there was no penalty for the breach of 
the rest. When the sabbath was subsequently con- 
nected with God's work of creation, as in, Exod. xx. 
8 — II ; xxxi. 14 — 17, there was a distinct command- 
ment, and the penalty of death was appended to any 
breach of it. 

This affords a striking contrast, between being under 
grace, and under law. Israel before they reached Mount 
Sinai were dealt with altogether in the way of grace : 
they had come out from Egypt under the shelter of the 
passover blood. The power of the almighty hand of 
God had been made manifest in their favour, in opening 
the depths of the Red Sea, and giving them a passage 
through on dry land; whilst their enemies had been 
engulphed in its mighty waters. They had murmured 
at Mar ah, and the bitter waters were made sweet. They 
had found palm trees and wells ready for them at Elim. 
They had murmured in the wilderness of Sin, and the 



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'manna was poured down from heaven in reply. They 
murmured again at Rephidim and the smitten rock 
yielded its streams of living water. Thus up to their 
reaching the mount of fearfulness and judgment, all 
God's ways towards them were in unwearied goodness 
and mercy. 

The 106th Psalm recapitulates these dealings of God 
with His people between Egypt and Sinai, and grounds 
His ways of grace towards them upon His "remembrance 
of His holy promise, and Abraham His servant," v. 42; 
and then all the subsequent wilderness journey is omitted, 
and the psalm concludes with "he brought forth his people 
with joy and his chosen with gladness ; and gave them 
the lands of the heathen ; and they inherited the labour 
of the people ; that they might observe his statutes and 
keep his laws. Hallelujah." v. 42 — 45. Is there not in 
this a prophetic intimation of their entering upon the 
land and enjoying it hereafter, on the sure ground of 
promise and unlimited grace ? When their true sabbath, 
their rest shall be connected with the true manna, " the 
true Bread," and not with a fiery law, they will enjoy it 
in reality, and retain it without' fear of ever losing it. 
- In the Epistle to the Hebrews, chapters ill. and iv., 
three rests are spoken of— -the rest of Creation ; the rest 
which Joshua gave-, and the rest of God. The two 
former have passed away, for in Psa. xcv. II, God speaks 
of another day of rest, although His works of creation 
were finished from the foundation of the world ; and the 
rest which Joshua gave must clearly have been in vain, 
for otherwise God would not have spoken by the mouth 
of David, of another day, after the people of Israel had 
actually been for many years in the land into which 
Joshua had brought them. There yet remaineth there- 
fore, a celebration of rest, a full enjoyment of it to the 
people of God. An eternal Sabbatism, when they shall 
■enter into Gods own rest, This is yet future. We find 
that there is a day of new creation yet to come. " And he 
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new." Rev. xxi. 5. The old creation with all its groans — ' 
the former things, with their death, sorrow, crying and 
pain shall have passed away. A new heaven and a new 
earth, will have replaced the present heaven and the 
present earth. The holy city, the new Jerusalem, the 
Bride, the Lamb's wife, prepared as a bride adorned for 
her husband, will be seen in all her eternal freshness,, 
glory and beauty, coming down from God out of heaven. 
The Tabernacle of God will be with men, and He will 
dwell with them. The Lord will have reigned the 
thousand years, till He shall have put all enemies under 
His feet, and God will be all in all. 

This is the eternal rest of God. Already it can be 
said, " we which have believed do enter into rest." We 
have a blessed foretaste of it in the peace of God which 
passeth all understanding, and in the victory which God 
giveth us through our Lord Jesus Christ. And we shall 
begin to keep our Sabbatism at the coming of Christ - r 
when He will Himself descend with a shout, with the 
voice of the Archangel, and with the trump of God, and 
when we shall be caught up with the departed saints, all 
alike, raised and changed into His likeness, to meet the 
Lord in the air. And so shall we ever be with the Lord. 

But even during this thousand years resurrection 
companionship and reign with Christ, we shall still be 
looking for " the new heavens and the new earth," the 
new creation in all its completeness and beauty, the 
eternal unbroken Sabbatism of God. 

The connection of the Sabbath day with the construc- 
tion of the Tabernacle, may have reference to this rest 
that remains, of which the Sabbath connected with the 
first creation, was a type. 

A contrast may be drawn between the old creation 
with the man and the woman, formed at the close of it ^ 
and the new creation, of which the man and the woman 
are the commencement. The first Sabbath was broken 
(never to be restored) by the entrance in of sin and 
death. It stood at the close of the week of God's work» 



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The closing act of God's creative power being the 
making the man and the woman. 

The putting forth of God's power in new creation 
is the resurrection of His Son the Lord Jesus Christ, 
"the last Adam" "the beginning of the creation of 
God," and " putting all things under His feet," accord- 
ing to Psa. viii. And the next exhibition of God's 
mighty power in new creation, will be the resurrection 
of the Church in glory. The new heavens and the new 
earth will be the closing manifestation of His creative 
power. 

This new creation begins with the rest of a first day, 
instead of the sabbath of a seventh : and we esteem the 
- Lord's day to be holy, not because of a legal commandment 
but upon far higher ground ; because the name of the 
Lord, who died for us upon the cross, and who was 
raised for us from the grave as head over all things to 
His body the Church, is placed upon it. We celebrate 
it, because God is able to rest in the completed work of 
His blessed Son, and has manifested His delight and joy 
in His beloved, and in the work He has wrought by 
raising Him from the dead on the first day of the week — 
Christ is Gods rest. We keep the Lord's day, because 
we can rest from all fear of wrath and judgment, and 
because we are new creatures in Christ Jesus, quickened 
together with Him, and seated in heavenly places in Him, 
washed, cleansed, justified, and shortly to be glorified. 
And God can rest in us for He sees in us the skilful 
workmanship of Jesus. New creation work — resurrec- 
tion work already begun.* 

The Sabbath is called "holy"; "a Sabbath to 
•Jehovah"; "a Sabbath of rest — holiness to Jehovah," 
and " a Sabbath of rest to Jehovah." Exod. xvi. 23,25; 

\* The word, the Zor/f«, (kuriakos) is only used on one other occasion, 
viz. in ist Cor. xi. 20, "The Lord's Supper." As therefore we rightly observe 
with peculiar reverence "the Supper," because of the name of the Lord attached 
to it ; so also for the same reason, we have to regard the day called by His name, 
as belonging in a peculiar way to Himself. A new day, made by Him, and 
claimed by Him as Lord. The stone which the builders refused, was exalted in 
resurrection to be the head stone of the corner, upon the day which the Lord hath 
made. We will rejoice and be glad in it. Psa. cxviii. 23, 24. 



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xxxi. 15; xxxv. 2. It was also " holy unto the children 
of Israel." Exod. xxxi. 14, and a sign between the Lord 
and them. xxxi. 13, 17; and was "a perpetual cove- 
nant." xxxi. 16. 

"We are told in Col. ii. 16, 17, that the Jewish holy 
days, the new moons, and the sabbaths, were a shadow 
of things to come, but the body is of Christ. To be in 
Christ is to be separated off to God in true holiness. A 
resurrection separation : to be cut off from the body of 
the sins of the flesh, and to be risen with Him. In this 
is true rest, for rest must be holiness. " The wicked 
are like the troubled sea when it cannot rest, whose 
waters cast up mire and dirt. There is no peace saith 
my God to the wicked." Isa. lvii. 20. 

The Sabbath was a sign to Israel. A token that they 
were a people separated off to God, claimed by Himself 
in a peculiar way as His creatures ; and for whom He 
had prepared a rest in the holy land, provided they kept 
His law. May we not say that the risen Lord Jesus is 
a peculiar sign to us ; an assurance of rest that yet 
remains for us. The first-fruits in resurrection. A 
pledge therefore to us from God that resurrection shall 
be our portion, and that we are His peculiar people for 
whom He hath reserved an " inheritance, incorruptible 
and undefiled, and that fadeth not away." 

It will be observed that in Exod. xxxi. 14, "every 
one that defileth the Sabbath shall surely be put to death ; 
for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall 
be cut off from among his people." — v. 15, "whosoever 
doeth any work on the Sabbath day, he shall surely be 
put to death." This serves to explain the meaning of 
being cut off from his people, a phrase of constant 
occurrence under the law. It is the judgment of death 
to be inflicted upon the transgressor. Four special 
occasions may be noted in connection with which this 
fearful penalty is threatened. 

First — If a man did any work on the Sabbath. 
Exod. xxxi. 14. 



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169 • 

Secondly — If a man did not keep the Passover. 
Num. ix, 13. 

Thirdly — If a man eat leavened bread during the 
feast of unleavened bread. Exod. xii. 15, 19. 

Fourthly — If a man did not afflict his soul in the day 
of atonement. Lev. xxiii. 29. 

May ive not gather some instructive warnings from 
the non-observance of these four feasts ? 

First — If Christ be not our true Sabbath ; if we are 
mingling works with that rest of God which He has 
given, are we not endangering Salvation ? 

Secondly — If we trust in anything but the shedding of 
blood, the blood of the true paschal Lamb, for the 
complete answer to God, on account of sin, and for the 
c6mplete putting away of His wrath, do we not imperil 
the souls safety ? 

If professing " Christ to be our passover sacrificed for 
us," we indulge in the sinful lusts of the flesh, the lust 
of the eye, and the pride of life, are we not eatingr 
leavened bread, when we ought to be feeding on Hirr^ 
the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth ? and will not 
our practice contradict our profession, and prove us to 
be still of the world, and not of the people of God ? 

Fourthly — If there be no real affliction of heart, 
because of sin, when the atonement made by the Lord 
Jesus in the shedding of His blood, is presented to the 
soul — but if there be a land of boastful profession of 
faith in the doctrines of Salvation, without brokenness of 
heart because of sin, is not such an one in great peril as 
to eternal salvation, however well acquainted he may be 
with doctrinal truth ? 

The Sabbath therefore having this peculiar place in 
connection with the Tabernacle appears to intimate to us, 
that a true rest of soul will be maintained only by our 
realising the Lord's presence with us, abiding in Him. 
And that our eternal rest will be attained when we dwell 
in His presence for ever, in the holy perfection of new 
creation, on the morning of the resurrection. 



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THE FREE GIFTS FOR THE TABERNACLE. 

"And all the congregation of £he children of Israel departed from 
the presence of Moses. 

"And they came, every one whose heart stirred him up, and every 
one whom his spirit made willing, and ''they brought the Lord's 
offering to the work of the tabernacle of the congregation* and for all 
his service, and for the holy garments. , 

"And they came, both men and women, as many as were willing- 
hearted, and brought bracelets, and earrings, and rings, and tablets, au 
jewels of gold : and every man 1 that offered offered an offering of gold 
unto the Lord. , » 

"And every man, with whom was found blue, and purple, and 
scarlet, and fine linen, and goats' hair, and red skins of rams, and 
badgers' skins, brought them. 

"Everyone that did offer an offering of silver and brass, brought the 
Lord's offering : and every man, with whom was found shittim wood 
for any work of the service, brought it. 

"And all the women that were wise hearted did spin with their 
hands, and brought that which they had spun, both of blue, and of 
purple, and of scarlet, and of fine linen. 

"And all the women whose heart stirred them up in wisdom spun 
goats' hair. 

"And the rulers brought onyx stones, and stones to bp set, for the 
ephod, and for the breastplate ; 

" And spice, and oil for the light, and for the anointing oil, and for 
the sweet incense, 

" The children of, Israel: brought a willing offering unto , the Lord, 
every man and woman, whose heart made them willing to bring, for 
all manner of work, which the Lord had commanded to be made by 
the hand of Moses. — Exod.Kxxv.io — 29. 

The people of Israel responded to the words of the 
Lord, : delivered tp them by Moses ; and the willing 
heart was, as it were, stamped upon each gift brought 
by them for the construction of the tabernacle. The 
bondage under which law placed them, was for a little 
while broken through or set aside, by this appeal of the 
Lord to their hearts; For the tabernacle was a type of 
Christ, Gods free gift, and therefore those wha 
contributed towards it, must show some faint token 
of the same liberal spirit. The word " willing" . is 
sometimes translated "free," 2nd Chron. xxix. 31.; 
Psa. li. 12. "Liberal" Isa. xxxii. 5, 8. Also "nobles," 



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Numb. xxi. 1 8. ; Psa. lxxxiii. 1 1. And "princes" 
1st Sam. iL 8, etc Princely liberality was thus for a 
little moment exhibited by that people, of whom the 
Lord afterwards complains. " Thou hast not brought 
me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings ; neither hast 
thou honoured me with thy sacrifices. I have not 
caused thee to serve with an offering, nor wearied thee 
with incense. Thou hast bought me no sweet cane with 
money, neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy 
sacrifices : but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, 
thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities. — Isa. xliii. 

It would seem as if the beauty of the type, the costly 
gift of God to which it pointed, had suddenly opened 
their churlish hearts. Alas ! soon to close again, and 
ultimately to reject the very gift itself, which God in 
the fulness of His love offered to them. 

What a truth this tells us, respecting the way in which 
we should seek to please God ! A servile spirit ill befits 
one who has tasted of His grace. A covetous heart is 
especially an abomination to Him who has not spared 
His own Son. Let us only contemplate more deeply, 
more truly, the vastness of His gift to us. Let us 
learn a little more and more of the heart of God as 
shewn in His wondrous love in the gift of Christ, and 
we shall acquire a more princely character — more true 
nobility of spirit ; and we shall be more ready to yield 
ourselves, all we are, and all we have, a willing offering 
in His service. 

These willing-hearted ones came, both men and 
women, and brought first, their gold ; " Bracelets, 
earrings, rings and tablets, all jewels of Gold." Their 
personal ornaments were thus freely given up, as an 
heave-offering unto Jehovah. And in this women as 
well as men participated; the weak as well as the 
strong. 

In this respect there is similarity between the gold. 
used in the tabernacle, and the brass employed for the 



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Laver. The brazen mirrors of the women assembling 
at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation were 
given up by them, for the laver and his foot. Exod. 
xxxviii. 8. They preferred to look upon a vessel full 
of cleansing water, instead of contemplating their own 
beauty in the mirror. Just so a sinner touched by the 
grace of God ceases to seek comfort or self-congratula- 
tion from his own comeliness ; and gladly turns away to 
the laver of regeneration, the death of Christ, which 
turns his comeliness into corruption, and cleanses him 
from the filth of the flesh. 

In like manner these Israelitish men and women 
preferred the contemplation of the dwelling-place of 
God, to personal adornings. They gave up their 
jewels of gold (which if worn by themselves would 
have attracted the gaze of others to their own persons,) 
in order that all eyes and hearts might be set upon the 
tabernacle of the Most High. 

Are we seeking our adornments from Christ ? Are 
we gathering glory, comeliness and beauty by gazing 
upon Him? Have we the ornament of a meek and 
quiet spirit^of priceless value in the sight of God ; 
because so eminently displayed in His blessed Son ? 

After specifying that both men and women brought 
their jewels of gold it is added, " and every man that 
offered, an offering of gold unto the Lord." The words 
" that offered an offering," are peculiar. It is literally 
every man that waved a wave-offering to Jehovah, 
The gold is again called a wave-offering. Exod. xxxviii, 
24. Thus we have the two words used in this chapter 
with reference to the free will offerings of the children 
of Israel, "wave-offering," and "heave-offering." 
Two portions of "the peace sacrifice," were respectively 
waved and heaved, "the wave breast," and "the 
heave shoulder." The action of waving before the 
Lord that which was presented to Him seems to denote 
the passing it to and fro before His eyes, so that He 
may scrutinise every part. Whilst the heaving an 



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offering would represent lifting it off the earth in 
separation to Jehovah. 

Every man in this instance waved a wave-offering 
of gold to the Lord, distinct it may be from the jewels 
also presented. In this action he called attention to 
the preciousness and purity of the mass of fine gold 
which he offered. It was the first material presented. 
It may be because it is the precious metal which in 
type represents the divine glory of the Lord Jesus, 
as the Son of God. 

We find next, blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen, goats' 
hair, red skins of rams, and badgers skins brought by 
men. Here all the materials are classed together, which 
were used for the curtains, hangings, and coverings of 
the tabernacle. And it is especially said, that " every 
man" who possessed such, brought it. Every mani- 
festation of the Lord Jesus is precious to God, and is 
an object for our faith to rest upon, and to be occupied 
with. A man in Christ, will have the word of God 
richly abiding in him ; his ways will partake of the 
impress of Christ ; and he will be strong in the grace 
of the Lord, and in the power of His might. Such 
an one will be acquainted with all the beauteous 
displays of God and man, which the Lord hath made 
manifest. Perhaps those who have advanced a little 
further than others in the life of faith, have found the 
Gospels to be both the richest, and deepest study for 
their hearts; and by far the most difficult part of 
Scripture. For without note or comment, they simply 
pourtray Christ, and leave us to gather, or extract the 
truth and the blessing from them. 

The silver and the brass are next linked together as 
a " heave-offering." 

The brass is in Exod. xxxv. 29, called also a 
wave-offering. 

The silver was derived altogether from the atonement- 
money. This has already been treated of. It is perhaps 
here connected with the brass, because there were 



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sockets made of both metals. The foundations of 
the tabernacle and court, were the result of general 
contributions from the whole company of God's people. 

The " shittim wood " was also contributed by every 
one who happened to have it : and the expression is 
added "for any work of the service." This wood 
was used to form the whole framework of the 
tabernacle, and the greater part of the holy vessels. 
The Lord Jesus as "the Son of Man," has accomplished 
God's counsels in redemption. He has been lifted, up 
on the cross. He has been raised to the right hand of 
the Throne of glory. His great "work of service" 
has all been accomplished through His having partaften 
of flesh and blood. This truth of His having come 
in the flesh is an essential part; of the faith of every 
believer. 

" Every wise hearted woman spun with her hands 
the blue and purple, the scarlet and fine linen." Here 
the word "woman" in Hebrew is in the singular 
number. The same word which Adam spoke. Gen. ii. 
23, when he said, this is how bone of my bones and 
flesh of my fles^h : she shall be called woman, (isha) 
because she was taken out pf man, (ish ) 

These beautiful colours were handled and spun by 
each woman. May there not be in this a type of the 
church, the woman, who delights to trace the beauties 
of her Lord, and to handle by faith the word of life, 
which describes His loveliness and the perfections of His 
character. 

" And all the women whose heart stirred them up 
in wisdom spun goats' hair." Here the women are 
spoken of collectively in the plural, and they had a 
heart stirred in wisdom to spin goats' hair. One heart 
led them to this one work. If it be as before suggested 
that the goats' hair for the curtains was derived from 
the sin-offerings of the people, or had an allusion 
to them •, then we can understand the wisdom of earth 
which led the women to this work. 



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Surely we shall be showing our wisdom of heart, 
an contemplating Christ " made sin for us," in contrast 
with all the folly of this world's boasted wisdom, which 
despises the foolishness of the cross. 

The Rulers brought precious stones for the ephod 
and breastplate* An(l spices and oil for the light, and 
for the anointing pil f and for the sweet incense. 

The word "ruler" sometimes translated "captain." 
Num. chap, ii. throughout: j ^ometimes " prince." ]Slum. 
chap. yu. throughput,, etc. tn , . f , 

They are first mentioned, Exod. ,xyi f 22, when the 
double qnantity of, man 1 }* 1 was gathered, to the surprise 
of these leaders , of , the congregation. r 

Thus we find them first, interested in the bread from 
heaven given . by 1 ^pd to fsrael^.and next, bringing 
those gems on which the names of Israel were to be 
inscribed^ and, the oil and pqrfumes for anointing the 
tabernacle, and priesthood and for the daily incense, 

In the Church of God* there are those to whona the 
Lord l^as given by jthe Ho)y Ghp$t, the gift of rule, 
Guides of me flock ?( and whose especial resposibility is 
to build upon the foundation, that which $hall abide the 
testing day which is comii>g f (f . ; - 

The foundation has already been laid,, , Jesus Christ, 
•"but let every man take heed ,liow.he buildeth thete- 
upon. t {) » 

Three durable things, gold, silver,, precious stones, if 
built thereupon will abide the fi/e„ Those wjio lead 
-on, and instruct the Church of God, will build gold, if 
they seek to raise the hearts and consciences of the 
Lords saints to the heavenly standard, Christ, If they 
act before them "the Apostle and High Priest of their 
profession," and, bid them as " holy brethren, partakers 
of the Heavenly calling, consider Him." The Epistle to 
the Hebrews is full of the glorious display of thus gold, 
and we are exhorted to consider Him, and to consider 
one another to provoke unto love and to good works. 

Building silver may mean, seeking to lead the people 



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of God to follow the ways of divine purity and holiness 
manifested in the Lord Jesus in all the actions of His 
grace and love whilst on earth. Perhaps we may call 
the Gospel by Luke the Silver Gospel, and that by John 
the Golden Gospel. 

Precious stones manifest light in sparkling varied colours 
as they are turned about. The Epistle to the Ephesians 
seems to shed the divine lustre of the heavenly calling, 
and to display the Church as the jewels adorning its 
glorious Head, the Lord Jesus. This Epistle in its 
closing exhortations deals with the hearts of the saints, 
instructing them how to make the highest glories of the 
heavenly calling shine out in the relationships of this 
present life. It also exhorts believers to maintain and 
make manifest the strength and brilliancy of the precious 
Stone, undimmed by worldliness, and unaffected by the 
wiles of the devil, or the fiery darts of the wicked one. 

To build precious stones would be to lead on believers 
into the truths contained in this Epistle, so that their 
lives might openly declare their high standing as quick- 
ened and raised up together with Christ, not of the 
world, even as He is not of the world. 

On the other hand, we are warned against building 
wood, hay, stubble. 

Wood is a very useful material for earth ; but it will 
not stand the fire. So it is not the ministry of God's 
builders to be instructing His saints in what may merely 
fit them for usefulness in earthly things. Many of what 
are called philanthropic objects, will do very well for 
the men of this world ; but they will not abide the day 
that is to try every man's work by fire. 

A higher calling is that of the believer. Let the dead 
bury their dead, but " go thou and preach the kingdom 
of God," (Luke ix. 59, 60,) was a command of Christ 
to one, whom He had called to follow Him. Let the 
dead world care for its own works of death. Our 
business is to minister life and righteousness, which 
shall abide for ever. 



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Hay is a degree lower than wood, as to its usefulness, 
and will consume more rapidly in the coming fire. It is 
dried grass and flowers. It has relics of whatever was 
fair, but is cut down and withered. There are traces of 
glory and beauty in the natural man, which cannot fail 
to remind us of his origin ; but these very tokens of what 
he once was, are marred by the presence of sin and death. 

It is not the province of a true servant of God, to 
cultivate that which seems fair or glorious in the natural 
man ; but rather to deal with the new man, which 
" after God is created in righteousness and true 
holiness." Alas ! much of the literature of the day 
is an attempt to make the dried grass and flowers of 
human imagination and invention, a vehicle for the 
truths of God. A trashy set of religious fictions — of 
sentimental tales of imagination, are constantly teeming 
from* the press, (fuel only for the fire,) which never 
can build up the soul of the child of God in its high 
and iieavenly calling. 

Stubble is fit only for burning — it has not even the 
fragrance, or the remains of beauty which the hay 
possesses. Have not some of God's own choice 
servants, (devoted to His work, and loving Him truly,) 
lent themselves to patronise amusements, such as concerts, 
and the like, and even popular exhibitions, that must be 
mere stubble in the sight of God ? 

" Every man s work shall be made manifest ; for the 
day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire ; 
and the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it 
is. If any man's work abide which he hath built 
thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work 
shall be burned, he shall suffer loss : but he himself 
shall be saved ; yet so as by fire." 1st. Cor. iii. II — 15. 
" The day " is an expression with which we are familiar. 
It refers to the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1st Cor» 
i. 8 ; v. 5 ; 2nd Cor. i. 14, etc., and is contrasted with 
the darkness of the present night. " The night is far 
spent, the day is at hand." Rom. xiii. 12. 



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We, as believers in Christ, belong to that day — we are 
of it — we are children of it. istThes. v. 5, 8. "The 
day " which we see even now approaching (Heb. x. 25) 
will commence with the coining of Christ. It will be a 
day of manifestation, when the secrets of all Hearts will 
be revealed. ■ Then eqch believer raised' at the first 
resurrection m the glory arid likeness bf Christ; will 
appear before the tribunal bf Christ, and Ms' wtaks in 
the service of the Lord Jesus will be testied; That which 
has been like gold, silver, precious stones, will abide, and 
he will receive at regard. That wtochr has ' been like 
wood, hay, stubble, will pa&s &way for ever, consumed as 
"by fire 5 and he will suffer 1 loss* although 1 his individual 
personal salvation will nbt be affected thereby.; 

Lot was as safe as Abraham during the overthrow of 
Sodom, He escaped froWl the dodmed city with tkit 
little else than his life, whilst Abraham tbuld look GVfcr 
the smoking plain with aU his owtl jiossjessidns unharmed, 
surrounding him. 1 ' 1 • - 

May we be found in that 'day to havte laboured not in 
vain in the Lord. Taking heed to these warnings of the 
word of God, lest we be ensnared in this day of 
expediency by the plausible arguments put forth by men. 
We live in a time when the rule is, not " what salth the 
Lord," but " what seems to be most desirable, or most 
expedient to human judgment or reasoning." 

Besides the precious stones, the rulers brought oil for 
the light and sweet spices for the anointing oil, and for 
incense. 

In the Epistle to the Hebrews, the apostle bids them 
remember their guides, " who have spoken unto you the 
word of God, whose faith follow, considering the end 
of their conversation." xiii. 7. Probably the reference ' 
here is to those guides or leaders who had departed to 
be with Christ. They were to be remembered. A little 
lower down in the chapter, those guides who were then 
living are spoken of. " Obey your guides, and submit 
yourselves, for they watch for your souls as they that 



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must give account ; that they may do it with joy and not 
-with grief ; for that is unprofitable for you." That is 
that they may watch for - 5 your spuls ; not grieving, but 
with joy. . ; 

Tho$e Jeaders whp had departed, had left a light of 
faith- which was tp <be followed, ,or imitated. They had 
not only spoken tthe word of God, but they had exhibited 
it. ^1 their ways and lite, leaving on example to be copied, 
the t wpr4 of God having, (as it were) lived before the 
eyes of the flock. ' 

Rul^rst had thus; macj^ the : light of trtith to 
shineutferpugh tWpower pf the Holy Ghost^ and fragrant 
graces, of ..th^: Jjord Jesus had fyeen cultivated by them 
in their fellowsl^ip with th^ ; saints, , They had " brought 
oil for ,th$ lightand sweet spices/' 

; May, tjaeres; not ^ .somewhat of a jconttast between, 
"remember your ,rukrs> who have ;$ppken and ; lived 
before, ypu, but, who have passed away," and the verse 
which follows, "Jesus Christ (is) the saffie yesterday* 
and ^o dayKand foir ever." Others* however bright; ms 
examples ,jmd earnest as j ir^ru^ors, are gone-h-Jesm 
Christ eyer aWdeis. The pac auihor-and finishgr of faiths— 
un<:baQgeab^ ^^8jpv% r and coajsejessj i^. His living car,e 
of His; people j ( . i ' ' •> ■ ■ j 




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THE LIBERAL OFFERINGS. 

"And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted 
man, in whose heart the Lord had put wisdom, even every one whose 
heart stirred him up to come unto the work to do it : 

" And they received of Moses all the offering, which the children of 
Israel had brought for the work of the service of the sanctuary, to make 
it withal. And they brought yet unto him free offerings every morning. 

" And all the wise men, that wrought all the work of the sanctuary* 
came every man from his work which they made ; 

" And they spake unto Moses, saying, The people bring much more 
than enough for the service of the work, which the Lord commanded 
to make. 

" And Moses gave commandment, and they caused it to be proclaimed 
throughout the camp, saying, Let neither man nor woman make any 
more work for the offering of the sanctuary. So the people were 
restrained from bringing. 

" For the stuff they nad was sufficient for all the work to make it, 
and too much." — Exod. xxxvi. 2 — 7. 

What cheerfulness, what devotedness, what liberality 
was here displayed by the people. With what a 
princely open hand they brought their "free offerings " 
every morning. Truly the Jacob character had for a 
little while passed away from them, and they stood forth 
like the Israel of God. What a contrast this to the 
subsequent national sin recorded in Zechariah xi. 12, 13. 
" And I said unto them, if ye think good, give my price. 
And if not forbear. So they weighed for my price, 
thirty pieces of silver. And the Lord said unto me, 
Cast it unto the potter a goodly price that I was prized 
at of them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and 
cast them to the potter in the house of the Lord." 

In this their early history they lavished their gifts for 
the construction of a passing type. Subsequently they 
prized the reality, the living Jehovah, Emmanuel in the 
midst of them, at thirty pieces of silver ! 

In the very house of the Lord itself, adorned with 
costly stones, lay the thirty pieces of silver ; a witness of 
the shameful, niggardly price at which they valued God's 



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most precious gift. Do we not in principle see the same 
things around us at the present day ? An edifice dedi- 
cated to what are so called " religious purposes," is 
sumptuously adorned with every kind of human inven- 
tion and device, to gratify the eye and please the taste. 
But if the hearts of many of the liberal givers of the 
gold and silver were searched, what would be the value 
therein found, of the precious sacrifice, the precious 
blood of Christ ? Whilst the name of Jehovah Jesus is 
in outward profession honoured, is He not in reality 
despised and rejected ? A form, a ceremony, a type, a 
shadow, can be venerated. The flesh can highly esteem 
it, because it addresses the senses. But "the Child 
born," "the Son given," "the unspeakable gift" of 
God, is unknown. Life eternal, salvation, is neglected. 
A Cain worship supplants that of the true God. And 
under the semblance of religiousness, a desperately 
wicked heart secretly despises the precious blood of 
Christ. 

We have two instances recorded in the Gospels of 
the liberal heart. One in Mark xiv. 8, where the 
highest commendation perhaps ever given is bestowed by 
the Lord upon the woman who brought an alabaster box 
of ointment, very precious, and brake it and poured the 
contents upon His head. " She hath done what she 
could." How few of the Lord's servants reach this 
high standard, especially in their manifestation of love for 
Him. 

The anticipation of His burial called forth this expres- 
sion of her hearts devotion, which others stigmatised as 
wasteful expenditure. She had a glimpse of the won- 
drous value of that death of deaths which He was to 
accomplish ; and she anointed with the costly perfume 
the Head which was to be crowned with thorns, and to 
be " marred more than any man's." 

Oh ! that we might follow her example, gathering 
from the contemplation of His sorrows on the tree, 
increase of our heart's affections ; not counting our lives 



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. dear ; but ready to spend and be spent in His service, 
" who made Himself poor that we through His poverty 
might be rich." 

" Love $0 amazing, so divine, : < - 
Demands my sodl, my life, my all." 

Another case of rich profusion in giving was that 
of the poor widow, Mark xii. 41 ; Luke xxi. I— 4. 
The Lord Jesus was observing how the people cast their 
offerings into the treasury j many that were rich cast in 
much. But the two mites, or one farthing of a certain 
poor widow, so arrested His attention, that He called 
to His disciples to mark this great gift. 

It was all that she had ; all her living ; and she gave 
it to God. Did she expect it would add much to the 
beauty of the house ? Or would go far towards some 
costly ceremonial ? No ; when the sums were counted 
over by the treasurer at the close of the day, this 
farthing was scarcely worth recording in the list of 
donations. 1 

Men like to head subscription lists 'with lar£e sums. 
And the churl is often counted liberal. God looks at 
the heart, the costly thing in His eyes— u the hearts 
adoration/ Hie widow m her gift proved her trhboimded 
confidence in God Himself as the giver. She thus ex- 
pressed to Him her faith—*' precious faith/' which the 
Lord Jesus valued ; fbt He had humbled Himself so as 
to be altogether dependent upon His Father. He was 
going to enrich God's treasury by giving up Himself y 
His life, His all, in order to please Him. 

We have in 2nd Cor. viii. another beautiful 

example of the gf ate of God bestowed bh the churches 
of Macedonia. Opening their hearts, so that " in a 
great trial of affliction, the abundatice of their joy, and 
their deep poverty, abounded unto the riches of their 
liberality. For to their power I bear record, 'yea, and 
beyond their power, they were willing of themselves ; 
praying us with much entreaty, that we would receive 



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the gift, and take upon us the fellowship of the minis- 
tering to the saints. And this they did, not as we 
hoped, but first gave their own selves to the Lord, and 
to us by the will of God." 

Is not this a striking antitype of the liberality above 
recorded respecting Israel ? All is traced to the grace 
of God first bestowed upon these saints and then flowing 
out in abundance of joy and riches of liberality. The 
" cheerful giver" whom God likes was here displayed, 
and the spring of it all must have been their knowledge 
of the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ. They first gave 
themselves to God., 

In Psalm xxii. (that deep; psalm of the cross,) the 
24th verse might be better translated, "for he hath not 
despised por abhorred the poverty of the poor one, neither 
hath he hid his face from him : but when he cried unto 
him he heard." 

What poverty equal to flis upon the cross ? What 
poverty equal to the poverty of death ? And such a 
death ! Forsaken of God ; forsaken of lover and friend, 
failed in utt^r weakness- to the tree of curse * so that 
the blessed oi*e exclaimed, "I am $ worm and no man." 
Yet what riches in that death ! What glory, what joy 
to God> what abundance of grace ! Wh^uti treasures oi 
wisdom and power ! 

In trie case of Israel the people had to be restrained 
from bringing, " for the stuff was sufficient, and too 
much/' But tihe go}d, silver,- and brass were reckoned 
in definite sums. 

" All the gold ttyat was occupied for the work in all 
the work of the holy ptyce >; even the gold of the offering, 
was twenty an4 ninp, talents, and sevea hundred and 
thirty shekels, after %hp shekel of the sanctuary. 

An^ the silver of them that were numbered of the con- 
gregation was an hundred talents, and a thousand seven 
hundred and threescore and fifteen shekels, after the- 
shekel of the sanctuary : a bekah for every man, that is, 
half a shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for every 



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one that went to be numbered, from twenty years old 
and upward, for six hundred thousand and three thou- 
sand and five hundred and fifty men. And of the 
hundred talents of silver were cast the sockets of the 
sanctuary, and the sockets of the vail ; an hundred 
sockets of the hundred talents, a talent for a socket. 
And of the thousand seven hundred seventy and five 
shekels he made hooks for the pillars, and overlaid their 
chapiters, and filleted them. 

And the brass of the offering was seventy talents, 
and two thousand and four hundred shekels. And 
therewith he made the sockets to the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation, and the brasefi, altar, 
and the brasen grate for it, and all the vessels of 
the altar, and the sockets of the court round about, 
and the sockets of the court gate, and all the pins 
of the tabernacle, and all the pins of . the court round 
about." Exod. xxxviii. 24 — 31. 

When we however regard Him of whom these things 
were shadows ; we have to contrast God's great , gift 
with these comparatively small offerings. t 

What a depth of truth is contained in the verse, u He 
that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for 
us all." (Rom. viii. 32.) Gods love flowed out unre- 
strained, unbounded in the gift of Jesus His only 
begotten Son. Like a mighty ocean, fathomless, bound- 
less, His love buried every thought of our worthlessness 
and ingratitude. Went down beneath our deepest need. 
Raised us up to His highest glory. Overcame every 
hindrance to our eternal blessing, manifesting itself as 
it never was seen before, and never can be seen again, 
in not sparing His own Son. 

And can .this precious gift be estimated ? The apostle 
is obliged at the close of one of the chapters in 2nd Cor. 
where he had been praising their liberality, to exclaim, 
when He contemplated the liberality of God, " thanks 
be to God for His unspeakable gift," 

This gift is the measure of God's love to us. Through 



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it we are raised to be sons of God. Placed in closer 
nearness to Him than any created beings. Loved by 
Him as He hath loved His Son. Every doubt, every 
uncertainty, every question of heart, should at once be 
stilled by the remembrance of this wonderful gift. And 
our own affections should be stirred up to worship and 
to praise ; ajid our mouths enlarged to ask what we will, 
through the deeper meditation of God's love, in deliver- 
ing Christ up to death for us. 

The gold, silver, and brass, contributed by Israel 
were all reckoned in talents and shekels. So highly 
did God value these little tokens of their willing hearts, 
that He carefully records them, even to the very last 
shekel of brass. 

He is not unrighteous to forget any work and labour 
of love which we show towards His name, in ministering 
to the need of His saints. A cup of cold water will 
be remembered. But when we seek to count up 
His mercies towards us, they are passing knowledge. 
" How precious are thy thoughts unto me O God ! 
How great is the sum of them ! If I should count them, 
they are more in number than the sand." Ps. cxxxix. 
17, 18. 

" Many, O Lord my God, are thy wonderful works 
which thou hast done, and thy thoughts which are to 
•us-ward : they cannot be reckoned up in order unto 
thee : if I would declare and speak of them, they are 
more than can be numbered." Ps. xl. 5. The word 
here translated "thoughts" may be rendered devices; 
it is derived from the same Hebrew root as to devise 
running work. 9 * Surely the skilful devices of God's love 
and wisdom towards us, in the gift and work of His 
Son, are beyond all calculation. It will take us an 
eternity of unbroken rest and blessedness to discover 
them. Well might the apostle to the Gentiles rejoice in 
having to proclaim "the unsearchable riches of Christ." 
Eph. iii. 8. 

Thus far have we pursued the subject of the Taber- 



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i86 

nacle. What has been written should be regarded rather 
as suggestions for those who read, not as authori- 
tative expositions of the truth. 

The succeeding portion will embrace the Priesthood, 
forming the second division of the subject. 



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THE PRIESTHOOD. 

The Tabernacle and its vessels, the Priesthood, and 
the various ministrations connected therewith, form 
but one subject ; although divided for the sake of 
more distinctly contemplating each portion. 

The tabernacle would have been useless without its 
vessels : and the tabernacle with its vessels, would 
have been of no service, but for a living family of 
priests, constantly engaged in various active ministrations 
within, the holy places, and about the various holy 
vessels. 

So closely connected is each part of this subject with 
the other, that in the directions contained in Exodus, 
there is no break ; but the command for making 
the holy garments, and consecrating the priesthood, 
(Exod. xxviii. and xxix.) comes between the enumera- 
tion of some of the holy vessels, and the various parts 
of the tabernacle. Indeed properly speaking, the 
27th chapter should end at verse 19, where "thou 
shalt command the children of Israel" begins a new 
subject, viz : directions concerning the oil for the light 
of the sanctuary. The 28th chapter follows on with 
the words "and take thou unto thee, etc." and the 
29th chapter continues with ordering the sacrifices, etc. 
for the day of priestly consecration. The 30th again 
carries on the subject connected with the priesthood, 
by giving the description of the incense-altar : and 
the whole closes with the sabbath, at the end of the 
31st chapter. 

Again ; when all the various parts of the work had 
been completed, ending with the* garments of the 
priesthood, (chapters xxxvi. — xxxix. verse 31,) the 



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following verse is added : " Thus was all the work of 
the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation finished •, 
and the children of Israel did according to all that 
the Lord commanded Moses, so did they." Here, 
therefore, the priestly garments were considered part 
of the work of the tabernacle. And if we turn to 
Heb. viii. we find that " the priests, that offered gifts 
according to the law, served unto the example and 
shadow of heavenly things ; as Moses was admonished 
of God, when he was about to make the tabernacle : 
for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according 
to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount." v. 4, 5. 

The service of the priests, in offering gifts and 
sacrifices, is thus connected with the commandments 
given to Moses in the mount, respecting the making of 
the tabernacle. The words " See that thou make all 
things according to the pattern shewed thee in the 
mount," as recorded in Exodus, were spoken to Moses 
respecting the holy vessels ; (see Exod. x*v. 40,) but 
are in Heb. viii. quoted to prove that the priests and 
their ministrations were examples and shadows of 
heavenly things. The whole subject is therefore much 
blended. But as far as possible it is the object of the 
present exposition, to consider by themselves the 
Aaronic priesthood, the garments, consecration, and 
ordinary service. 



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THE PRIESTS. 

"Take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, 
from among the children of Israel, that he may minister unto me in 
the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazarand Ithamar, 
Aaron's sons." — Exod. xiviii. i. 

In this direction given to Moses, we may observe how 
the priestly family is kept distinct from Moses and his 
descendants : so that neither he himself, nor his sons, 
have any office of priesthood. This points out a 
contrast between the priesthood under the law, and 
that of which Christ is the head. The leadership or 
kingship of Moses as well as the office of mediator, 
were in him kept apart from the priesthood, which was 
confined to Aaron and his sons : and these dignities 
were thus lodged in different persons. Whereas one 
object of the Epistle to the Hebrews is to point out the 
Lord Jesus in resurrection, combining in Himself the 
various offices and dignities of King, Mediator, Apostle, 
Surety, Captain, and Shepherd. 

The names of Aaron and his sons are significant. 
Aaron means " very high." He stood supreme, as the 
high priest ; very high above his own house, a$ well as 
exalted above the people : a type thus of the Lord 
Jesus, whom God has exalted with his right hand, to 
be a Prince and a Saviour. Acts v. 31. And as if 
still further to exalt the high priesthood of Jesus above 
that of Aaron, we have the word " great " added ; so 
that the Lord is called a great high priest. Heb. 
iv. 14. 

Aaron's sons have each appropriate names ; Nadab, 
"willing ; " Abihu, " my Father is He," (that is, God,) 
Eleazar, "help of God;" Ithamar, "land of palm." 
These four words afford a little prophetic intimation of 
characteristics attaching to the house, of which the Son 
of God is the Head ; deriving its life from God the 
Father, and all its power and help from Him ; following 
in the footsteps also of its blessed Master, in yielding 



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willing and not constrained service to God; and like the 
palm-trees, lofty in righteousness, and ever bringing 
forth fruit. Psa. xcii. 12 — 14. The palm-tree is one of 
the ornaments of the future temple described by Ezekiel, 
and was also one of the embellishments of Solomon s 
temple. It is peculiarly theTree of the desert flourishing 
where no other could exist ; ever marking out to the 
weary traveller the spot, amidst surrounding desolation, 
where a grateful shade, and spring of living water, are 
to be found ; and remarkable for longevity and ceaseless 
fruitfulness. Thus it was an apt emblem of the 
heavenly priesthood. 

The wording of the first verse is remarkable: "Take 
unto thee Aaron, and his sons with him, that he may 
minister." Aaron and his sons formed but one ministry 
in the priest's office : and Aaron could not exercise his 
service, unless his sons were taken with him. Is there 
not in this, an intimation of the union in priesthood 
of Christ and his house; and that one great object 
of his priesthood is, that He may minister to God 
respecting his house ? 



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THE GARMENTS FOR GLORY & BEAUTY. 

"And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother for . 
glory and for beauty. 

"And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have 
filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments 
to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest's office. 

" And these are the garments which they shall make ; a breastplate, 
and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle : 
and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his 
sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest s office." — Exod. 
xxviii. 2 — 4. 

The garments for glory and beauty are next directed 
to be made, that Aaron might be consecrated, in order 
to minister in the priest's office. Thus Aaron was 
fitted, by reason of his garments, for this holy office. 
They dignified his person, covering him with a glory 
and beauty, which in himself he possessed not. To all 
this, the priesthood of the Lord stands out in bright and 
blessed contrast. The dignity and glory which are His, 
and which were His from everlasting as the Son, 
magnify the office which He holds. His lite of 
obedience, and his death upon the tree, making Him 
manifest as the only begotten of the Father, full of 
grace and truth, proved Him to be worthy of the highest 
exaltation at the right hand of God ; and that He had 
the heart of a priest, and of a good shepherd, who 
would care to the uttermost for the sheep of God. 
The office added dignity to Aaron : whereas Christ 
dignifies the office. 

It may be well here to point out some of the contrasts 
drawn in the word of God, between the priesthood of 
Aaron and that of Christ. Aaron was called to be 
priest whilst living amongst men. The Lord Jesus was 
called by resurrection from among the dead to be a 
high priest. The fact of resurrection, when God said 
to Him, " Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten 
thee," constituted Him high priest ; for sonship is the 
great element of the heavenly priesthood. . Indeed the 
whole Epistle to the Hebrews, turns upon that especial 



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name of the Lord Jesus, " the Son." All the beauty 
and glory of the Gospel is connected with that name* 
It is the name which the Lord holds because He. is 
God ; and therefore when a believer is baptised, he is 
baptised into the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost ; the names forming but one 
name of the Godhead. 

The love of God in the gift of Christ all turns upon 
that wondrous truth, that He was and is the only- 
begotten Son of God ; not because made of a woman.; 
not because made flesh ; but because of His eternal 
relationship of wondrous divine existence, to the Father ; 
incomprehensible indeed to us, as is the whole mystery 
of the Sonship; (for none knoweth the Son, but the 
Father;) but received by faith. The love of God in the 
gift of Christ depends upon this great truth. It was 
not a love which merely caused the incarnation of the 
Word, and thereby established a neW relation of 
Sonship, which had not previously existed. Had this 
been the case, it would not have been true that God 
sent j or gave, his only begotten Son. He could not 
give, or send, a Son whom He possessed not. Neither 
did any fresh love spring up in the heart of the Father 
towards the Word made flesh. No new affection of 
Father towards Son commenced, when the blessed Lord 
was born of the Virgin. But that eternal love towards 
His Only-Begotten, die ever existing One in the bosom 
of the Father — that love which God had reposed in 
Him who was ever the Son, the brightness of His 
glory, and the express image of His person — that love 
manifested itself towards poor ruined fallen creatures ; 
so that God has proved, in the gift of Jesus, that He 
has loved us, worms of the dust as we are, as He loves 
Him, the only begotten One in His bosom. It is also 
said that by Him, the Son, "the brightness of his 
glory, and the express image of his person God 
made the worlds. Heb. i. (In our translation of the 
1st verse, " his Son" is substituted for "the Son.") 

2 JTJ 64 



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The same truth is expressed, Col.i. 1 5 — 17, "Who 
is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of every 
creature. For by him were all things created, that are 
in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible ; 



or powers ; all things were created by him, and for him. 
And he is before all things ; and by him all things 
consist." Here the Lord Jesus is declared pre-eminent, 
because born before all creation ; proved by His creating 
all things. All fulness dwells in Him ; fulness of 
Sonship ; fulness of every glory. 

Again : the Lord Jesus is addressed by the Father as 
God, because He is THE SON. " Unto the Son, he 
saith : Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever . . 
and, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the founda- 
tion of the earth, and the heavens are the works of thy 
hands. They shall perish ; but thou remainest: they all 
$hall wax old as doth a garment ; and as a vesture shalt 
thou fold them up, and they shall be changed. But thou 
art the same; and thy years shall not fail." Heb. i. 8 — 12 , 
To the Son, He saith, Thou art the same. Thus, incarna- 
tion did not create Sonship ; but, the Son was the same 
from everlasting, is the same now, and shall be for ever. 

The Son of God was indeed manifested in incarnation : 
(1st John iii. 8.) and the love of God was manifested 
towards us, because God sent His only begotten Son into 
the world, that we might live through Him. And we 
have seen, and do testify, that the Father sent the Son to 
be the Saviour of the world, (iv. 9, 14.) 

The revelation of the Father could only be made by 
the Son. He declared Him. " He that hath seen me, hath 
seen the Father." And the truth of the pre-existence of the 
Father would be destroyed, were there a doubt as to the 
eternity of the Son, as Son. In one remarkable text, He 
is called " the Son of the Father," — " Grace be with 
you, mercy and peace, from God the Father, and from 
the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father." 2nd John 3. 



whether they be thrones, or domini 




ipalities, 



And the trui 




;ernity of the Sonship is really 

&\ H 



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i 9 4 



the doctrine of Christ : as it is written, " He that abideth 
in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and 
the Son," v. 9. The Lord Jesus is the only begotten 
Son of God, in His divine eternal relationship to God the 
Father. When born of the virgin, the name " Son of 
God " was again given to Him : — " that holy thing, 
which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of 
God." And again, when raised from the dead, God 
said unto Him, " Thou art my Son : this day have I 
begotten thee." It is to be observed in the 2nd Psalm, 
that two words are employed in the original ; the one a 
Hebrew, the other a Chaldee word for Son. " Thou 
art my Son :" Ben is Hebrew. " Kiss the Son :" Bar 
is Chaldee. Is not this change made, because the 
proclamation of the Son, to be worshipped and obeyed, 
is given to the Babylonish kingdoms of the world, which 
are described in the image, and the four beasts of 
Daniel ; the princes whereof crucified the Lord of glory ? 

Again : this truth of the eternal Godhead of the Son, 
as the only begotten of the Father, is intimately bound 
up with the presence and power of the Holy Ghost in 
the believer. " The Holy Spirit is called the Spirit of His 
Son-," and as such, He teaches us to cry, "Abba, Father-," 
to use the same words, as the Lord Jesus Himself could 
use-, to know the same love, as the Son Himself knows ; 
not the love of God to a mere creature ; but the love 
wherewith God loved His Son from everlasting ; a love 
which chose us in Christ, before the foundation of the 
world ; which predestinated us, to be conformed to the 
image of His Son ; and which we shall taste to the full, 
when that which is in part shall be done away, and that 
which is perfect shall come. God sent His own Son in 
the likeness of sinful flesh ; in our likeness ; having 
predestinated us to be conformed to His likeness. 

The Holy Ghost, the spirit of sonship, beareth witness 
with our spirit, that we are the children of God ; and if 
children, then heirs ; the inheritance is ours, because we 
are sons, as the inheritance is Christ's because He is the 



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Son : according to Heb. i. 4, where it is said, "He hath 
inherited a more excellent name" than angels ; not received 
it for the first time by incarnation ; for then it would not 
be inherited. 

Many more texts might be quoted, to establish this 
leading truth of the Gospel : but these may be sufficient. 
God grant that no child of His, may through carnal 
reasoning, or the self-will of the flesh, lose in any degree 
fellowship with the Father, and with His Son Jesus 
Christ; through not holding the eternal Sonship ot 
Christ, as declared in the Word of God. 

But to return to the contrast between Aaron and 
Christ. Aaron was taken from among men, Heb. v. I. 
He differed in no respect from the men, for whom he 
was ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices. He was 
compassed with infirmity, like they were, and therefore 
as much needed to offer for his own sins, as for those of 
others, (v. 3.) 

Christ, on the other hand, was not taken from among 
men. He was raised from the dead, the Son of God. 
No infirmity ever clave to Him. No trace of sin, or 
mortality (the result of sin) attached to Him. He was 
born that holy thing, the Son of God. He was raised 
from the dead, by the decree, " Thou art my Son." — 
called of God, a high priest for ever, after the order of 
Melchizedek; called up in resurrection, glory, and power. 

The High Priest, under the law, had compassion on 
the ignorant, and on them that were out of the way, 
because he was conscious of infirmities in himself. The 
very fact of being himself a sinner, was one qualification 
for that priesthood. 

The Lord Jesus, through His life of sorrow and 
temptation, was perfected for priesthood. He is able to 
sympathise, because He has been tempted in all points 
like as we are, yet without sin. He suffered, being 
tempted ; and is therefore able to succour them that are 
tempted. The dreadful whisperings of the enemy, which 
He was called to endure, filled his soul with holy abhor- 

h 2 



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196 

rence, and taught Him to feel pity for us, who are sub- 
ject to the assaults of that fearful foe, and who, alas ! too 
often yield a response in our hearts to his evil suggestions. 

The dreadful death under curse, the full wages of sin, 
which ever presented itself in anticipation to the heart of 
the Lord,cast a sorrowful shade over His holy devoted life; 
and in humble obedience and submission to the will of 
God, He pursued his pathway to the cross, where at 
length He tasted the reality of that which no anticipation 
could equal ; and was heard, by being raised from the 
dead, the great High Priest of His people. 

His life was a life of learning obedience by the things 
which He suffered ; in contrast with the life of a mere 
human priest, who, if he learned anything, was constantly 
discovering disobedience and sin, even though lifted up 
into a high place, and thereby exempted from much of 
the suffering around him. 

The priests of the house of Levi were made without 
an oath ; and in consequence, arome of them were cut ofF 
from the priesthood, as in the case of Nadab and Abihu, 
and Eli's line. 

The Lord Jesus was made priest with an oath ; " the 
Lord sware, and will not repent :" the unchangeableness 
of God s word and oath established the Lord Jesus as 
the surety of a better covenant. The priesthood, under 
the law, passed on from father to son. But this One, 
the Lord Jesus, because He continueth ever, hath an 
unchangeable priesthood; that is, one that is not 
transferred, or, passed not on. The Aaronic priests 
were sons of Levi : our Lord sprang out of Judah, the 
kingly line. Aaron was, in many respects, as to the 
ministrations he fulfilled, a shadow of Christ. But 
Christ himself arose after the similitude of Melchizedek. 
This is doubly interesting : for Melchizedek himself 
is presented to us in Scripture without any pedigree; 
" without father, without mother, without descent, 
having neither beginning of days, nor end of life ;" and 
in these respects, made like unto the Son of God. Thus, 



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before the incarnation of the Son, Melchizedek is 
presented, a type of Him, as to his eternal Godhead as 
the Son ; the only human being in the Bible, who has 
the aspect of divinity cast around him, in order that he 
may represent the Son. Some have imagined, that 
Melchizedek was Christ himself. But it is clear, from 
this passage, and from the other already quoted, that he 
was only a type of the Son of God and that the words 
"without father, without mother, &c," allude to his 
sudden appearance, as narrated in Genesis, where no 
parentage is recorded, and no time of his birth or death, 
and no mention is made of his age. Thus Melchizedek 
was made like unto the Son of God ; and Christ arose, 
a Priest like Melchizedek. There is a double reflection. 

Aaron was made a priest, after the law of a carnal 
commandment; that is a commandment, which had 
reference to his origin in the flesh from the tribe of Levi. 
Whereas Christ became High Priest after the power of 
an endless life ; the glorious eternal power of resurrec- 
tion. Life received out of death, and making manifest His 
victory over death, constituted Him the great High Priest. 

These appear to be some of the leading features of 
contrast between the priesthood under the law, and the 
priesthood of Christ. Other particulars will, from time 
to time, present themselves to our notice, as we pursue 
this deeply interesting subject. 

Let us now proceed with Exodus xxviii. 4. 

" These are the garments which they shall make ; a 
breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered 
•coat, and a mitre, and a girdle." Without these, Aaron 
could not be priest : they form a sevenfold completeness ; 
and typify the various powers, responsibilities, and 
•qualities , connected with that office. Again : Aaron's sons 
are associated with him in the directions given — "and they 
shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his 
■sdns :" and the sentence which has been before com- 
mented on, is repeated ; — " that he may minister unto 
me in the priest's office." 



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198 



THE EPHOD. 



"And they shall take gold, 
and blue, and purple, and scarlet, 
and fine linen. 

"And they shall make the 
ephod of gold, of blue, and of 
purple, of scarlet, and fine twined 
linen, with cunning work. — Exod. 
xxviii. 5, 6. 



« And of the blue, and purple, 
and scarlet, they made cloths of 
service, to do service in the holy 
place, and made the holy garments 
for Aaron ; as the Lord com- 
manded Moses. 

"And he made the ephod of 
gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, 
and fine twined linen. — Exod- 
xxxix. 1, 2. 



The two materials here specified, are gold, and fine 
twined linen ; the others — blue, purple, and scarlet — 
are colours, emblazoned upon the fine twined linen, and 
everywhere interlaced by the gold. The mode in 
which this was done, is described in chap, xxxix. iii- 
"And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut 
it into wires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, 
and in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning 
work." Thus, the strength and glory of the gold waa 
intimately blended with every part of the ephod, and 
gave firmness, as well as brilliancy, to the whole fabric- 
In other respects, the texture was the same as that of the 
vail. The word change is only used in Scripture respecting 
ourselves as sinners, and as having mortal corruptible- 
bodies. " We shall all be changed." " The dead 
shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed/" 
whether sleeping or alive at the coming of the LonL 
The word here used is the same as in Heb. i, with 
reference to Creation : " as a vesture shalt thou fold 
them (the earth and the heavens) up, and they shall be 
changed" Another word is used, Phil. iii. 21, " who 
shall change (or, transform) our body of humiliation ;. 
that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body." 
Resurrection, to the blessed Lord, was no such change* 
" Thou art the same" was the word gpoken to Him by 
God, when on the cross. He is the same, whether 
yesterday in humiliation, or to-day in glory ; the same. 



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199 

eternally. And yet, He was crucified through weakness, 
and His days on earth are spoken of as " the days of 
His flesh " words which are not applicable to Him 
any more. Whilst on earth He partook of flesh and 
blood in order to die. In resurrection, He has a body 
of glory. It was impossible that He could be holden 
of death ; and He cannot again return to it. Raised in 
power ; declared to be the Son of God with power, 
according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection 
from the dead. Almighty strength, and divine majesty, 
are now manifested in Him, (in contrast with His days of 
weakness,) faintly typified by the wire of solid gold, 
which everywhere pervaded the ephod of the high priest. 

There is still the same fulness of the love of God, 
in Him now, and pourtrayed by the heavenly blue, 
as He manifested when on earth. The royal dignity of 
the Son of Pavid, the princely heart of munificence, 
mercy, and justice, abide in Him, now that He is seated 
upon the throne of the majesty in the heavens : — Scarlet 
as well as blue, are colours of the ephod. The 
purple also — the new and wondrous colour, which 
combines in itself both the blue and the scarlet — was 
curiously wrought in this priestly garment ; a colour 
denoting that great mystery, so inseparably connected 
with all contemplation of the ways, thoughts, and 
words of Jesus ; viz: that He did combine the .wisdom, 
love, holiness, and power of God, with every true 
feeling, affection, and sympathy, proper to man. All 
these glories and beauties were inwrought in a vesture 
of fine twined linen. The righteous One, who had 
manifested unsullied purity and unblemished spotlessness 
on earth, has been raised up, the Son of Man, in glory ; 
because of His perfect obedience, and the delight which 
He had in accomplishing the will of God. 

Having before more fully entered upon the subject of 
the colours, this notice of them maybe deemed, sufficient. 



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200 



THE EPHOD GIRDLE. 



"It shall have the two shoulder* 
pieces thereof joined at the two 
edges thereof ; and so it shall be 
joined together. 

"And the curious girdle of 
the ephod, which is upon it, 
shall be of the same,, according 
to the work thereof; even of 
gold, of blue, and purple, and 
scarlet, and fine twined linen.— 
Exod. xxviii. 7, 8. 



"They made shoulderpieces for 
it, tocouple it together; by the two 
edges was it coupled together. 

"And the curious girdle of his 
ephod, that was upon it, was of 
the same, according to the work 
thereof ; of gold, blue, and purple, 
and scarlet, and fine twined linen ; 
as. the Lord commanded Moses, — 
Exod. xxxix. 4, 5. 



The Ephod seems to have been made of two pieces, 
joined together at the shoulders, and bound to the 
person of the high priest by a girdle or belt. 

The word translated "curious girdle," is not that 
usually employed for " girdle indeed there is no idea 
of girding connected with it at all. It is solely used to 
express this part of the ephod, and is a Hebrew word 
expressing a curious device or embroidery. It seems to 
have been a belt, to bind the ephod to the high 
priest, rather than a girdle to strengthen the loins. In 
Exodus xxix. 5, (and gird him with the curious girdle 
of the ephod,) and Lev. viii. 7, (and bound it unto him 
therewith,) the expression literally is " and ephodized 
him with it :" the object apparently being to convey the 
thought, that this curious belt so connected the ephod 
with the person who wore it, as to impart to him the 
virtues it contained. In Lev. viii. 7, the word " and 
he girded him with the curious belt " is the only occasion 
where the ordinary word gird is connected with this belt. 



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201 



THE ONYX-STONES, OUCHES, AND CHAINS. 



" And thou shalt take two onyx 
stones, and grave on them the 
names of the children of Israel : 

" Six of their names on one 
stone, and the other six names of 
the rest on the other stone, accord- 
ing to their birth. 

" With the work of an engraver 
in stone, like the engravings of a 
signet, shalt thou engrave the two 
stones with the names of the 
children of Israel : thou shalt make 
them to be set in ouches of gold. 

" And thou shalt put the two 
stones upon the shoulders of the 
ephod for stones of memorial unto 
the children of Israel : and Aaron 
shall bear their names before the 
I/>rd upon his two shoulder^ for 
a memorial. 

" And thou shalt make ouches 
of gold ; 

" And two chains of pure gold 
at the ends; of wreathen work 
shalt thou make them, and fasten 
the wreathen chains to the ouches. 
— Exod. xxviii. 9 — 14. 



"And they wrought onyx- 
stones inclosed in ouches of gold, 
graven, as signets are graven, 
with the names of the children of 
Israel. 

"And he put them on the 
shoulders of the ephod, that they 
should be stones for a memorial 
to the children of Israel ; as the 
Lord commanded Moses." — Exod. 
xxxix. 6, 7. 



The onyx-stones are especially mentioned in the list 
of things commanded to be brought, Exod. xxv. 7. 
" Onyx-stones, and stones to be set in the ephod, and in 
the breastplate." They were engraved with the names of 
the children of Israel, according to their birth ; six on 
each stone. They were enclosed in ouches, or settings 
of gold : — for the word translated ouches is derived 
from a Hebrew verb, "to set." Exod. xxviii. 30. 
" They shall be set in gold." These onyx-stones in 
their settings were fastened upon the shoulder-pieces of 
the ephod, so as to rest upon the shoulders of the high 
priest. "And thou shalt put the two stones upon the 
shoulders of the ephod, for stones of memorial unto the 



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children of Israel : and Aaron shall bear their names 
before the Lord, upon his two shoulders, for a memorial." 

The Hebrew word, translated onyx, is derived by 
Robertson (Clav : Pent :) from an unused root, 
signifying "to shine with the lustre of fire." It was 
evidently a very precious stone. (See Job xxviii. 16, 
"the precious onyx ;") and not the onyx of modern 
times, which is neither precious nor brilliant. 



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203 



THE BREASTPLATE. 



"And thou shalt make the 
breastplate oi judgment with cun- 
ning work ; after the work of the 
•ephod thou shalt make it ; of 
gold, of blue, and of purple, and 
of scarlet, and of fine twined 
linen, shalt thou make it. 

" Foursquare it shall be being 
doubled; a span shall be the 
length thereof, and a span shall 
be the breadth thereof. 

" And thou shalt set in it set- 
tings of stones, even four rows of 
stones : the first row shall be a 
-sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle : 
this shall be the first row. 

" And the second row shall be 
an emerald, a sapphire, and a 
diamond. 

" And the third row a ligure, 
an agate, and an amethyst. 

" And the fourth row a beryl, 
and an onyx, and a jaspar : they 
shall be set in gold in their in- 
closings. 

" And the stones shall be with 
the names of the children of Is- 
rael, twelve, according to their 
names, like the engravings of a 
signet ; every one with his name 
shall they be according to the 
twelve tribes. 

"And thou shalt make upon 
the breastplate chains at the ends 
of wreathen work of pure gold. 

"And thou shalt make upon 
the breastplate two rings of" gold, 
and shalt put the two rings on 
the two ends of the breastplate. 

" And thou shalt put the two 
wreathen chains of gold in the 
two rings which are on the ends 
of the breastplate. 

"And the other two ends of 
the two wreathen chains thou 



" And he made the breastplate 
of cunning work, like the work 
of the ephod ; of gold, blue, and 
purple, and scarlet, and fine twined 
linen. 

" It was foursquare ; they made 
the breastplate double : a span 
was the length thereof, and a 
span the breadth thereof, being 
doubled. 

" And they set in it four rows 
of stones: trie first row was a 
sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle : 
this was the first row. 

"And the second row, an eme- 
rald, a sapphire, and a diamond. 

" And the third row, a ligure, 
an agate, and an amethyst. 

"And the fourth row, a beryl, 
an onyx, and a jasper : they were 
enclosed in ouches of gold in their 
inclosings. 

" And the stones were accord- 
ing to the names of the children 
of Israel, twelve, according to 
their names, like the engravings 
of a signet, every one with his 
name, according to the twelve 
tribes. 

"And they made upon the 
breastplate chains at the ends, of 
wreathen work of pure gold. 

" And they made two ouches of 
gold, and two gold rings ; and put 
the two rings in the two ends of 
the breastplate. 

" And they put the two 
wreathen chains of gold in the 
two rings on the ends of the 
breastplate. 

"And the two ends of the two 
wreathen chains they fastened in 
the two ouches, and put them on 
the shoulderpieces of the ephod, 
before it. 



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204 



shalt fasten in the two ouches, 
and put them on the shoulder- 
pieces of the ephod before it. 

"And thou shalt make two 
rings of gold, and thou shalt put 
them upon the two ends of the 
breastplate in the border thereof, 
which is in the side of the ephod 
inward. 

" And two other rings of gold 
thou shalt make, and shalt put 
them on the two sides of the 
ephod underneath, toward the 
forepart thereof, over against the 
other coupling thereof, above the 
curious girdle of the ephod. 

"And they shall bind the 
breastplate by the rings thereof 
unto the rings of the ephod with 
a lace of blue, that it may be 
above the curious girdle of the 
ephod, and that the' breastplate 
be not loosed from the ephod. 

"And Aaron shall bear the 
names of the children of Israel 
in the breastplate of judgment 
upon his heart, when he goeth in 
unto the holy place, for a memo- 
rial before the Lord continually." 
— Exod. xxviii. 15 — 29. 



" And they made two rings of 
gold, and put them on the two 
ends of the breastplate, upon the 
border of it, which was oh the 
side of the ephod inward. 

"And they made two other 
golden rings, and put them on 
the two sides of the ephod under- 
neath, toward the forepart of it, 
over against the other coupling 
thereof above the curious girdle 
of the ephod. 

" And they did bind the breast- 
plate by his rings unto the rings 
of the ephod with a lace of blue, 
that it mieht be above the curious 
girdle of the ephod, and that the 
breastplate might not be loosed 
from the ephod : as the Lord com- 
manded Moses." — Exod. xxxix. 
8 — 21. 



The word translated " breastplate" is supposed by 
Gesenius to mean " ornament." It is solely used to 
express this part of the high priests dress, and occurs 
nowhere else in Scripture. The Septuagint translates it 
by the Greek word logeion, or oracle. It was made 
of the same materials as the ephod ; was doubled, so as 
to form a kind of bag, and had four rows of precious 
stones set in it, three in each row ; each stone engraved 
with the name of one of the children of Israel. 

Into this breastplate, so doubled, were put " the urim 
and the thummim." Two rings of gold were placed 
inwards, at the bottom of the breastplate : and two 
golden rings were attached to the ephod, just above the 
curious belt : so that the breastplate was bound to the 



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ephod by a lace of blue, coupling these rings. Two 
wreathen chains of gold were fastened to the ouches, 
in which the onyx-stones were set ; and were also 
fastened, at their other ends, to two rings at the top of 
the breastplate. Thus, the ephod, onyx-stones, and 
breastplate, were all linked together in one. 

It may here be observed, that the translation " at 
the ends," (xxviii. 14, 22, and xxxix. 15,) should, 
according to Gesenius, be rendered "twisted work," 
like the twisting of a rope : and the passage will read 
thus : " Two chains of pure gold, twisted wreathen- 
work shalt thou make them." 

Let us now seek the interpretation of this portion of 
the high priest's dress. The ephod, with its shoulder- 
stones and breastplate, formed peculiarly the prophetic 
dress of the high priest. By means of it, he learned the 
-counsel of God, and was able thus to declare what 
•course the people should take, or what events were 
about to happen. Properly speaking, this should have 
been done before the ark and mercy-seat. Thus we 
find Saul, accompanied by Ahiah the Lords priest in 
Shiloh wearing an ephod, commands the ark to be 
brought, that he may ascertain the meaning of the 
tumult among the Philistines. But, instead of waiting 
to receive any response from God, he binds Israel with 
a curse and enters into the battle. (1st Sam. xiv. 3, 18.) 
Abiathar, the only surviving priest of the line of Eli, 
fled to David with the ephod in his hand, having escaped 
the slaughter at Nob. David ascertained by this means, 
the purpose of the men of Keilah to deliver him up to 
Saul. (1st Sam. xxiii. 6.) Again, in the affair at Ziklag, 
David consulted the Lord through Abiathar and the 
•ephod; and obtained a favourable answer. (1st Sam. 
xxx. 7, 8.) On a subsequent occasion, we read of 
David enquiring of the Lord, and obtaining answers, 
{2nd Sam. ii. I :) and although in this instance, the 
priest and ephod are not mentioned, yet judging from 
the previous instances, it is probable that the same mode 



206 



of enquiry was adopted. In these cases, the ark was 
not with David ; but only the priest and ephod. 

Israel stood* doubly represented by the high priest in 
the presence of God. On the brilliant stones that rested 
on his shoulders, their names were engraved according to 
their birth. 

On the onyx on the On the onyx on the 

left shoulder. right shoulder. 

' Gad. Reuben. 

Asher. Simeon. 

Issachar. Levi. 

Zebulun. Judah. 

Joseph. Dan. 

Benjamin. Naphtali. 

The stones on the breastplate however, were arranged 
in four rows of three ; and the names were engraven on 
them, according to the tribes. 



Carbuncle, 
Zebulun. 



Diamond, 
Gad. 



Amethyst, 
Benjamin. 



Jasper, 
Naphtali. 



The first row. 

Topaz, 
Issachar. 

The second row. 

Sapphire, 
Simeon. 

The third row. 

Agate, 
Manasseh. 

The fourth row. 

Onyx, 
Asher. 



Sardius, 
Judah. 



Emerald, 
Reuben. 



Ligure, 
Ephraim. 



Beryl, 
Dan. 



As the Hebrew language is written from right to left,, 
the stones, with their inscribed names,.,would probably 



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be arranged as here set forth. This is the order of the 
tribes, as they were arranged in their camp, and in the 
march. 

Does not this twofold arrangement of Israel, accord- 
ing to birth, and according to tribes, point out to us the 
two aspects in which we stand as believers before God, 
presented in our great High Priest, the Lord Jesus ? 
If looked at in the onyx-stones, there was no difference 
between one of the children of Israel and another. They 
were alike children of the same father, and each ^ was 
presented in the same glory and beauty. No order of 
precedence was adopted : no conduct evinced by any, 
altered the arrangement. Reuben might prove unstable 
as water : and yet he was first in one of the stones. 
Benjamin and Joseph might be especial favourites : yet 
they were last. In point of fact, each of the two stones 
gave forth its glowing brilliancy equally to each of the 
six names inscribed thereon. 

Thus it is with all the Israel of God. If viewed with 
reference to their birth of God, there can be no differ- 
ence. One is as precious and glorious as another. The 
infinite cost of the blood of Christ has been paid alike 
for each and all. Each has indissoluble union with the 
risen Lord, in life and glory. Each has been loved with 
an everlasting love, and chosen from everlasting in Him. 
And the Lord, as the great High Priest, bears up each 
alike in the perfection of His own glory before God. 
The shepherd, when he had found the lost sheep, laid 
it on his shoulders, rejoicing, and bore it thus in safety 
to his home. The Great Shepherd of the sheep will 
not cease to bear on His shoulders the weakest of the 
flock, until He at last places it in the mansion of rest 
and joy, which He is gone to prepare. When the 
resurrection-morning comes every one of the redeemed 
will be like Christ, and will be manifested then in the 
same beauty and glory, in which now he is repre- 
sentatively upheld, on the shoulder of the great High 
Priest before God. 



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God has predestinated those whom He foreknew to 
be conformed to the image of His Son : and as seen in 
Christ — the First-born among many brethren— they are 
even now, not only justified, but glorified. A whole 
family, whether in heaven or on earth, yet named of 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, children and 
therefore heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ. 

But the children of Israel were represented in an 
entirely different order, and after a different manner, on 
the breastplate of the high priest. Each there had his 
own peculiar precious stone, and his own peculiar place. 
Judah was the head of, the first row : and Dan took 
the lead in the last. The gorgeous colour of the 
ruby shone out from one : the soft refreshing green of 
the emerald was visible in another : the brilliant light of 
the diamond flashed out from a third : and the heavenly 
azure of the sapphire was displayed in a fourth. Thus, 
each had his own peculiar glory and beauty : each 
differed from, without rivalling the other : and each 
filled his appointed place in the order of God. There 
was unity, combined with diversity. God is able to 
create variety, without that variety involving inferiority. 
And so it is with the individuals that compose the 
Church of God. Each reflects Christ : and yet Christ 
is seen in each, with a peculiar beauty and glory, into 
which another does not intrude. Each has his place 
also in the body : a responsibility to exhibit Christ in 
that very place, which belongs to himself and not to 
another ; for which he alone is fitted, and without 
which the symmetry of the body would not be com- 
plete, and its beauty would be defective. Moreover, the 
individual glory of the saint above will probably have a 
close connection with the place which he has occupied 
in the body below ; a connection, which would inevi- 
tably be broken, were it not for the unwearied love and 
faithf ulness of the great High Priest. 

With respect to the precious stones but little is 
known. There have been many laboured attempts 



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made by learned men, to discover the real names of 
these gems ; but with the exception of four or five, 
most biblical critics acknowledge the subject to be in- 
volved in obscurity. 

THE SARDIUS. (Heb. Odem.) 

This was evidently a stone of a red colour. And it is 
interesting to observe, that the same three letters of the 
Hebrew compose the word Adam — the name given by 
God to the man and the woman, (Gen. v. 2,) including 
them both in this one appellative : the man and the 
woman together forming the one Adam. One of the 
titles now of the Lord Jesus, is the last Adam, the 
life-giving Spirit, in whom all, who shall ever live, are 
seen in the purpose of God, and in due time will be 
manifested as His fulness ; the woman forming the 
completeness of the man. The name of Judah (praise) 
was inscribed on this stone ; praise, worship, glory to 
God, being one of the leading objects, which He has in 
view in that great mystery, Christ and the Church. 

The red colour seems also to be significant, in this 
first jewel of the breastplate : for it is the colour of 
wine, (Prov. xxiii- 3 1 ;) it is also the colour of blood. 
(2nd Kings iii. 22 ; Isa. lxiii. 2.) Judah was to be the 
object of praise, according to the blessing of Jacob, 
(Gen. xlix. 8,) and also would be filled with praise, 
because filled with joy. His land was to be a land of 
vineyards ; and in the beautiful passage from the last 
words of Israel, we have a very striking typical pro- 
phecy respecting the use of the vine and the pressed 
grape, by this tribe of praise :— " Binding his foal unto 
the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine, he 
washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the 
blood of grapes. His eyes shall be red with wine ; and 
his teeth white with milk." (Ver. II, 12.) The most 
common actions in life were thus to be linked on with the 



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vine ; and so far frorn desecrating the choice vine by 
using it for ordinary purposes, even the ass's colt was to 
be bound to it. 

Does not this foreshadow the daily, hourly responsi- 
bility of the believer, to do all things in the name of the 
Lord Jesus, giving thanks ? A great temptation of the 
adversary is, to try and divide the life of a child of God 
into two distinct portions, one a kind of secular, and 
the other a religious life^. So that on appointed days, 
seasons, or hours, Christ is sought, and confessed, and 
worshipped : and the Bible becomes the book perused, 
and the subject of meditation. But except at these 
times, Christ is neglected ; His name is studiously con- 
cealed ; and the ordinary business of life is conducted, 
it may be with strict propriety and integrity, but not 
with reference to the precepts of the word of God, or 
to His gloiy. Not so however, when praise and wor- 
ship are the great pursuits of the believer ; when he 
realizes his princely calling and standing, as one of that 
royal line, of whom the Lord Jesus is the Head ; and one 
of that priestly house, over which He is the High Priest. 

Judah also washed his garments in wine, and his 
clothes in the blood of grapes. The vine was used and 
referred to in all his ordinary pursuits in the field* The 
blood of the grape was employed for cleansing his 
clothes and garments. The every-day clothes were 
thus purged, as well as the robes of state and glory. 
So again the believer finds the daily need of that 
precious blood, which cleanseth us from all sin : which 
removes the defilements arising from contact with an 
evil world without, and from an evil heart within ; and 
which preserves unspotted our priestly robes of purity, 
so that we have access at all times into the presence of 
God. 

But more than this : — " His eyes shall be red with 
wine, and his teeth white with milk." He drank so 
deep of this joyous cup, that his very countenance 
betokened the effects of it. Alas, how little do men say 



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of believers now, " These men are full of new wine !" 
How little do our countenances display the fact that we 
have been taking large draughts of the cup of salvation ! 
How seldom is the Christian found so exhilarated by 
the joy of Christ as to be deemed by the world an 
enthusiast, a madman, unfit for the ambitions and pur- 
suits so eagerly followed all around ! " The children 
of this world are, in their generation, wiser than the 
children of light." They set before themselves wealth, 
fame, or pleasure, as the steady object of their pursuit. 
They toil unceasingly after these vanities. They drink 
intoxicating draughts incessantly, and determine that 
to-morrow shall be as this day, and much more 
abundant. 

These drunkards of Ephraim, whose glorious beauty 
is a fading flower, are numerous. But we rarely greet 
the servant of the Lord, with his mouth full of praise, 
and his heart full of joy ; captivated by that one blessed 
object, Jesus Christ, and Him crucified ; determining 
to know nothing else ; and able to say in truth — 
" To me, to live is Christ." Where the eyes are red 
with this heavenly wine, the teeth are sure to be white 
with the milk of the Word. Instead of the adder's 
poison being under the lips, these rejoicing saints of 
God, will like new-born babes, drink that unmixed 
nourishment so largely, that it flows out at the mouth ; 
and the testimony will go forth for Jesus, which may 
indeed be despised by the wise and prudent amongst 
men, but will be mighty, through the power of God, for 
blessing and salvation to the needy and thirsty around. 

The red glorious colour of the Sardius seems 
to be well connected with the name of Judah. The 
Lord Jesus Himself is the first to utter praise to God as 
the result of His baptism of blood. " In the midst of 
the church will I praise thee." And as we contemplate 
Him, and taste of His joy, so do we yield to God 
thanksgiving, and shine forth with something of the 
beauty of this first stone of the breastplate. 



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THE TOPAZ. (Heb. Pitdah.) 

Most writers agree, that this is the gem known in 
modern days as the topaz, a precious stone of a rich 
yellow lustre. The derivation of the Hebrew word 
seems doubtful. On this stone was engraven the name 
Issachar; the meaning of which is learned from 
Gen. xxx. 1 8, "hath given hire, or recompense." 
This word carries us back to Gen. xv. I. Abram 
had fought a great battle against the four confederate 
kings, had rescued Lot, and had retaken all the spoil. 
That wonderful personage Melchizedek, had met and 
blessed him ; and Abram had lifted up his hand to 
Jehovah, the most high God, the possessor of heaven 
and earth, that he would not take from a thread even 
to a shoe-latchet of the captured booty, lest the king of 
Sodom should be able to say, he had made Abram rich. 
It was after these things, that the word of the Lord 
came to him in a vision, saying, " Fear not Abram : 
I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward." 
The word reward is the same as is found in the name 
Issachar. God is Himself the reward and the rewarder 
of faith. His glory is the defence and portion of those 
who obey with the obedience of faith. The« father of 
the faithful would not touch even the spoils he himself 
had taken from the enemy ; lest in the slightest degree, 
he should seem to be indebted to the King of Sodom. 
It had been in the strength of God, trusting in Him, 
that he had gained the victory : and he would receive 
his recompense only from God. And large indeed was 
the recompense, "/am thine exceeding great reward." 

The Lord Jesus Himself is the true Issachar, as He 
is the true Judah. He trusted in God, and has been 
delivered ; having finished the work which God gave 
Him to do, and glorified His name on the earth. He 
has received His reward, for which He prayed, John 
xvii. 5. " And now, O Father, glorify Thou me, with 



213 

thine own self, with the glory which I had with thee 
before the world was." Having been obedient unto 
death, even the death of the cross, God has highly 
exalted Him, and given Him the name which is above 
every name. 

Twice it is recorded by the prophet Isaiah, "Behold, 
his reward is with him." Isa. xl. io, and lxii. II. 
And in this reward, the Church of God partakes. 
" The glory tohich Thou gavest me, I have given 
them." 

To this the Apostle presses forward, as he says, 
" that I may win Christ, and be found in him." Like 
Abram of old, the apostle despises wealth, honours, 
fame, and (what is far more ensnaring) his own 
self-righteousness ; counts all things but loss, suffers 
the loss of all things, and counts them but dung 
compared with the glory and beauty of Christ, his 
prize ; his crown of righteousness ; his crown of life ; 
his crown of glory ; his aim ; his goal 5 his exceeding 
great reward. 

It is said of Issachar : " Issachar is a strong ass, 
couching down between two burdens. And he saw 
that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant ; 
and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant 
unto tribute." (Gen. xlix. 14, 15.) 

Instead of " between two burdens," this is translated 
by Mr. H.Craik, "between the cattle-pens." Robertson 
translates it, " between two hearth-stones." In either 
case, the idea sought to be conveyed seems to be this : 
that Issachar, anticipating the goodness of the rest, and 
pleasantness of the land, (the rest, like that which the 
beast of burden experiences after the day's toil, when he 
stretches himself at ease in the home of his master,) 
resolved, for the sake of this reward, to bow his 
shoulder to bear, and become subject to servitude. 
Something in accordance with this is the exhortation 
(in Heb. iii and iv.) Israel despised the pleasant land, 
and also questioned their ability to enter and possess it, 



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because they disbelieved God's promise, and God s help. 
" Their carcases therefore fell in the wilderness." 

God has set before us His own rest. Let us therefore 
labour to enter into His rest ; let us view the pleasant land, 
the inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not 
away. Let us contemplate the rest,and see how good it is ; 
and let us labour on in faith, assured that God, by the 
mighty hand of our great Captain of Salvation, Jesus, will 
bring us safely in and give us that fulness of joy, and those 
pleasures for evermore which are at His right hand. 



THE CARBUNCLE. (Heb. Bareketh.) 

This word is evidently derived, from a Hebrew root, 
often used for lightning; and also translated glittering; 
and designates a stone of a flashing redness. Upon it; 
Zebulun was engraved. If we turn to Gen. xxx. 20, 
Leah says, on the birth of this child, "God hath endued 
me with a good dowry : now will my husband dwell 
with me, because I have borne him six sons :" and she 
called his name Zebulun (dwelling.) 

Jacob thus prophesies respecting Zebulun: — "Zebulun 
shall dwell at the haven of the sea ; and he shall be for 
an haven of ships ; and his border shall be unto Zidon." 
Gen. xlix. 13. And Moses blesses the tribe as follows, 
coupling them with Issachar : — " Rejoice, Zebulun, in 
thy going out ; and Issachar, in thy tents. They shall 
call the people unto the mountain ; there, they shall offer 
sacrifices of righteousness : for they shall suck of the 
abundance of the seas, and of treasures hid in the sand." 
Deut. xxxiii. 18, 19. Thus Zebulun, whilst possessing a 
permanent habitation, was to afford a place of safety for 
ships, was to go out in order to call peoples to the 
mount Zion, where sacrifices of righteousness were to 
be offered. Probably their sucking of the abundance 
of the seas, and treasures hid in the sand, is an allusion 



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also to their missionary efforts, spread over all the 
earth, when nations will be induced to bring their glory 
and honour to Jerusalem, and she shall suck the milk 
of the Gentiles, and the breast of kings. 
■ On the breastplate of the high priest, Zebulun shot 
forth . with lightning splendour ; combining the two 
thoughts of our dwelling in the presence of God, and 
therefore shining out to give light to others. 

This precious stone, with its engraved title, proclaims 
to us the truth, that our great High Priest is ever 
watchful to bear us on His heart, so that we may abide 
under the shadow of the Almighty. He ever dwelt in the 
secret place of the Most High, the only Begotten in the 
bosom of the Father. He knows the blessed security, 
peace, and joy of that place of rest, that safe abode. For a 
season He tasted on the cross, the anguish of being cast 
out and forsaken, whilst the heavy billows of God's wrath 
obscured for a while, the light of that countenance, in 
which He loved to dwell. He took that place oi 
unutterable woe, in order that, as the great Shepherd 
of the sheep, He might enable us to say, "I shall dwell 
in the house of the Lord for ever." And surely from 
our place of rest, we can look out in safety upon the 
fearful floods that overwhelmed Him ; upon the billows 
and waves that" passed over Him : and we have to be 
ambassadors to a lost world ; to seek to lead them to 
that same meek and lowly One, who can give them rest; 
and that they may ofler sacrifices of righteousness, and 
rejoice in the presence of the Lord. 



THE EMERALD. (Heb. Nophech.) 

The second row commenced with the Emerald. It is 
doubtful if this stone be here intended. In Ezek. xxviii. 
13, the margin translates it, Chrysoprase. Robertson 
derives it from an Arabic root, signifying, to transmit, 



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or pervade. On this 6tone the name of Reuben was 
inscribed. 

Upon the birth of her first-born, Leah exclaimed, 
"Surely the Lord hath looked upon my affliction;" and 
accordingly she called his name Reuben, "See a Son." 
This child — looked upon by Jacob as his might, the 
beginning of his strength, the excellency of dignity, and 
the excellency of power — proved unstable as water ; in 
fact, manifested only to a greater degree, the instability 
of his father. But this name has been engraved upon a 
precious stone. A name transferred from unstable flesh, 
to a 6tone of durable lustre, and well-proved strength. 
God has proclaimed the great fact of the gift of a Son. 
" Unto us a Child is born : unto us a Son is given :" a 
Son who is the brightness of His glory, and the express 
image of His person ; His first-born ; His only begotten; 
His wisdom and power ; the beginning of His strength ; 
pre-eminent in dignity ; pre-eminent in power ; a tried 
stone. 

Reuben, unstable as water, retained not the pre- 
eminence. The SON in all things has the pre-eminence, 
(Col. i. 18,) and we have looked upon Him ; we have 
seen His glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the 
Father, full of grace and truth. God has looked on 
our affliction, and has- bidden us see a Son : and we have 
obeyed His blessed command. And now, as we behold 
His face as in a glass, we are changed into His likeness 
from glory to glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord. And 
Jesus, the great High Priest; presents us each to God in* 
His own likeness — " not ashamed to call us brethren" — 
and calls on r the Father to see a Son in each of us that 
believe on His name-, and will present us in a little 
while, faultless in the presence of His glory with 
exceeding joy. "Behold, what manner of love the. 
Father has bestowed on us, that we should be called the 
Sons of God ! Already are we the Sons of God, and 
it hath not yet been manifested what we shall be : but, 
when He shall be manifested, we shall be like Him; for* 



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we shall see Him as He is." Wondrous glory ! wondrous 
exaltation ! and yet in no other way, could God in His 
wisdom declare His marvellous love to us. In no other 
way could He prove the infinite value of His gift of His 
own Son, and the unspeakable preciousness of His blood. 

However poor, feeble, weak, and failing we may be 
here on earth, shewing forth but little, alas ! of the beauty 
and glory of Christ ; manifesting but feeble traces of our 
likeness to Him who is the Son of Cod ; yet in the 
sanctuary above, how different does the saint appear ! 
There he is presented in the fulness of Jesus : there he 
shines forth in the beauty of God's Beloved : and in a 
little while, each believer will bear the unclouded image 
of Him who created him. And the Lord Himself, 
the first-born amongst many brethren, will call the 
attention of the world to the glory of His risen Church, 
exclaiming — " Behold, I and the children which God 
hath given me." The men of the true Reuben will not 
be few. (Deut. xxxiii. 6.) 



THE SAPPHIRE. (Heb. Sappeer.) 

The English word Sapphire is evidently taken from the 
Hebrew Sappeer ; or from the Greek, which has the 
same sound. And the gem, known in modern times as 
the sapphire, is probably the same. The Hebrew word 
is derived from a verb signifying, to scratch or polish ; 
and hence to write, and to number. 

This precious stone, with its pure deep blue, formed 
the pavement under the feet of the God of Israel, as seen 
by the elders in Exod. xxiv. io. And the throne of 
glory, gazed on by Ezekiel, (L 26; and x. I,) had the 
appearance of a sapphire stone. 

The Bride in her wonderful portraiture of her 
Beloved, speaks of his hands as gold rings set with the 
beryl : his belly as bright ivory overlaid with sapphires. 



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(Cant. v. 14.) Here the word translated belly, is in most 
other passages more correctly rendered bowels; and is 
once called heart. Psa. xl. 8. "I delight to do thy will, 
O my God : yea, thy law is within my heart." The 
inward seat of the affections is thus expressed. A similar 
use of the same figure is often found in the New Testa- 
ment, as, for instance, " I long after you in the bowels 
of Christ." Phil. i. 8. " If there be any bowels and 
mercies." ii. 1. "Put on bowels of mercies, kindness, 
meekness." Col. iii. 12. " Shutteth up his bowels of 
compassion." 1st John iii. 17. There is yet one more 
allusion to the Sapphire, which may be quoted. Lam.iv.7. 
"Her Nazarites were purer than snow, they were whiter 
than milk; they were more ruddy in body than rubies ; 
their polishing was of sapphire." The word here 
translated polishing, would rather seem to have reference 
to the entire separation of the Nazarites from all defile- 
ment of the world. It is no where else translated 
polishing ; but the verb from which it is derived rneans, 
"to cut off, or divide :" and in the description of the 
future division of the land -of Israel, the same word is 
rendered " the separate place." Ezek. xli. and xlii. 

This precious stone of the breast-plate displayed the 
same heavenly colour which stood first in the vail and in 
the ephod — the blue. This is the body of heaven in its 
clearness : for God dwells there, and God is love. 



this celestial colour ; for it is the throne of grace. 

Love fills the heart of the Bridegroom, like precious 
sapphire gems. Love was the costly grace which He 
manifested, when upon the cross, the eye of God searched 
the inwards of that blessed victim. And those who would 
be Nazarites, separated off to God in their walk, and 
following the blessed footsteps of the Nazarene, must 
have that heavenly grace, as the power of their separation. 
Their polishing must be as sapphires. 

The name of Simeon was aptly inscribed on this most 
precious stone. The Lord had looked upon the affliction 



The throne of glory, as seen by the 




>het, exhibits 



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of the wife, and had given her Reuben* He had heard 
that she was hated, and given her the second son, whom 
she called Simeon, " hearing." So subsequently in the 
history of Israel, the Lord recalls these two names of the 
two first children, and says, "I have surely seen the 
affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and I have 
heard their cry." Exod. iii. 7. Acts vii. 34. Their 
misery stirred up the bowels of His compassion, and in 
full unmerited grace He came down to deliver them* 
Weakness, oppression, wretchedness, hard bondage — 
to be hated and despised — these are the attractions that 
win the compassion and pitifulness of God. He hears 
the cry of the desolate. Psalm cvii. is from beginning 
to end, a Simeon history — God always hearing the cry 
of the distressed ; but alas ! man always forgetting the 
gracious hand of Him that has helped. — Gods help a 
common occurrence; man's praise in return for His 
goodness, a rare sound. 

And whilst God's ear is attentive to our cry — whilst 
one of His attributes is, that He hears ; we have also 
to hear Him ; to have the ear always open to a ceaseless 
sound of love and mercy. Love, that is shewn us even 
in correction and rebuke ; love, that has not spared His 
own Son, and which witholds nothing that can be given 
with His Son. Our great High Priest is able to present 
on His heart, the jewel inscribed with Simeon's name • 
because His ear was opened to hear and learn two great 
lessons from God. First, His ear was wakened morning 
by morning, that He might have the tongue of the 
learned^ so as to speak a word in season to him that is 
weary. And also His ear was opened, so that He 
turned not back, but gave His back to the smiters, and 
His cheeks to them that plucked off the hair. He bid 
not His face from shame and spitting. Isa. 1. Wonderful 
instruction this, involving the knowledge, not only of the 
deep counsels of God, but of God Himself. The lips 
of the blessed Lord were open to pour Torth grace, but 
He was dumb as a sheep before his shearers. He knew 



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when to be silent and when to speak ; for He ever waited 
on God. And. now as our High Priest, He hearkens 
for us, and presents us as listeners to the voice of God. 
O may we have more of this grace of Christ, to bow the 
ear to wisdom : then shall we regard discretion, and our 
lips will keep knowledge. 



THE DIAMOND. (Heb. Yah-ghalohm.) 

It is not certain that the Hebrew word, here translated 
Diamond, means that precious stone, although its deri- 
vation would seem to imply that a very hard stone is 
intended. Robertson, in his Clav : Pent : derives the 
Hebrew word from a root signifying " to break in pieces, 
or bruise-," implying therefore, that this stone is one 
which breaks or scratches all others — as is the case with 
the diamond. 

The name of the tribe Gad was engraved on this 
stone. A question has been raised as to the meaning of 
this word, some interpreting it, according to our version, 
" a troop." Others think that it means " good fortune-/' 
but from the passage, Gen. xlix. 19, it seems evident 
from the Hebrew, that the signification, troop, or 
multitude, is the correct one. There seems also to be a 
very appropriate connexion between the three names on 
the stones of the second row of the breast-plate ; "see 
a son 2 hearing : a troop." God manifests His own 
blessed Son : His voice is heard : and a multitude is 
gathered to Him. The Lord's own words, in John x. 
are in accordance with these truths : " My sheep hear 
my voice : other sheep I have, which are not of this 
fold ; them also I must bring, and they shall hear my 
voice ; and there shall be one flock, and one shepherd." 

There may in this type be an allusion to the vast 
company of the redeemed, both Jews and Gentiles, all 
borne, as one united body, on the heart of the great High 



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Priest. A countless multitude, that no man can number, 
and yet presented in perfect unity of glory and perfection 
to God ; and preserved so, notwithstanding all disunity 
and separation here below. In Rev. xix, we behold the 
great Captain of salvation placing Himself at the head of 
the armies in heaven — the mighty hosts of the redeemed, 
and coming forth with them, conquering and to conquer ; 
all having been alike washed in His precious blood, and 
having been alike sustained by His ceaseless intercession. 
There may be also some connexion between the hard 
and indestructible character of the stone, here translated 
" diamond," and the name engraved on it : the invincible 
power, and eternal security of the troop whose names 
are deeply engraven on the heart of the Lord Jesus. 
God has engraven the graving thereof : and they will be 
more than conquerors, through Him who hath loved them. 

Jacob's prophetic blessing, respecting this tribe is, 
" Gad — a troop shall attack him : but he shall drive 
them back at the last." (Gen. xlix. 19.). And Moses 
speaks as follows : 

" Blessed be he who enlargeth Gad : 
He dwelleth as a lion, 

And teareth the arm, and the crown of the head. 

And he saw that the first-fruits were his ; 

For there, in the portion assigned by the law-giver, 
he was securely located : 

And he went forth, as leading the people, 

To execute the justice of Jehovah, 

And His judgments with Israel." 
Although in both these passages, we have special 
prophetic declarations concerning Israel in the latter 
days, yet we cannot but be struck with the analogy 
which they present, respecting the present and future 
history of the people of God. Attacked by hosts 
of enemies, and yet overcoming at last. Daily enlarged 
and increased in numbers by Him who shall see of the 
travail of His soul, and shall be satisfied. To enjoy in 
a little while, the portion assigned them by their great 



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Law-giver, in the heavenly inheritance, incorruptible and 
undefiled, and which fadeth not away. Thus entering 
upon the first fruits of resurrection-glory, in union with 
Him who is the first-fruits of them that sleep, and 
executing hereafter the judgments of Jehovah : for, 
" do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world ?" 
" Know ye not that we shall judge angels ?" 1st Cor., 
vi. 2. 3. 



THE LIGURE. (Heb. Leh-sham.) 

Interpreters are quite at a loss respecting this stone. 
Ephraim was engraved upon it. This name of Joseph's 
second son has that remarkable dual termination, which 
is also found in other words in Hebrew, (such as heaven, 
Jerusalem, etc.,) and seems to express double fruit or 
double increase. Joseph found the land of affliction to 
be the land where God made him fruitful. He had 
been cast into a pit by his brethren— sold as a slave — 
imprisoned — his feet hurt with fetters — he was laid in 
iron. Thus peculiarly had Egypt been to him a land of 
affliction. But he had been raised suddenly from a 
prison to a throne. And in the midst of the years of 
plentifulness, (so that the corn could not be measured 
for its abundance,) the Lord had given him two sons, 
Manasseh and Ephraim ; the latter of whom he called 
by this expressive name of "fruitfulness," in thankfulness 
to God for the wondrous way in which He had turned 
the place of his deepest trial into one of blessing and 
fruit-bearing. 

In this beautiful type, we read the story of the Cross. 
Believers are the blessing that God has given to Christ 
in the land of His affliction. The corn of wheat has 
fallen into the ground ; and having died, it has brought 
forth much fruit : and the Lord Jesus can say, from the 
throne of His glory, " Behold, I and the children whom 
God hath given me." The almond-rod cut off, and 



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laid up in death before 'the Lord, has been found in 
the morning, covered with fruit, blossoms, and buds. 

In like manner, the great High Priest has ordained 
that His people should go and bring forth fruit, that 
His Father may be glorified. 

The true Vine, the fruitful bough by the well, pro- 
duces clusters of rich fruit to God, by means of the 
life-giving sap, with which it invigorates and fertilizes 
its branches : and fruitfulness will be found generally 
to be produced in the members of Christ through 
affliction and tribulation. 

The Father also as the Husbandman, cleanses the 
branches in order that righteousness, which is the 
peaceable fruit, may be yielded to His glory. We have 
received out of the fulness of Christ, and grace 
corresponding to every grace that is in Him. And 
may that one cluster — " the fruit of the Spirit — love, 
joy, peace, long suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, 
meekness, temperance" — be abundantly borne by each 
of the ten thousands of the spiritual Ephraim. It is 
comforting to the soul to know that our great High 
Priest sustains all of us before God as fruitful 
branches : and though there may be apparently but 
little progress made — and though the difficulties and 
temptations are great — still every child of God will be 
found to the praise and honour and glory of Him, in 
the day of manifestation which is fast approaching. 
" Ye have not chosen me ; but I have chosen you, and 
ordained you, that ye should go and bring forth fruit, 
and that your fruit should remain." John xv. 1 6. 



THE AGATE. (Heb. Shvoo.) 

This stone, like the preceding is unknown. It occurs 
only in the two passages in Exodus where the stones of 
the breastplate are enumerated. The name of Joseph s 



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224 

elder son Manasseh was engraved upon it. Th 
meaning of this word is " forgetfulness." "And 
Joseph called the name of the first-born, Manasseh ; 
for God, said he, hath made me forget all my toil, and 
aft my fathers house." Gen. xli. 51. The order in 
which the names of his two sons occurs, is reversed in 
the arrangement of the tribes, because in Jacob's 
blessing, the younger, Ephraim, was preferred before 
the elder, Manasseh. But in Christian experience, 
forgetfulness must precede fruitfulness. Joseph very 
emphatically declares that it was God who enabled 
him to forget two things — all his toil, and all his 
fathers house. 

The power to cast off the remembrance of the past, 
so that it shall not intrude in the way oi stirring up 
either murmurings or vain regrets, must come from 
God. He alone also, can give deliverance from old 
habits and associations, so that the believer may be able 
to walk at liberty, both from the bondage of his own 
evil nature, and from all alliances with the world. It 
is the power of the Cross alone that can accomplish 
this. By it the Apostle was able to say, he had been 
crucified to the world, and the world to him. He 
could speak also of another crucifixion, viz : that he, 
Saul of Tarsus, the man in the flesh, had been crucified 
with Christ ; so that he no longer was alive, as in the 
flesh ; he was blotted out from the land of the living in 
the reckoning of God. Saul the persecutor, the 
Pharisee, the religious self-righteous man, was gone 
and he lived again, not as of the old creation, but 
Christ lived in him. Though he had a life still in the 
flesh, which he lived by the faith of the Son of God, 
who loved him, and gave Himself for him; yet he 
himself was not in the flesh, but in the Spirit. By that 
same cross of Christ he was able also to forget the 
things that were behind. His toil after salvation — his 
rigid observances under law — things that formerly had 
been gain to him — all these he could count but loss v 

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and remembering them no more, he pressed on to 
win Christ. 

Death is the true land of forgetfulness : and it is our 
happy privilege, as believers, to reckon ourselves to 
have died ; to count that God Himself has forgotten us 
as lost sinners, blotted out of the book of His remem- 
brance, in the death of His Beloved Son ; and to know 
that we are in Christ raised from the dead, that we may 
bring forth fruit unto God. 

Manasseh (forgetfulness) thus precedes Ephraim 
(fruitfulness.) But not only did Joseph, by the help of 
God, forget all his toil, but all his father's house. Not 
indeed that his affection was one whit the less towards 
them : his heart was still full of love for his 
brethren ; and his father was ever preserved with filial 
affection and reverence in his memory. But he had no 
wish to return again into those scenes and circumstances 
from which God had delivered him. He had no lin- 
gering regrets after the earthly fellowships in which his 
mere natural heart had been once ei^gaged. He .yearned 
after his kindred with a true heavenly longing for their 
eternal welfare. And God gave him wondrous skill 
so to deal with the hearts and consciences of his 
brethren, when the time came, that they truly felt 
their sin, and had their thoughts directed towards 
God. 

Abraham was the first who was thus called to forget 
his country, kindred, and fathers house : and he, and 
the patriarchs Isaac and Jacob turned not back again 
towards the country from which they came out. If 
they had been mindful of it, they might have had oppor- 
tunity to have returned. But their hearts were so 
occupied with the better heavenly country, to which by 
faith they looked forward, that the former things dwelt 
not in their memories. 

Lot's wife affords a solemn warning to the contrary. 

In Psalm xlv. 10, the bride is exhorted to forget her 
own people, and he^£fltesf^4aouse, and thus to become 

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more attractive to the King. But, in order to do so, she 
must first hearken and consider. Her ear must be filled 
with His voice, and she must consider His comeliness 
and perfection. 

God has placed before, us one object of attraction— 
the Son of Man lifted up on the cross, and exalted to 
the throne : and in order to have the true Manasseh 
character, we must fill our eyes and hearts with Him : 
and then shall we be able to count as dung all other 
things, and to close our eyes and ears, like dead men, 
to the world around us ; having our hearts filled with 
the melody of His voice, and by faith already standing 
in the midst of a new creation, where " old things have 
passed away, and all things have become new, and 
all things are of God." 



THE AMETHYST. (Heb. Agh-lah-mah.) 

Most commentators agree that the stone, known at 
present as the amethyst, is here designated by the 
Hebrew word. The Oriental amethyst is a stone of 
great hardness and beauty, of a fine violet or purple 
colour. 

There is something very affecting in the history of 
the birth of Benjamin. His mother, Rachel, the fa- 
vourite wife of Jacob, had envied her sister, Leah, and 
in the bitterness of her spirit had said to her husband, 
" Give me children, or else I die? And Jacob's anger 
was kindled against Rachel : and he said, " Am I in 
God's stead, who hath withheld from, thee the fruit of 
the womb?" (Gen. xxx.) This was a mournful ex- 
pression of hers, sadly fulfilled in the very gift she so 
much coveted. And when God afterwards remembered 
Rachel, and hearkened to her, and opened her womb, 
so that she conceived and bare a son, she called his name 



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Joseph, saying — the Lord shall add to me another son* 
The very name she gave to her eldest was . thus pro- 
phetic as to the birth of another ; though she little 
thought of the sorrow which would accompany this 
■second gift ; and that God had hearkened to her, when 
she said — " Give me children, or else I die." 

An instructive lesson this for us. If God were to 
grant in all cases our petitions, would it not be to our 
grief and hurt, instead of conducing to our real happi- 
ness and blessing ? We know not what to pray for as 
we ought : and therefore in wondrous love God has 
given us His Holy Spirit, who makes intercession for us 
with groanings which cannot be uttered, and who ever 
intercedes according to God : so that we cannot fail of 
receiving the mercies and blessings we really need* 

There is also another truth expressed in Romans viii. 
which should greatly strengthen our faith. " He that 
spared not His own Son, but delivered him up for us 
all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all 
things ?" Compared with this wondrous gift, all other 
gifts are small. This unspeakable gift cost the hearts 
affections of the giver. God had to bruise His Be- 
Joved ; to offer up His Only-Begotten : therefore He 
can freely give everything else. He spared not His 
own Son. How is it then, that we possess not all 
things ? How is it, that many of our requests are not 
answered ? , Because God will only give such things as 
He can bestow with Him — with Christ. Any gift that 
will not consort, that will not harmonize, that cannot be 
held in fellowship with that one great proof of His love 
— the gift of Jesus — He will in mercy withhold. 

Israel, in self-willed eagerness, demanded a king. 
God yielded to their request and gave one in His anger, 
•of this very tribe of Benjamin : and Saul became a sore 
scourge to that people. The results of some of his 
ways, spreading desolation and death, continued even 
after he himself had been cut off: as in the case of the 
Gibeonhes. (2nd Sam.xxi.) Thus God may in judg- 

12 



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ment give, or in mercy withhold the answers to our 
requests. 

It may be, that Jacob was wrong in leaving Bethel. 
God had bidden him dwell there. (Gen. xxxv. I.) The 
death of Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, and the consequent 
weeping, may have rendered the place distasteful to 
him, though it was the house of God. He journeyed 
thence, and met with a deeper sorrow : for his favourite 
wife Rachel died in giving birth to her second son - r 
calling his name, as she expired, Ben-oni, or " Son of 
my sorrow. Instead of his being the son of her hope 
and earnest desire, he was thus the occasion of her 
sorrow in death. 

But Jacob's faith rose above these circumstances of 
deep affliction, and he called him Benjamin, son of his 
right hand ; giving thus to his youngest the pre-eminence, 
as if he had been his eldest ; and as it were, anticipating 
the great enigma, propounded afterwards by Samson : — : 
"Out of the eater came forth meat, and out of the. 
strong came forth sweetness." Obtaining an dbject of 
affection, and strength, arfd power to himself out of 
sorrow and death. 

Is there not a significant type in this, of the glorious 
strength that God has manifested in the resurrection of 
the Son of His right hand ? What power and might 
were displayed when He raised Him from the dead, and 
set Him at His own right hand, far above all princi- 
pality and power, and might and dominion ! 

We have many places in Scripture where the right 
hand of the Lord is mentioned. Glorious in power, 
dashing in pieces the enemy, (Exod. xv. 6,) — saving, 
(Psa. xvii. 7, and xx. 6,) — upholding, (Psa. xviii. 35, 
and lxiii. 8,) — full of righteousness, (Psa. xlviii. 10 ? 
Isa. xli. 10,) — purchasing, (Psa. lxxviii. 54,) — planting,. 
(Psa. lxxx.- 15.) In this psalm the Lord Jesus is 
especially designated as the Man of God's right hand r 
and in v. 15 He is spoken of as the Branch ; or, as it 
might be better translated, Son, whom Thou hast made 



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.strong for Thyself: and in v. 17, the Son of Man, 
whom Thou hast made strong for Thyself. High, 
{Psa. lxxxix. 13.) Victorious, (Psa. xcviii. I.) Exalted, 
and doing valiantly, (Psa. cxviii. 15, 16.) 

In all these passages, is there not a distinct allusion to 
.the Son of God Himself? Christ, who is the power as 
well as the wisdom of God ; by whom all the counsels 
<>f the Most High have been and will be accomplished. 
Whose name is above every name : and who is the 
righteousness of God to the believer. It is to be ob- 
served also, that this youngest son of Jacob was the 
only one upon whom his father bestowed a name. In 
•this he stands out as a type of Him, to whom God has 
given a name that is above every name. 

But there is, in this name, borne upon the breast- 
plate of the high priest, a type also of that wondrous 
company, the Church, made up of sons of God ; who, 
in union with Christ, will manifest the strength and 
power of God's right hand, in the glory that shall be 
revealed. Who, even now, shew to principalities and 
powers the grace and manifold wisdom of God ; in 
whom the exceeding greatness of God's mighty power 
works ; even that same glorious power that raised Christ 
from the dead, and set Him at the right hand of the 
Majesty on high. 

Our great High Priest upholds His saints in this 
wondrous lofty standing before God. According to* that 
glory and power, in which they will be manifested 
hereafter, so already are they beheld and sustained upon 
the heart of the High Priest in the holiest. 



BERYL. (Heb. Tarshish.) 

The name of this stone in the Hebrew, is precisely the 
same as that of the place Tarshish ; and it is supposed 
to be derived from a root, signifying "to break or subdue." 



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The hands of the bridegroom, in the Song of Solomon*, 
are compared to gold rings set with the beryl. The 
chariot wheels of swiftness and power, terrible for their 
size, and rolling in unswerving majesty in every direction* 
connected with the Cherubim of glory, in Ezek. i. 16, 
and x. 9, are described as of the colour of the beryk 
These uses of the beryl in the passages quoted, seem to 
indicate that it is a stone emblematic of mighty subduing 
power-, and the name of Dan, or judgment, was 
engraved on it. 

This began the fourth and last row of the stones on 
the breast-plate. Praise stood at the commencement; 
Judgment headed the three last tribes of the camp 
judgment which was to extend in two directions. For 
Dan was to judge his people. He was also to be as a 
lion's whelp, leaping on the prey from Bashan. Gen. xlix. 
1 6 ; Deut. xxxiii. 22. 

A double judgment is also committed to the children 
of God : a present exercise of discipline within the house 
of God : (" Do not ye judge them that are within ?" 
1st Cor. v. 12) and a future place of authority and rule. 
(" Know ye not, that the saints shall judge the world ? 
• . . Know ye not, that we shall judge angels." 
1st. Cor. vi. 2, 3.) This first exercise of internal 
judgment is grounded on the fact of all being brethren 
under the one Lordship of Christ ; and it is therefore the 
exercise of brotherly supervision, according to the mind 
of the Lord as Head of the church, expressed in His 
Word. Where Dan is spoken of as judging his people, 
it is " as one of the tribes of Israel not as exalted above 
them, or set over them, but one amongst them. 

But, with regard to the future, the saints will judge 
the world, by reason of their kingly standing. " To him 
that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to 
him will I give power over the nations : and he shall 
rule them with a rod of iron ; as the vessels of a potter 
shall they be broken to shivers ; even as I received of my 
Father." Rev. ii. 26, 27. " To him that overcometh 



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will I grant to sit with me in my throne : even as I also 
overcame, and am set down with my Father in His 
throne." Rev. iii. 21. . What a sudden leap, as of a lion's 
whelp, will that be, when the Lord Himself, as the Judge, 
comes forth with the armies of heaven, the assembled 
saints, gathered round Him as joint executors of His 
judgments, and surprises in a moment this slumbering 
world, with the sudden outpouring of His vengeance. 
Rev. xix. 14 ; 2nd Thes. i. 7, 8. In Rev. v. .the Church 
seems to be in symbol presented in two aspects ; as the 
throned elders, and the living creatures. As elders, 
admitted into the counsel of God. Robed in white, and 
therefore priests unto Him. Seated on thrones, and thus 
kings, holding authority to rule and judge. Crowned as 
conquerors, who have fought and overcome ; who have 
run, and have obtained the prize. In the symbols ot- 
the living creatures, we behold executive power delegated 
to them, to accomplish in "the world to come," the 
counsels of God, Thus are the saints seen in vision, as 
seated on thrones of judgment, ruling under the King of 
Kings and Lord of Lords. 

But if our place hereafter, as the saints of God, is to 
judge the world ; and if it be a responsibility already 
resting on us collectively, to exercise vigilant yet gracious 
judgment within the body ; does not also the name of 
Dan, or Judge, attach to us individually ? t Are we not 
to exercise a rigid and constant self-judgment, in order 
that we may the better be able to help and exhort our 
brethren around us? In 1st Cor. xi., the saints are 
directed to judge themselves, and to examine themselves. 
The result of this must always be the discovery of our 
own shortcomings, infirmities, and corruption : which 
necessarily tends to cast us again upon the grace of God ; 
upon the precious blood of Christ, and upon His living 
intercession. We shall be humbled by every fresh review 
of our own helplessness and sinfulness ; and then the 
remembrance of Him will be true and blessed. We 
shall discern with increased reality the Lords body, eat 



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His flesh and drink His blood by faith, so as to be 
strengthened, as well as comforted and refreshed. Is 
not every exercise of conscience, which ends in self- 
abasement, a result of the constant work of our great 
High Priest, who upholds us on His breast before God ; 
and who, by the Holy Spirit, through the Word, keeps 
the heart alive and awake to a sense of its own weakness 
and unworthiness, and to a constant feeling of dependence 
on Himself. 



ONYX. (Heb. Shoh-ham.) 

Respecting this stone it has been before observed that 
the Hebrew root from which the name is supposed to 
be derived, signifies "a flashing forth of splendour." 
The names of all the sons of Jacob were inscribed on 
the two onyx-stones, placed upon the shoulders of the 
High Priest. 

Asher was engraven on this onyx-stone of the breast- 
plate. There may be some significance in this : for 
Asher means blessedness. The blessednesses implied in 
all the various names of Jacob's sons were combined in 
this one complete blessedness graven on this precious 
onyx-stone. The word translated blessed or happy, in the 
Psalms, and in a few other places, is a remarkable one 
in the Hebrew : for it is the plural of this word Asher. 
For instance, in the 1st Psalm,^ "Blessed is the man" 
. . . ." might be literally translated, " The blessed- 
nesses of the man . . . And in the xxxii. Psalm, 
" Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven." " The 
blessednesses of him whose transgression is forgiven." 
Leah when she gave this name to her adopted son, (for 
he was the child of Zilpah her bond-maid) exclaimed — 
" In my blessedness, or happiness ; for the daughters 
will call me blessed : and<she called his name, Blessed:" 
thus recording in the name of Asher, her own happiness, 



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m 

and the report respecting herself, that would be spread 
by others. 

Is there not a similar expression of joy from the 
lips of the Virgin, when she in that beautiful song of 
praise, magnifies the Lord* and rejoices in God her 
Saviour, because He had regarded the low estate of His 
handmaiden : "for, behold, from henceforth all genera- 
tions shall call me blessed." Elizabeth also pronounces 
this same word (makarios,) the Sept. word for Asher. 
" Blessed is she that believed : for there shall be a 
performance of those things which were told her from 
the Lord." Luke i. 48, 45. 

If we trace the blessedness pronounced in the Psalms 
and Proverbs, we shall find many of the blessings 
connected with the names of th& children of Israel on the 
breastplate. Thus, there is the Judah blessing, in Psa. 
lxxxiv. ; the blessing of constantly abiding in the house 
of the Lord, and still praising Him : and in Psa. lxxxix. 
15, Blessed is the people that know the joyful sound of 
redemption. Mercy and truth going before the face of 
Jehovah ; justice and judgment being the habitation of 
His throne. Mercy to pardon in the way of truth ; 
justice to forgive, because of judgment already executed 
upon the Lamb of God. " They shall walk, O Lord, 
in the light of Thy countenance. In Thy name shall 
they rejoice all the day ; and in Thy righteousness shall 
they be exalted. For Thou art the glory of their 
strength : and in Thy favour our horn shall be exalted. 
For Jehovah is our shield : and the Holy One of Israel 
is our King." 

Issachar : Hire or Reward, as the blessing of service. 
" Blessed is every one that feareth the Lord ; that walketh 
in His ways* For thou shalt eat the labour of thine 
hands : happy shalt thou be, arid it shall be well with 
thee." Psa. exxviii. 1,2. 

Zebu/on: Dwelling. — "Blessed is the man whom 
Thou choosest, and causest to Approach unto Thee, that 
he may dwell in thy courts : we shall- be satisfied with 



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the goodness of thy house, even of thy holy temple.'* 
Psa. lxv. 4. 

Reuben : See a Son. — " I will declare the decree : the 
Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son : this day 
have I begotten Thee .... Blessed are all they 
that trust in Him." Psa. ii. 7, 12. " Blessed is the man 
that maketh Jehovah his trust." Psa. xl. 4. " Blessed 
is he that considereth the poor." Psa. xli. I. Is not the 
Lord Jesus, the Son of God, here contemplated as the 
poor one ? 

Simeon, Hearing. — " Blessed is the man that heareth 
me, watching daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of 
my doors." Prov. viii. 34. " Blessed is the man whom 
thou chastenest, O Lord,and teachest him out of thy 
law, that thou mayest give him rest from the days of 
adversity." Psa. xciv. 12, 1 3. 

Gad, a Troop. — " Blessed is the man that feareth the 
Lord ; that delighteth greatly in his commandments. 
His seed shall be mighty upon earth : the generation 
of the upright shall be blessed." Psa. cxii. I, 2. 
" Blessed is the man that hath his quiver full of them : 
they shall not be ashamed ; but they shall speak with 
the enemies in the gate." Psa. cxxvii. 5. 

Ephraim, Fruitfulness. — "Blessed is the man that 
walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth 
in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the 
scornful. But his delight is in the law of the Lord : 
and in his law doth he meditate day and night. And 
he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, 
that bringeth forth his fruit in his season : his leaf 
also shall not wither, and whatsoever he doeth shall 
prosper." Psa. i. I — 3. 

This Ephraim blessing primarily belongs only to the 
Lord Himself, the true fruitful One, from whom all 
others derive their fruit. The blessed Jesus is the only 
one who has never walked in the counsel of the 
ungodly, stood in the way of sinners, or sat in the seat 
of the scornful : and of Him alone can it be said, 



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*" Whatsoever he doeth it shall prosper." But if we 
abide in Him, we also may bear much fruit. We may 
:realize the blessing of Jeremiah, xvii 7," Blessed is the 
man that trusteth in the Lord, and whose hope the Lord 
as. For he shall be as a tree planted by the waters, 
and that spreadeth out her roots by the river, and shall 
not see when heat cometh, but her leaf shall be green ; 
and shall not be careful in the year of drought, neither 
-shall cease from yielding fruit." " Those that be 
planted in the house of the Lord, shall flourish in the 
•courts of our God. They shall still bring forth fruit 
in old age : they shall be fat and flourishing." Psa. xcii. 

Manasseh, Forgetfulness. — Although we cannot dttectly 
appropriate to ourselves the blessing of Psalm i. yet 
we have the same word " blessed " bestowed on us in 
Psa. xxxii. the blessing of righteousness reckoned to us 
without works, even the blessing of God, being able to 
-say — " Thy sins and thine iniquities will I remember 
no more." — His power to forget and forgive. " Blessed 
is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is 
covered : blessed is the man unto whom the Lord 
imputeth not iniquity, and in whose spirit there is no 
.guile." 

What a wondrous mercy it is, that after having 
wearied God with our iniquities, and after having made 
Him to serve with our sins, He should draw the veil of 
oblivion over the past, and for His own sake declare — 
" I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions, 
and will not remember thy sins." Isa. xliii. 25. 

Benjamin y Son of the right hand. — All blessing be 
ascribed to the Son of Gods right hand : all glory, 
power, might, and strength, are His. " Worthy is the 
JLamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and 
wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and 
blessing. Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power 
be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto 
the Lamb for ever and ever." Rev. v. 1 2, 13. 



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And. we, being heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ; 
shall inherit the blessing obtained for us by the mighty 
power of God's own Son in conquering death, and 
him that had the power of death, that is the devil » and 
ascending on high ; raised far above all principality and 
power, Head over all things to the church. 

Dan, Judging. — "Blessed are they that keep judgment, 
and he that doeth righteousness at all times. ,, Psa. cvi. 3- 
The blessing of being able to discriminate between 
darkness and light, to separate the precious from the vile,, 
as well as of enforcing the will of God, and governing 
righteously, belongs to Dan ; and appertains to the 
Lords people who listen to His voice, and seek to walk 
in His ways. 

Naphtali is the last tribe, and will be alluded to shortly. 

In Deut. xxxiii. 24, Moses concludes his blessing very 
appropriately with Asher. " Let Asher be blessed 
with (or rather, in his) children : let him be acceptable 
to his brethren : and let him dip his foot in oil." A 
threefold prosperity. Blessed through his children ;. 
the faithfulness and love of those whom he had 
begotten, reflecting back blessings on their parent- 
His presence and counsel received with favour by his 
brethren ; and his foot, or path, constantly enriched 
with fatness. 

The believer, who serves in the gospel of the grace 
of God, would desire this blessing, that he may say of 
those whom he has begotten in the gospel, what the 
Apostle says to the Thessalonians : " For what is our 
hope, or joy, or crown of rejoicing ? Are not even ye 
in the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ at his coming ? 
For ye are our glory and joy." 1st Thes. ii. 19, 20 •„ 
and of the Philippians : " My brethren dearly beloved 
and longed for ; my joy and crown." Phil. iv. I. The 
Apostle John also expresses himself in similar language r 
u 1 have no greater joy than to hear that my children 
walk in truth." 3rd John 4* 

The Lord Himself takes the pre-eminence in this: 



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Asher blessing, when standing in the midst of His 
--saints, He points to Himself and to those around Him, 
redeemed by His blood, saying, Behold I and the 
-children whom God hath given me. Heb. ii. 13. 

" Let him be acceptable to his brethren." 

This blessing also Paul desired when he said, 
*" Receive us: we have wronged no man. . . . 2nd Cor. 
vii. 2. Indeed, his epistles to the Corinthians and 
Galatians breathe out Ins earnest desire that he might 
be welcomed to their hearts, and might stand amongst 
them as a brother as well as teacher, accepted by them. 

" Let him dip his foot in oil." This seems to apply 
more to the individual walk of the believer; so following 
the Lord, that he may find the fatness which His paths 
•drop : for " all the paths of the Lord are mercy and 
truth to such as keep his covenant and his testimonies." 
Psa. xxv. 10. The feet, shod with the preparation of 
the gospel of peace, will surely be as if dipped in oil; 
-carrying the riches of grace wherever they tread, and 
beautiful upon the mountains, because bringing from a 
far-off heavenly country, good tidings, publishing peace." 
Isa. lii. 7. 

" Thy shoes shall be iron and brass : and as thy 
<lays, so shall thy strength be." Deut. xxxiii. 25. 
*Some translators have altered the word " shoes " into 
"bars," supposing the metaphor to refer to the bolts 
and bars upon a door. But our translation would 
seem more in accordance with the truth contained in 
the whole passage, and is preserved by Robertson 
.(Clav. Pent.) although he notices the other renderings. 

There is a beautiful contrast between the shoes armed 
with iron and brass, and the foot dipped in oil ; the 
latter, the gracious walk of the believer-, the former, 
the destructive power which he will receive hereafter 
over the enemies of God. 
• We find the Lord Himself occupying these two 
positions. Grace and truth came by Him. The Son 
►of Man came not to destroy mens lives,. but to save 



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them. And yet when presented as hereafter to be- 
revealed, He is seen with the feet of fine brass, as if 
they burned in a furnace. He will rule with a sceptre- 
of iron, and dash his foes in pieces like a potter's vesseL 
The feet also of His saints will be as if shod with iron, 
and brass • for the God of peace shall bruise Satan, 
under their feet shortly. Rom. xvi. 20. 

It is seldom that we have the latter part of this verse, 
Deut. xxxiii. 2 5, correctly quoted. The ordinary way- 
is as if it were written, As thy day is, so shall thy 
strength be. Whereas our translation reads, "As thy 
days, thy strength." And if we retain this translation,, 
it gives quite a different meaning from the ordinary 
application of the passage; which is generally understood 
to. imply, that according to the necessity in which a 
believer may find himself through trials or difficulties,, 
according to. the day of temptation-, so strength will be* 
_ ministered to him from the Lord. A very blessed and 
indisputable truth ; but not declared in this passage 
of Scripture, which does not contemplate a time of 
weakness or trial, but one of triumph, happiness, and! 
prosperity. 

If we retain the word strength, the meaning would 
seem to be. As thy days of age are prolonged, thy 
strength and vigour will increase instead of diminishing ; . 
contrary to the course of nature, when ordinarily with 
old age comes infirmity. But the word translated* 
strength, is by able biblical critics believed to mean.. 
rest j or affluence. And this would appear exactly to* 
accord with the beautiful passage, (Prov. iii.) where, uv 
v. 13, the word asher occurs, or the happinesses, 
blessednesses of the man that findeth wisdom ; and 
amongst other blessings, length bf days is in her rights 
hand, and in her left hand, riches and honour — riches 
and honour commensurate with length of days. "As 
thy days, thy rest, or affluence." 

In the conclusion of the blessing, the word asher 
again occurs : " Happy (or blessed) art thou, O Israel : 



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who is lifce unto thee ? O people saved by Jehovah ! 
the shield of thy help, and who is the sword of thy 
excellency. Thine enemies also shall yield thee feigned 
submission, and thou shalt tread upon their high places." 

A glorious prospect thus awaits that people, when 
their Jehovah, the Lord of hosts, shall come and rescue 
and save them. Already these blessings are ours as 
belonging to the Israel of God — a people saved by 
Jehovah Jesus, the shield of our help, and who is also 
the glorious weapon of our might ; who makes us in all 
things to be more than conquerors, and gives us a 
resurrection victory in the midst of our circumstances 
here, to end in the triumph of resurrection at His return. 

At the end of the 8th of Romans we have the shield 
as well as the sword : " If God be for us, who can be 
against us?" If Jehovah be our shield, who can assault 
us ? and again : "In all these things we are more than 
conquerors, through him that loved us." He that hath 
loved us, and given Himself for us, is the sword of our 
excellency ; causing us not only to be conquerors, but 
more than conquerors ; to take the spoil as well as gain 
the victory. 

We may close these allusions to the name of Asher 
with the priestly blessing. Num. vi. 22, 23. 

"The Lord bless thee, and keep thee. 

The Lord make his face shine on thee, and be 
gracious to thee. 

The Lord, lift up his countenance upon thee, and 
give thee peace. 

And they shall put my name upon the children of 
Israel, and I will bless them." 



JASPER. (Heb. Jahsh-peh.) 

It is probable that some variety of the jasper, 
displaying various brilliant hues, but with which we are 
at present unacquainted, was used for this twelfth stone 



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of the breastplate. Upon it the name of Naphtali was 1 
engraven. The Hebrew, translated in our version 
" wrestling," is derived from a word meaning to twist ; 
and is supposed, by some, to have a different significar 
tion from that given in our translation. It is not the 
same as that in Gen. xxxii. where the angel of God 
wrestled with Jacob. Nevertheless, on comparing the 
passages, we shall find that the word prevailed is the 
same in all these places. It may be that Rachel, in 
giving the name Naphtali to the son of her maid Bilhah, 
meant to imply that she had, through " strivings of 
God," prevailed, so that a child was born. So that 
there is a prophetic allusion to the subsequent wrestling 
of the angel with Jacob, on which occasion the name of 
Israel was bestowed. 

Let us now turn to that very instructive chapter 
Gen. xxxii. Jacob had, at Gods command, left Padan 
Aram (Gen. xxxi. 3,) to return to the land of his 
fathers. He had seen God's remarkable interference on 
his behalf when pursued by Laban ; and now, still more 
to reassure him, the angels of God met him ; so that he 
said, " This is God's host ;" and called the name of the 
place Mahanaim, or "two camps:" probably with 
reference to the hosts of God forming one camp, and 
his own company another. Although thus surrounded 
with the hosts of God; and himself and his company 
forming one of Gods encampments, yet his heart trenv 
bled ; and he sent messengers to Esau with a servile 
salutation ; and in the folly of human expediency, even 
announced to his brother, the freebooter, the fact of 
his being possessed of abundance of flocks and herds. 
Wise as he thought himself in the flesh, he is taken in 
his own craftiness ; for the messengers return announcing 
the approach of Esau with a large company of armed 
men. Jacob had by his very message, stirred up the 
cupidity of his marauding brother* Dismayed at die 
result of his own folly, he next divided his company 
into two bands, hoping that the one might escape if the 



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other were smitten : strangely forgetting the two canips, 
which a little before, had been presented to him by God. 
Having thus made his own arrangements, he pours out 
.his heart in deep and blessed prayer and self-abasement 
before G6d, entreating His help and deliverance. But 
:no sooner has he risen from his knees, than again he 
practises a fresh expedient, hoping to appease his brother 
Esau by a present, which he selects and spreads out to 
the best advantage. And having thus counselled to the 
best of his ability how to meet this emergency in his 
own wisdom, he sent his family over the brook, remaining 
himself in solitude, in perplexity, and doubtless almost 
In despair. 

In all this we see the strange mixture of unbelief, 
craft, expediency, and servility of the flesh ; and yet, 
a measure of faith and dependence on God, such as we 
often discover in ourselves ; one moment seeking the aid 
of the Lord, at another devising plans of our own. 

" Jacob was left alone, and there wrestled a man 
with him until the breaking of the day." It is here to 
be observed that the man wrestled with Jacob, and 
Jacob had power, through the strength of his flesh to 
withstand the wrestlings against him, of this messenger 
from God. " And when he saw that he prevailed not 
against him, he touched the hollow of Jacob's thigh, 
and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was out of joint." 
An instructive lesson this ; teaching us that the flesh 
cannot be subjectecj, but must be withered and crushed ; 
for " the carnal mind is enmity against God ; and is not 
subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be." 

Jacob's power of opposition was now gone. He 
could no longer be an antagonist to the mighty wrestler ; 
he had lost all the strength of nature ; he was crippled 
and withered as to the very sinews of his power. But 
with the loss of natural ability to withstand God, he 
gained a new power to prevail with God. He hung 
on in helplessness, upon the neck of him whom he had 
before withstood. 



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" And he (the angel) said, Let me go ; for the day 
breaketh. And he said, I will not let thee go, except 
thou bless me. And he said unto him, What is thy 
name ? And he said, Jacob. And he said, Thy name 
shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel ; for as a 
prince hast thou power with God and with men, and 
hast prevailed." 

On reference to the passage in Hosea xii. 3, 4. we 
learn what this power with God was. He wept and 
made supplication. Weakness, weeping, and entreaty, 
are irresistible with God. As the Apostle truly says, 
" When I am weak, then I am strong." This is the 
way to deal with Jehovah after a princely fashion -: for 
His own beloved Son, " in the days of his flesh, offered 
up prayers and supplications with strong crying and 
tears, and was heard, in that he feared." The weakness 
of the cross was a mighty appeal to the heart of God ; 
and the glory of resurrection is His reply to the strong 
crying and tears of His beloved Son. He has prevailed, 
and has the name of Israel; prince with God and 
with men. 

Naphtali surely instructs us in this double lesson, how 
God has wrestled against our flesh, and overcome it by 
putting it to death and withering up all its strength ; the 
old man having been crucified with Christ ; and how 
we prevail with God, and therefore with "men, by lowly 
heart-broken dependence on Him, compelled by our 
very helplessness to cleave to Him, to take hold of His 
strength in order to make peace with Him. 

It is to be observed that the sardine is the first, and 
the jasper the last stone of the breastplate ; and in the 
Revelation iv. 3, "He that sat upon the throne was to 
look upon like a jaspar and a sardine stone." There 
seems to be some typical connexion between these two 
symbols. If the names of Judah and Naphtali were, as 
it is believed, engraven on these two stones, then the 
manifested glory which shines forth from God upon His 
throne, is the result of the great wrestlings of His heart 



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in the gift of His blessed Son. The work of the new 
creation is not like that of the old, accomplished by the 
breath of His mouth, but by the travail of the soul of 
Jesus. The work of salvation is a difficult work, 
engrossing the love, wisdom, power, and skill of God r 
the righteous are with difficulty saved. 

The varied lustres of the jasper may be taken to typify* 
all the diversified and accumulated resources of God,, 
employed in the great work of new creation. The 
sardine stone, with Judah, " praise" inscribed upon it, 
may also have been selected to pourtray the glory of the 
enthroned Jehovah, because He inhabits the praises of 
Israel, and those praises ascend to Him by reason of 
His mercy, wisdom, and power in their redemption, 
having provided the Lamb for their salvation. 

In the blessing of Jacob, Naphtali is thus recorded r 
" Naphtali is a hind let loose : he giveth goodly words."" 
Gen. xlix. 21. May there not be an allusion to this in 
that wondrous psalm of the Cross, the xxii, which is- 
headed, "To the chief musician upon Aijeleth Shahar,. 
or the hind of the morning." It is a psalm in which 
the deep wrestlings of the soul of Christ are expressed,, 
the pains of the travail of His soul. But suddenly it 
changes from the deep tones of woe to the joyful song 
of deliverance. In the midst of the 2 1st verse, 
resurrection deliverance comes in : " Thou hast heard 
me from the horns of the unicorns." 

The morning without clouds breaks : the hind is let 
loose, and bounds away to the high places, giving; 
goodly words, or words of fairness and pleasantness. 
"I will declare thy name unto my brethren; in the- 
midst of the church will I sing praise unto Thee." 

The hind is also used in Scripture as an emblem of 
gentleness and love. Thus, in the Song of Solomon r 
" I charge ye, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, by the roes 
and by the hinds of the field, that ye stir not up, nor 
awake my love till he (she) please." ii. 7, and iii. 5. 
The allusion here is to the gentleness of the hind,. 



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which is 6a$ily scared.' Again, Prov. v 19., "Let her 
be unto thee as the loving hind." Here the hind is 
used as a symbol of affection. 

The feet of the hind enable it to stand securely upon 
the summit of lofty crags, out of the reach of danger, 
and lifted above the snares and pitfalls of the world 
below. "He maketh my feet like hinds' feet, and setteth 
me upon my high places." 2nd Sam. xxii. 34. Psa. 
xviii. 33. "The Lord God is my strength: and he 
will make my feet like hinds' feet, and he will make me 
to walk upon mine high places." Hab. iii. 19. 

He that is the Lion of the tribe of Judah, is also like 
the gentle loving hind of Naphtali. On the morning of 
His resurrection, when God had loosed the pains of 
death, and He, the Lord of life and glory was bounding 
up to the highest heavens ; still, as the gentle loving 
hind, He stayed on His path to comfort the heart of 
Mary, and to give her that blessed message to His 
brethren, "I am ascending to my Father, and your 
Father-, and to my God, and your God." The goodly 
words were given by this Hind of the morning. And 
He has made our feet like hinds' feet ; we are raised up 
together with Him ; and we have to stand upon the 
high places, to which we as believers have thus been 
-exalted ; and not to let Satan cast us down from our 
^excellency. We have, as of Naphtali, to wrestle, not 
against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against 
powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, 
-against spirits of wickedness in the heavenly (or high) 
places. Eph. vi. 12. But Jehovah God is our strength. 
His great Priest has known the power of the enemy, 
and has conquered ; and He will enable us to overcome 
.and maintain our stand on high. He will uphold us 
in our wrestlings against the foe, by bringing to our 
remembrance His throes of anguish on the tree, and by 
clothing us with His strength. Let us therefore maintain 
our resurrection standing. Let us stand fast in the 
liberty with which Christ has made us free; not 



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entangled by any yoke of bondage as regards works, 
or rites, or ceremonies, as if anything could be added to 
the perfect justification of the blood. Neither let us 
give way to the seductions of the god of this world, who 
would fain ensnare us with its vanities and ambitions, its 
honours and its wealth, who would bring a dark veil of 
coldness and deadness over our hearts r hiding from our 
eyes the glory of our heavenly calling, alienating our 
hearts and affections from the Lord, seeking to set them 
upon things on the earth. Let us be "satisfied with 
the favour of the Lord, and be full of the blessing of 
Jehovah." Deut. xxxiii. 23. 

Having endeavoured to connect the precious stones 
6n the breastplate with the names of the tribes, and to 
seek their typical import ; let us now turn to the further 
description of the high priests dress, contained in 
Exod. xxviii. 22 — 25. " Thou shalt make upon the 
breastplate chains at the ends of wreathen work of pure 
gold. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two 
rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings in the two 
ends of the breastplate. And thou shalt put the two 
wreathen chains of gold in the two rings, which are in 
the ends of the breastplate. And the other two ends of 
the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two 
ouches, and put them on the shoulder-pieces of the 
ephod before it." 

The object of these two chains was to fasten the 
breastplate so securely to the settings, in which the 
onyx-stones were enclosed in the shoulder-pieces of the 
ephod, that by no possibility could they be separated. 

The chains were wreathen and twisted like a rope ; 
for both words are employed : wreathen, interwoven, 
or intertwined. 

The same word is used, Judg^ xv. 13, 14 ; and xvi. 
II, 12 ; also Psa. ii. 3, for cords or ropes. Ezek. xix. 
II, and xxxi. 3, 5, thick boughs or branches. Hosea 
xi. 4, bands of love. " Twisted work" is Ge6enius' 
translation of the Hebrew word, which our version 



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gives, " at the ends." Exod. xxviiL 14 ; and xxxix. 15. 
Thus he would translate the passages : " And two 
chains of pure gold, wreathen, thou shalt make them 
twisted work." The object in adding the word ' ' twisted" 
to " wreathen" appears to imply a combination of skill 
and strength ; and that the breastplate might be indis- 
solubly connected with the shoulder-stones. Every 
movement of the high priests shoulders would affect 
the breastplate: and every beat of his heart which 
agitated the breastplate would be conveyed, by means of 
the wreathen chains, to the covering of the shoulders. 

There is a beautiful significance in this, reminding us 
how the mighty power of the arm of the Lord is inti- 
mately linked on with the tenderness of His heart of 
Jove. No action of His strength is disconnected from 
His counsels of mercy and grace towards His saints. 
He makes all things work together for good to them 
that love Him. His arm and His heart are combined 
incessantly in sustaining them in their high calling. . He 
is able to keep them from falling, arid to present them 
faultless before the presence of His glory with exceed- 
ing joy. They shall never perish ; neither shall any 
pluck them out of the Shepherds hand : and who shall 
separate them from His love ? 

Every stone is set in solid gold; and rings of gold, and 
chains of gold, firmly knit together the jewels upon 
the shoulder and the heart. It is by His divine glory 
and power, of which the gold is a faint emblem, that 
the Lord upholds in unceasing brilliancy, each member 
of His body, in union with Himself ; maintaining all 
in their place of strength upon His shoulders, as children 
of God. And notwithstanding their waywardness and 
frequent acts of disobedience, preserving them upon His 
heart , as the servants and soldiers of the Most High. 

In the Song of Solomon, the bride alludes to these 
two positions, in which she desires to be maintained by 
her Beloved. " Set me as a signet upon thine heart, as 
a signet upon thine arm." Let my name be graven deep 



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in thine heart, where love is strong as death ; which 
many waters have not quenched ; which the floods of 
Almighty wrath have not drowned. And let my name 
*be also graven in the place of thy power ; that I may 
be upheld from sin and folly, and give thee no cause 
for jealousy. That I may not be like the adulterers and 
adulteresses, who seek the friendship of the world. We 
-are exhorted to be strong in the grace which is in Christ 
Jesus ; to remember our place in His affections. To 
-"be strong in the Lord, and in the power of His 
might 5 " to keep in mind the strength of His almighty 
rarm. 

There is a very blessed connection between the 
breastplate and shoulder-pieces of the high priest , and 
the wave-breast and heave-shoulder of the peace-sacrifice. 
"These portions of that offering were peculiarly given by 
.a statute of the Lord to Aaron and his sons. "The 
wave-breast and the heave-shoulder, have I taken of the 
children of Israel, from off the sacrifices of their peace- 
offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest, 
-and unto his sons, by a statute for ever, from among the 
children of Israel." Lev. vii. 34, and x. 15 ; Num. 
xviii. 18. 

The breast was waved to and fro before God. It 
called the attention of the Most High to its intrinsic 
purity and spotlessness. Also, like the waving of the 
hand when one friend salutes another — it silently pro- 
claimed peace. The heaven-shoulder was the right 
shoulder 5 and as its name implies, was lifted off the 

• earth towards Jehovah. These portions of the sacrifice 
were given to Aaron for v food, to sustain him in his 
priestly service, and to strengthen him for his duties on 
'behalf of the people Israel. Our great High Priest 
] having, as the peace-sacrifice, presented Himself without 
; spot to God, and made reconciliation for the sins of 
the people, now bears, engraven on His very heart, 

• the names of those for whom He suffered. He proved 
.Himself worthy of the charge committed to Him, by 



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2 4 8 

His deep lave in giving His life for them. He ha* 
borne their names in judgment through the deep billows 
of Gods wrath : therefore He bears their names in 
glory, and keeps them with unwearied love and diligence 
until He shall present them unto Himself, a glorious 
church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such things 
but holy, and without blemish. 

The strength also of His shoulder has been proved . 
for He has been lifted up on the tree, bearing the 
heavy burden of all our guilt, misery, and sin : and He 
has borne it away for ever. That same shoulder of 
Almighty power now upholds in glory the names of 
God s children, and will bear them on until He shall 
present them faultless in the presence of His glory with 
exceeding joy. Ephes. v. 25, tells us of the wave-breast, 
of the peace-sacrifice, and consequently, of the heart of 
the great High Priest. " Christ loved the church, and 
gave Himself for it." 1st Pet. ii. 24. " Who, his own 
self, bare our sins in his own body on the tree," fulfils 
the heave-shoulder : and Jude 24 presents the same 
shoulder of power, preserving the saints onward, fault- 
less to the end. 



THE MEMORIAL. 

Exod. xxviii. 12. " And thou shalt £ut the two stones- 
upon the shoulders of the ephod, for stones of memo-* 
rial unto the children of Israel : and Aaron shall bear 
their names before the Lord upon his two shoulders for 
a memorial." xxxix. 7. " And he put them (the onyx- 
stones) on the shoulders of the ephod, that they should 
be stones for a memorial to the children of Israel, as the 
Lord commanded." xxviii. 29. " And Aaron shall bear 
the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of 
judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the 
holy place* for a memorial before the Lord continually."' 



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. Israel had one feast, to which this word memorial" 
was peculiarly attached — the feast of the passover. 
" This day shall be unto you for a memorial : and ye 
shall keep it a feast to the Lord throughout your gene- 
rations r ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for 
ever." Exod. xii. 14, and xiii . 9. They had therefore two 
constant reasons for remembering the Lord — their de- 
liverance from judgment and bondage in Egypt, by the 
blood of the paschal lamb ; and their acceptance in the 
brilliancy and glory of precious stones before the Lord, 
on the shoulders of the high priest, where their names 
were engraved according to their birth ; children of 
Israel ; of him who as prince with God and with men, 
had power, and had prevailed. 

There are two memorials to us, as believers, which 
should be constantly kept in remembrance — our redemp- 
tion through the precious blood of the Lamb — redemp- 
tion not only from wrath, but from this present evil 
world — and our standing before God as His children, 
upheld in His presence, in all the glory and beauty of 
His Son. 

The names of the children of Israel, on the shoulder- 
stones and on the breastplate, were also borne as a 
memorial before the Lord. Aaron could not enter the 
holy place without reminding Jehovah of the love and 
perfection in which Israel stood accepted before Him. 
The sevenfold light of the candlestick in the holy place, 
and the light of Gods glory from between the Che- 
rubim, over the mercy-seat, in the holy of holies, caused 
the precious stones to send forth their brilliancy and 
various beautiful tints, so as to attract the eyes of the 
Lord of Hosts. In like manner, we have a constant 
memorial before Him, in our great High Priest, who 
presents us, in the fulness of His love and power, bright 
with His own glory ; spotless in His own holiness ; 
righteous, because He is our righteousness 5 and strong, 
for He is our strength ; emblazoned on the heart of 
love, and on the shoulders of power ; shining forth with 



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2$Q 

His own glory and beauty, as jewels adorning Him, 
from whom alone all our lustre and perfection spring. 

Continually. This word is especially connected with 
the shew-bread, Exod. xxv. 30. "Thou shalt set upon 
the table shew-bread before me alway, or continually." 
Lev. xxiv. 8 ; Numb. iv. 7. 

With the candlestick: "to cause the lamp to bum 
always, or continually." Exod. xxvii. 20 ; Lev. xxiv. 

"vVitk the incense, " a perpetual, or continual incense 
before the Lord. ,> Exod. xxx. 8. 

With the burnt-offering and the fire on the altar* 
Exod. xxix. 38, 42 ; Lev. vi. 1 3 ; Numb, xxviii. 3, 6. 

With the meat-offering. Lev. vi. 20 ; Numb. iv. 16. 

With the golden plate on the forehead of the high 
priest. Exod. xxviii. 38. 

It tells us of the ceaseless presence of Christ before 
God for us. That He ever liveth to make intercession 
for us. That the efficacy of His sacrifice is perpetual ; 
and that we, as believers, are ever presented in the 
fulness of His glory before God. Complete in Him. 
Accepted in the Beloved. His priestly ministrations on 
behalf of His people never fail. "With unwearied faith- 
fulness He continues with them and for them to the end 
of the world. 



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THE URIM AND THE THUMMIM. 

"And thou shalt put in the breast-plate of judgment the Urim and 
the Thummim : and they shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth 
in before the Lord : and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the chUdrera 
of Israel upon his heart continually." Exod. xxviii. 30. 

The breastplate was made of the same materials as the 
ephod : and it was doubled or folded, so as to form a 
bag, into which the Urim and the Thummim, were put. 
As to the Urim and the Thummim, whether they were 
precious stones bearing those significant names, or what 
they were, no one is able at present to decide. Urim 
means Lights, being the plural of the word very commonly 
used for Light. Thummim, Perfections. In the Septua- 
gint these two words are translated by delosis and aletheia 
(Manifestation and Truth.) These mysterious contents 
of the breastplate seem to direct our thoughts to the 
heart of the Lord Jesus, as containing all lights and 
perfections, all grace and truth, all mercies and righteous- 
ness. In Him was light : and He manifested forth that 
light ; He declared the Father. He is the light of the 
glory of God : all fulness of light dwells in Him. The 
Septuagint translation, Manifestation, is not an inappro- 
priate expression, though it is rather a paraphrase than 
a translation. 

We are told, in Ephesians, v. xiii, " Whatsoever doth 
make manifest is light." The high priest, with the Urim 
in his breast-plate, became the channel by which God 
made manifest His counsels. The Lord Jesus, as the 
great High Priest, makes known the counsels and 
purposes of God. He is light; and in Him is no 
darkness at all ; so that the mind and will of God can 
be perfectly revealed to Him, and can by Him be 
communicated to His saints. He is the brightness or 
shining forth of God's glory, the irradiation of God. 

The Thummim also, or all perfections of truth and 
holiness, dwell in Him. Light and truth, love and 



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b$2 

holiness, grace and righteousness are inseparable. 

Sometimes we find the Urim mentioned without the 
Thummim. Num. xxvii. 21. The Lord, speaking to 
Moses of Joshua, says, " He shall stand before Eleazer 
the priest, who shall ask counsel for him after the judg- 
ment of Urim, before Jehovah." In 1st Sam. xxviii. 6, 
it is said of Saul, that " when he enquired of Jehovah, 
Jehovah answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by 
Urim, nor by prophets." 

From these two passages it is clear that by means of 
the Urim, or lights, in the breastplate of the high priest, 
the counsel, judgment, and prophetic guidance of Jehovah 
were revealed. In James i. 17, God is called the Father 
of lights, from whom every good gift and every perfect 
gift cometh down, and with whom is no variableness, 
neither shadow of turning. Here we have God as the 
Father of Urim, or lights ; and He is also Thummim, 
or perfections ; for with Him is no variableness, 
not the shade of a turn. " He is the Rock ; His work 
is perfect ; for all His ways are judgment : a God of 
truth, and without iniquity, just and right is He." Deut. 
xxxii. 4. "His nvay is also perfect." Psa. xviii. 30. His 
great High Priest, the Son, makes manifest the heart 
and works and ways of the Father ; and through Him, 
every good gift and every perfect gift comes down to us 
from above, from the Father of lights. It may here be 
observed, that the word translated " without blemish," 
with reference to the passover-lamb, and the sacrifices in 
Leviticus and Numbers, is the same as is also translated 
*' perfect," in fact, very similar to the word Thummim. 
The Lord Jesus first manifested Himself as the unblem- 
ished Lamb of God ; and now He is the holy, harmless, 
undefiled High Priest, full of all "lights and perfections," 
and revealing "the Father of lights," (James i. 17,) " the 
Father of mercies" (2nd Cor. i. 3,) " the Father oj glory ," 
(Eph. i. 17,) and " the Father of spirits" (Heb. xii. 9.) 

In three other passages, the Urim and Thummim are 
mentioned together. Deut. xxxiii. 8 ; Ezra ii. 63 ; and 



253 



Neh. vii. 65. "Urim" is also translated ",fire" and 
" fires." Isa. xxiv. 1 5 ; xxxi. 9 ; xliv. 16 ; xlvii. 14 ^ 
1. 11 ; Ezek. v. 2. 

In the vision of the Son of Man, (Rev. i. 12 — 16,) 
the eyes of the High Priest, in the midst of the sevea 
golden candlesticks, were as a flame of fire. The lights 
and perfections of God searched into the ways of the 
seven churches ; and the Priest of the Most High could 
say, as He addressed each separately, "I know thy 
works," and could give a word of encouragement or of 
rebuke, according as it was needed. * * Holiness becometh 
thine house, O Lord, for ever." Psa. xciii. 5. And thus 
the Priest of that house marks every thing that defiles,, 
and raises His warning voice against the delusions of His 
saints, in order that He may restore them to fellowship- 
with the Father and the Son ; and that they may worship 
the Lord in the beauty of holiness. "The Father 
seeketh such to worship Him." 

Aaron was to bear the names of the children of Israel 
in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart for a 
memorial before the Lord continually. The Urim and 
Thummim also, placed in the breastplate of judgment,, 
were to be upon Aaron's heart, that he might bear the 
judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before- 
the Lord continually. Exod. xxviii. 29, 30. 

Thus the names and the judgment of Israel were always 
on the heart of the high priest when he appeared before 
the Lord. Their names, indelibly engraved on precious 
stones, shone out in beauty and glory before Jehovah* 
Not one was wanting y not one inferior to another * but 
each flashed out with his own peculiar lustre and colour,, 
and each retained his own place in the firm setting of 
gold. The Lord Jesus, in anticipation of His cross, 
rendered up an account to God of those sheep committed 
to His care. " While I was with them in the world, I 
kept them in Thy name : those whom Thou gavest me 
I have kept - 9 and none of them is lost, but the son of 
perdition, that the scripture might be fulfilled." John 



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xvii. 12. 'One indeed was missing from the twelve ; one, 
of whom the Lord had previously said, " He is a devil," 
(John vi. 70) and "not clean" (John xiii. 10, II.) 
But even this did not account for his bring lost. The 
true reason is here given : " that the scripture might be 
fulfilled." Now that same blessed Lord upholds firmly 
and deeply engraven on His heart, every child of God ; 
so that we may boldly say, who shall separate us from 
the love of Christ ? And He sustains each believer in 
the peculiar value and preciousness attaching to each in 
the estimate of God ; so that when the jewels are made 
up, not one shall be wanting; but each shall retain 
eternally his own place in the heart of Christ, and in the 
glory of God. This seems to be represented by the 
names of the children of Israel being borne on the breast- 
plate of judgment, on the heart of the high priest, before 
the Lord. Besides this, the judgment of the children of 
Israel was borne upon his heart. And this judgment 
was expressed by the Urim and Thummim placed in the 
breastplate. In die former case there was an individual 
presentation of each name in glory and beauty. In this 
instance, there is a collective estimate of the whole 
assembly, as sustained in lights and perfections upon the 
heart of the high priest. In like manner, it is said of the 
Church as a whole, that Christ has " loved it, and given 
Himself for it, that He might sanctify and cleanse it with 
the washing of water by the word, that He might present 
it to Himself, a glorious church, not having spot, or 
wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it should be holy 
and without blemish." Eph. v. 25 — 27. He sustains it 
to this end, in a unity of lights and perfections on his 
heart before God ; and He bears each individual, so that 
He shall present each also faultless in the presence of 
His glory with exceeding joy. God's j udgment respecting 
the Church is, that it stands in the lights and perfections 
of Christ, accepted in the Beloved. The sentence is 
pronounced already — a verdict of full eternal approval : 
and the day will soon come, when altogether we shall be 



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like Christ; for we shall see Him as He is. God 
commends His love towards us, in that* while we were 
yet sinners, Christ died for us. Rom. v. 8. He bids us 
behold what manner of love He has bestowed on us, 
even that we should be called the sons of God : ( 1st John 
iii. I ) and the extent of His love is measured by that 
wondrous word of Christ — " Thou hast loved them, as 
thou hast loved me." John xvii. 23. And the glory 
of the redeemed Church will be according to the 
manner and measure of this unspeakable love, of which 
the High Priest is even now the witness. 

This ephod of glory and beauty, with its onyx-stones 
upon the shoulders, linked on with the breastplate of 
judgment, presented three memorials of Israel before the 
Lord. The onyx-stones upon the shoulders bore their 
names before the Lord according to their birth ; a 
memorial of the strength and power with which they 
were upheld in the presence of Jehovah. Exod. xxviii. 12. 
And these stones were also stones of memorial unto the 
children of Israel themselves. They were to remember 
the power and glory with which they had been by birth 
•connected. Every one with his name, according to the 
twelve tribes, graven on his own precious stone on the 
breastplate, was borne upon the heart of the high priest, 
when he went into the holy place. And the Urim and 
the Thummim, put in the breastplate of judgment, 
•expressed God's judgment of the children of Israel also 
upon the heart of the high priest. 

In the Septuagint, the breastplate is called Logeion or 
Oracle ; since, by means of it, the high priest obtained 
oracular responses from God. Are we not instructed 
(amongst other things) in this truth ? viz : that all the 
counsels of Qod are only to be learned through the 
Lord Jesus, the High Priest ; and that all the purposes 
of God are closely connected with His own people, the 
Church of the present dispensation, and the Israel of the 
future. So that even the history of the world, and of 
the various nations and individuals inhabiting it, is 



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inseparably connected with the glory of Christ in union 
with His saints, and His future reign with them over 
the earth. 

The famine in Egypt was the occasion for Joseph's 
exaltation, and for bringing his brethren down into that 
country. And in the Lord's parable, (Luke xv.) the 
famine in the distant land was one of the means which 
God used to make the wanderer think of his father's 
home. All things are by Christ and for Christ ; and He 
is Head over all things to the Churchy 



THE ROBE OF THE EPHOD. 



" And thou shalt make the robe 
of the ephod all of blue. 

•* And there shall be an hole in 
the top of it, in the midst thereof: 
it shall have a binding of woven 
work round about the hole of it, 
as it were the hole of an haber- 
geon, that it be not rent." — Exod. 
xxviii. 31, 32. 



•'And he made the robe of the 
ephod of woven work, all of blue* 

"And there was an hole in the 
midst of the robe, as the hole of 
an habergeon, with a band round 
about the hole, that it should not, 
rend. — Exod. xxxix. 22, 23. 



This is the first occurrence of this word robe in the 
Bible. The Hebrew word is subsequently translated 
robe, 1st Sam. xxiv. 4 •, 1st Chron. xv. 27 ; Job xxix.. 
14; Ezek. xxvi. 16, in all which cases it specifies a 
garment worn by a king or prince. It is also trans- 
lated mantle, 1st Sam. xv. 27 ; Ezra ix. 3, 5-, Job i. 20, 
and ii. 12 ; Psa. cix. 29 ; and cloak, Isa. lix. 17. 

From all these uses of the word it may be inferred,, 
that the robe of the ephod was a garment of special 
dignity ; a robe of office ; and which gave also & princely 
character to the high priest. No material is specified, 
but the colour only, blue: and it was the work of a, 
weaver. 

It is remarkable, in Psalm xlv., how the garments of 
the king are described as if made of sweet perfumes ^ 

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as here the garment of the high priest is made only of 
colour. In our version the word smell is in italics. " All 

thy garments of myrrh, aloes, and cassia," is 

the literal translation. Thus colour and sweet odour 
are the very materials of the priestly and kingly robes. 

It was the work of a weaver ; Bezaleel and Aholiab 
having been filled with wisdom of heart to execute this 
fabric. ( Exod. xxxv. 30, 35.) This robe embodied the 
colour of the heavens ; it was all of blue. It seems to 
have typified the especial glory of the true High Priest, 
whose name is Prince of Peace ; the Lord of Peace ; and 
who wears His princely robes as King of Righteousness, 
and King of Peace, upon the ground of having made 
full, perfect, and eternal peace through the blood of His 
cross. God, known as love, is the God of peace : and 
He has brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, 
that Great Shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of 
the everlasting covenant. That title, " the Great Shep- 
herd of the sheep" seems to sum up in one name the 
whole of the priesthood of Christ, as described in the 
Epistle to the Hebrews. He is the Great Shepherd ; 
for He is King as well as Priest. He has royal power 
a royal heart ; royal glory ; and His dominions are 
righteousness and peace ; and He is the Shepherd, 
having proved His love and care for the sheep, in laying 
down His life for them ; and all His priestly service on 
their behalf is conducted with the heart of a good 
Shepherd, who loves His own, and whose own the 
. sheep are. 

This is, therefore, a princely, priestly, shepherd robe. 
It displays the love of God as seen in the gift of His 
Son* and as manifested by the Son Himself, in laying 
down His life, and so making peace. It was a robe 
which covered the high priest from head to foot, and 
showed the great object of his priesthood, namely, to 
maintain, on the behalf of His own, that peace with 
God which He had procured at the cost of His own 
blood, and which^tte^Sod of peace had sealed and 



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established, by raising Him from the dead through the 
blood of the everlasting covenant — a covenant, of which 
the main term is, "I will forgive their iniquity, and I 
will remember their sin no more :" a covenant which is 
ever new, and therefore cannot vanish away, but is 
everlasting ; and of which the King of Righteousness 
and King of Peace is the Mediator. 

This robe was all of one piece, woven from the top 
throughout : and a provision was made, by means of a 
binding of woven work round about the hole in the top 
of it, that it should not rend or be rent. And so strong 
was this band, that the hole is likened to the hole of an 
habergeon, or breastplate of armour. Is not this very 
significant of the unchanging love of Christ ? and there- 
fore of the firm and eternal peace obtained and main- 
tained by Him for us ; so that nothing can interfere to 
mar or disturb it. Strong, like a coat of mail, no 
power of evil can rend this princely robe. Christ Him- 
self is our peace : and through His death God has 
made peace in His high places. And though our sins 
of ingratitude, failings, and wanderings here below are 
numberless, still unbroken peace is preserved above by 
our faithful High Priest. 

This part of the high priest's dress is called " the robe 
of the ephod." We may consider the ephod as repre- 
senting the names " Wonderful, Counsellor :" for, it 
was curiously wrought ; and it was the garment whereby 
God's counsel was ascertained and made known. So 
this robe marked out its wearer to be the " Prince of 
peace :" and the Lord Jesus as the Counsellor, is especially 
Prince of Peace, because all the counsels and purposes 
of God have, as their object, perfect reconciliation and 
peace. He is "the God of peace, who shall bruise Satan 
under our feet shortly," by the power of Him whom He 
raised from the dead, through the blood of the ever- 
lasting covenant, to be the Great Shepherd of the sheep. 
And, having made peace through the blood of His 
cross, the counsel of the Father is, by Him to reconcile 



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all things unto Himself, whether they be things in earth, 
or things in heaven, (Col. i. 20.) 

The Lord Jesus is a throned Priest, wearing robes of 
priesthood and royalty combined. He bears the glory ; 
" He shall sit and rule upon His throne ; and He shall be 
a priest upon His throne ; and the counsel of peace 
shall be between them both," (Zech. vi. 13 :) that is, the 
counsel of peace between the King and the Priest ; so 
that He wields the kingly sceptre of rule and judgment, 
with a priestly heart and purpose of mercy and peace. 
And this will be manifested in the future reign of the 
Prince of Peace, as it is already revealed to believers. 
There is a comforting and beautiful benediction (2nd 
Thes. iii. 16.) " Now the Lord of peace Himself give 
you peace always, by all means. The Lord be with 
you all." The Lord of peace Himself— He who alone, as 
true King of Salem, King of peace, has the power 
of giving peace — has the rule of peace — Himself that 
blessed word, which tells us of all the perfection and 
glory of His person — give you peace always , at all 
times, on all occasions, in all circumstances, in all scenes ; 
by all means; making the very attacks of the enemy 
<end in peace ; making the very temptations, weaknesses, 
and worthlessness of the flesh tend to establish peace in 
the heart ; making sorrows and trials which seem to 
be most adverse, yet to result in most perfect peace. 
Surely this is His princely power. This tells us how He is 
invested by the God of love and peace with all glory 
and strength, so as to confirm and fill our hearts with 
peace unto the end. 

The first priestly word spoken by the Lord to His 
assembled disciples after His resurrection was, " Peace 
be with you." And his own peace, ("my peace,") 
He has given and left with us. And what must 
that peace be ? The assurance of being that delight 
and joy of God ; the perfect confidence that God 
is well pleased in all He has wrought ; and the 
power to look forward to all the attacks of Satan, and 

k 2 



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yet to see them all ending in His own glory, and in the 
subjugation of all things to God. Such must be the 
peace which the Lord has, and which He has bestowed. 
Do we realize it ? Do we believe that God delights in 
us as His children ? Once enemies ; now reconciled to 
Him by the death of Christ, and to be presented to 
Him holy, and unblameable, and unreproveable in His 
sight. 

Have we such firm rest in the Lord, and in all that 
He has done, that we have joy and peace in believing,, 
and are assured that God rests in us, because He rests 
in Christ ? And can we look at Satan's power, and the 
worlds opposition ; can we contemplate even our own 
failure, and that of the Church of God all round us ^ 
and yet with peace of soul, look forward to the final 
closing scene, when the Lord Himself shall come, and 
all things shall be found to have worked together for 
good, and to have accomplished the purposes of God ? 



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THE GOLDEN BELLS AND 
POMEGRANATES. 



"And beneath, upon the hem 
*>f it, thou shalt make pome- 
granates of blue, and of purple, 
and of scarlet, round about the 
hem thereof; and bells of gold 
between them round about: a 
golden bell and a pomegranate, a 
golden bell and a pomegranate, 
upon the hem of the robe round 
about. And it shall be upon 
Aaron to minister ; and his sound 
shall be heard when he goeth in 
unto the holy place before the 
Lord, and when he cometh out, 
that he die not." — Exod. xxviii. 
33—35- 



"And they made, upon the 
hems of the robe, pomegranates of 
blue, and purple, and scarlet, 
twined. And they made bells of 
pure gold, and put the bells be- 
tween the pomegranates upon the 
hem of the robe, round about 
between the pomegranates ; a bell 
and a pomegranate, a bell and a 
pomegranate, round about the 
hem of the robe to minister in, 
as the Lord commanded Moses." 
— Exod. xxxix. 24 — 26. 



It will be remarked that, in Exod. xxxix. 24, the word 
hems in the plural is used. It should have been in the 
plural throughout ; viz. Exod. xxviii. 33, twice ; and 
xxxix. 24, 26. It is elsewhere translated skirts , Jer. xiii. 

22, 26; Nah. iii. 5; Lam. i. 9. In Isa. vi. I, it is 
translated train. The margin reads there also skirts. 
Manifestly therefore, the flowing skirts of the robe are 
hereby intended. Around them were placed pome- 
granates of three colours, blue, purple, scarlet, inter- 
twined, (" fine twined linen" is not in the original,) 
and alternating with each pomegranate was a bell of 
pure gold. The only adornings of this heavenly robe 
were fruits gathered from the earth. The high priest 
thus proclaimed on his entrance into the holiest, that he 
had come from the world below, from whence some of 
the very ornaments of his garments had been obtained. 
Pomegranates are especially mentioned as fruits of the 
Holy Land, 

The spies brought of the pomegranates, Num. xiii. 

23. The good land into which the Lord brought them, 



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was a " land of vines and fig trees and pomegranates, a 
land of oil-olive and honey." Deut. viii. 8. Np such 
fruits as these were found in Egypt. Indeed it is 
remarkable that the children of Israel, when their hearts 
turned back to that land of bondage, spoke only ot 
melons, cucumbers, leeks, onions, and garlick ; the two 
former being fruits borne close to the earth ; and the- 
latter, roots of the earth. May there not be something 
significant in this? The dainties of Egypt, and its 
savoury food are procured from low earthly sources ; 
while the fruits of the land are lifted off the ground,, 
and ripen in the fresh air and sunshine of heaven. 

There seems to be a connexion between the vine and' 
the pomegranate ; as the flourishing of the former, and 
the budding of the latter, are mentioned together in the 
Song of Solomon, vi. II, and vii. 12. Also the juice 
of the pomegranate and spiced wine are mingled together 
in Cant. viii. 2. These are the pleasant fruits in which 
the beloved delights. And the only ornaments on the • 
skirts of the high priests robe were these rich 
embroideries, in the various beautifully blended colours 
of the blue, purple, and scarlet. The fruit of the 
Spirit — "love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, 
goodness, faith, meekness, temperance," (Gal. v. 22.) 
forms one beautifully connected cluster, like a cluster 
of grapes. Observe, they are not said to be fruits of 
the Spirit, but fruit; because each of these graces is 
dependent on, and connected with the others. And if 
one is present, all are there ; for we have received out 
of Christ's fulness, and grace corresponding to grace in 
Him. It should be our endeavour therefore, that the - 
whole cluster should appear ; each grape, as it were, 
in due proportion. The Father is the husbandman, and 
He is glorified if we bear much fruit. And He exercises 
His discipline in order that righteousness, which is the 
true peaceable fruit, may abound. 

There seems to be, therefore, a fitting connexion 
between the robe of the Prince of peace, and the- 



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peaceable fruit adorning its hem. In a sinners 
justification, righteousness is the ground of peace, but 
in the justified person righteousness, as a fruit, springs 
from the soil of peace. James iii. 1 8. And the Lord 
Jesus having made peace, and rooted us in love, can 
rightly expect from His saints, fruit to the glory of God. 

The contrast between the words fruit and works is 
very instructive. Works may be the result of a legal 
servile spirit. They may be exacted through fear, or 
be aimed at in order to gratify a self-righteous and 
self-complacent conscience. But fruit is the spontaneous 
manifestation of life within, the outpouring of a heart at 
peace with God, the evidence of new creation, and the 
presence and power of the Holy Spirit. 

Between each two pomegranates there was a golden 
bell. The golden sound was connected with the rich 
juicy fruit. And as the high priest approached the holy 
place, his steps sent forth a heavenly melody-, and 
when he returned again from the immediate presence of 
the glory into the camp, his retiring footsteps still rang 
out an unearthly sound. 

There seems to have been much misapprehension, 
in the minds of some, as to the meaning of this type. 
Commentators have explained it to signify that the high 
priest was still living when he went to make atonement, 
so that the people outside might be made aware of the 
fact, by the sound of the bells. But this is contrary 
altogether to the words of the text, and to the facts of 
the case. 

The words are : " His sound shall be heard when 
he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and 
when he cometh out, that he die not :" (or, lest he 
should die :) not in order that the people might know 
that he was not dead. In fact, when the high priest 
went in with the blood on the great day of atonement, 
he was not attired in his robes of glory and beauty, and 
consequently had no bells on his robe. It was the 
blood on that occasion which protected him, and uttered 



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(we may say) a sound to God : for the blood of 
sprinkling speaks better things than that of Abel. Heb. 
xii. 24. The high priest, in this his official dress, drew 
nigh to God on behalf of his people ; a wayward, stiff- 
necked, and often rebellious and murmuring people. He 
came from a camp where sounds of strife, contention, and 
ambition filled the air. But he must bear none of these 
sounds of earth and flesh into the sanctuary. God must 
hear the approach of one towards Him announced by 
heavenly sounds sent forth by his footsteps, although 
he came from the midst of such a din of worldliness 
and confusion. His walk therefore, though surrounded 
by these scenes, must be a heavenly walk : and his 
thoughts and intercessions concerning that people must 
be respecting their fruitfulness to God, and not to 
have regard to earthly ambitions, emulations, or glory 
and prosperity in the world. 

Thus Aaron was provided with these golden bells, 
which necessarily sent forth a divine and tuneful sound, 
lest he should die. 

Again, his retiring footsteps, away from the immediate 
presence of God back into the camp, were to speak the 
same truth ; he must return into the ordinary occupations 
of life, still making his footsteps known, as from heaven. 
His feet must be thus beautiful, because sending forth 
as he stepped, sounds of heavenly holiness and peace. 
And though amidst the boisterous hum of human life, 
to the natural ear these golden bells might seem to give 
forth but a feeble melody, yet they uttered a still small 
voice which would reach the listening ear, and would 
arrest the true hearted worshipper, and turn his thoughts 
in holiness and faith towards God. 

Does not this give us a faint type of our great High 
Priest ? His whole occupation for us in the sanctuary 
is concerning our walk and fruit-bearing towards God. 
No mere human thoughts intrude into His heart 
respecting us. His desire is not for our prosperity 
in worldly things ; for our advancement in earthly 



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greatness ; or for our success in the things of this life ; 
but that whilst abiding in the world, we may be kept 
from the evil of it, and may glorify the Father in 
bearing much fruit. 

We behold Him also in another scene, walking in 
the midst of the golden candlesticks, as the high priest 
of old might have walked in the midst of Israel's camps. 
And in this vision of the Revelation, the Son of Man is 
clothed with this priestly robe of blue. For, in the 
Greek of the Revelation, it is called podeerees — a 
garment down to the foot — which is the name given to 
the robe of the ephod in the Septuagint, Exod. xxviii. 27. 
Here the ephod, with its shoulder-pieces and breastplate, 
was laid aside ; for the Son of man was not occupying 
His priestly office Godward on behalf of His people. 
But He is described as coming forth from God, and 
walking in the midst of the churches to scrutinize their 
ways, and to give rebukes, warnings, and promises. 

He is, as it were, come out of the holiest, and still 
sends forth the holy golden sound, while investigating 
the ways of His saints. And though He has to reprove, 
still the blue robe of heavenly grace and peace, is bound 
around Him with the girdle of gold, to fasten it securely; 
so that no failures which He might witness in His saints, 
should have power to unloose His love towards them ; 
but His heart of constant unwavering affection, beats 
towards them beneath the breasts of consolations and 
His divine love for them strengthens Him, as it were, 
for this trying scrutinizing service. 

Is there not a remarkable suitability in the Lord Jesus < 
being thus represented as attired in the blue robe of the 
Prince of peace, while He walks in the midst of the 
golden candlesticks, and looks with eyes of searching 
holiness into their ways, saying : " I know thy works ? " 



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THE MITRE. 



" And thou shalt make the «' And a mitre of fine linen." — 
mitre of fine linen." — Exod. Exod. xxxix. 28. 
xxviii. 39. 

The Hebrew word Mhznepheth, here translated Mitre, 
is used exclusively for the head-dress of the high priest, 
except in one passage, Ezek. xxi. 26. It is derived from 
a verb signifying " to roll, or wind round ;" possibly 
intimating that the high priests mitre was wound round 
his head, like a tiara. 

There is another word kindred to this, Tzaneeph, 
translated Diadem. Job. xxix. 14.; Isa. lxii. 3. — Hoods, 
Isa. iii. 23. — and Mitre, Zech, iii. 5. But this word 
probably means a band or fillet; which was an emblem 
of royalty in the East ; and in Zech. iii. 5. there may be 
an intimation of the change of the priestly order from 
that of Aaron to that of Melchizedek. Joshua, the high 
priest, is first represented standing in priestly garments, 
which are filthy. These garments are removed from 
him ; his iniquity passes away ; he is clothed with 
other garments ; and a fair diadem is placed on his head. 
A kingly as well as priestly dignity is conferred on hinu 

The different purposes mentioned in scripture, for 
which the head was covered, appear at first sight some- 
what contradictory : but these may be reconciled, if we 
take into account the various ways in which this was 
done. For instance, 2nd Sam. xv. 30., " David went 
up by the ascent of mount Olivet, and wept as he went 
up, and had his head covered ; and he went barefoot ; 
and all the people that was with him covered every man 
his head ; and they went up, weeping as they went up." 
— Esther vi. 12., " Haman hasted to his house, mourn- 
ing, and having his head covered." — Jer. xiv. iii., "They 
were ashamed and confounded, and covered their heads." 
In these cases, probably a mantle or sackcloth was 
thrown over the head, covering the usual head-dress, 



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and to some extent enveloping the person. This was 
done as a token of self-humiliation, grief, and shame. 
In modern days, the hood, worn as an outward sign of 
mourning, may have been borrowed from this ancient 
custom. On the other hand, to have the head uncovered, 
that is deprived of its ordinary dress, was also an 
expression of shame and dishonour. The leper was 
commanded to have his head bare. Lev. xiii. 45. And 
in Ezek. xxiv. 17, the prophet is ordered to bind the tire 
of his head upon him, and not to shew any signs of 
mourning. Also, upon the death of Nadab and Abihu, 
(Lev. x. 6) Aaron, Eleazer, and Ithamar are forbidden 
to uncover their heads ; and (Lev. xxi. 10) the high 
priest is not allowed to uncover his head, although shame 
and dishonour fall upon him through the sin of his 
daughter. — The beautiful captive (Deut.xxi. 12) was to 
shave her head, and bewail her father and mother. 
Baldness was a sign of dishonour ; Jer. xlvii. 5, and 
xlviii. 37 ; Ezek. vii. 1 8. 

In the New Testament, the woman is directed to cover 
her head, 1st Cor. xi. 3 — 10, because "the head of the 
woman is the man whereas the man is to be uncovered, 
because he is the image and glory of God. In the 
assemblies therefore of the people of God, the woman, 
standing as a representative of the Church in subjection 
to Christ, covers her head. ; the man, being a type of 
Christ Himself as the Head of the Church, uncovers his 
head. 

This seems to prove that the mitre, covering the head 
of the high priest, was a type of his being subject to God, 
and that he was always supposed to be standing in the 
presence of God. He was never to lose sight of this 
glorious calling; but his life was to be spent in the 
tabernacle of the Most High, ready to accomplish God's 
commands, and submissive to His will. The white fine 
linen of which it was made, is an emblem of that 
righteousness and purity, which must be manifested in 
one who stands in the presence of God on behalf of others. 



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The Ancient of days (Dan. vii. 9) is represented in 
vision, as having a garment white as snow, and the hair 
of his head like the pure wool. Wisdom and righteousness 
iare manifested by Him who sits on the throne of judgment. 

In Rev. i. 14, the Son of Man, in the midst of the 
golden candlesticks, scrutinizing their works in the 
exercise of His priestly office, is thus seen by John : " His 
head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as 
snow." Here again, the snow-white head and hairs 
betoken purity, righteousness, and wisdom. 

It is written also, " The hoary head is a crown of 
glory, if it be found in the way of righteousness." 
(Prov. xvi. 31) and " The beauty of old men is the grey 
(or hoary) head.'* Prov. xx. 29. 

The Lord Jesus, the great High Priest, is the Ever- 
lasting Father ; or, as it perhaps might be rendered, 
" the Father of eternity." He is the wisdom as well as 
the power of God. He is Wisdom, as described in 
Prov. viii. " Counsel is mine, and sound wisdom : I am 
understanding ; I have strength. Jehovah possessed me 
in the beginning of his way, before his works of old. I 
was set up from everlasting ; from the beginning ; or 
ever the earth was : when there were no depths, I was 
brought forth ; when there were no fountains abounding 
with water. Before the mountains were settled, before 
tjie hills was I brought forth." (Verse 14, and 22 — 25.) 

In Micah also, the ruler in Israel is one whose goings 
forth have been from of old, from everlasting. (Mic. v. 2 .) 

Our High Priest, the Son of God, has the wisdom of 
eternity. He has manifested the wisdom of God in 
creation. He is the wisdom of God, and power of God, 
in redemption. And he exercises in perfect righteousness, 
and in entire subjection, all this wisdom and power on 
behalf of the saints of the Most High. May not this 
mitre of the high priest have some typical allusion to 
these glories of Christ ? 

It has been before observed, that the only other 
occurrence of this word Mitre, in the Bible, except in 



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connexion with Israel's high priest, is in Ezck. xxi. 25, 
27. " And thou,, profane wicked prince of Israel, whose 
day is come, when iniquity shall have an end, thus saith 
the Lord Jehovah, Remove the diadem, and take off 
the crown ; this shall not be the same ; exalt him that is 
low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, 
overturn, overturn it ; and it shall be no more, until he 
come, whose right it is ; and I will give it him." The 
word here rendered diadem is really mitre. This remark- 
able prophecy seems to point onward to a " profane and 
wicked prince of Israel," who will arise, and who will 
wear not only the crown of royalty, but the mitre of 
priesthood ; in fact, who will arrogantly and blasphe- 
mously assume both regal and priestly power, in Satanic 
mockery of the true priest and king, the Lord Jesus. 
The Antichrist, " whose coming is after the working of 
Satan, in all power and signs and wonders of falsehood, 
and in all deceit of unrighteousness for them that perish ; 
because they received not the love of the truth, that they 
might be saved." 2nd Thes. ii. 9, 10. Also 1st John 
ii. 18, 22 — In his day, iniquity rises to its height ; and 
therefore it will have an end : and He will come, whose 
right it is ; or, as it might be translated, " to whom the 
judgment is committed," and God will give it Him. For, 
he that is low shall be exalted, and he that is high shall 
be abased. The King of righteousness, and King of 
peace, the Priest of the most high God, will come, and 
take to Himself His great power, and reign, and destroy 
this profane wicked prince. God will exalt thus openly 
Him who has been as low down even as to the death of 
the cross, and will abase down to hell the arrogant man 
of sin, and all his followers. 

This prophecy clearly shews that the Antichrist will 
assume a headship in religion, as well as a throne of 
royal power over the nations of the Roman earth, and 
that he will be prince of Israel, professing to be even 
their god. 

What a solemn thought it is, that this age closes with 



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Satan's subtle imitation of the Christ of God, whom the 
world will receive, and to whom the princes of this world 
will yield allegiance ! Men receive not the love of the 
truth, that they might be saved : and therefore, God 
will send them strong delusion, that they should believe 
THE lie. 



THE GOLDEN PLATE. 



" And thou shalt make a plate 
of pure gold, and grave upon it, 
like the engravings of a signet, 
HOLINESS TO THE LORD. 

"And thou shalt put it on a 
blue lace, that it may be upon the 
mitre ; upon the forefront of the 
mitre it shall be. 

" And it shall be upon Aaron's 
forehead, that Aaron may bear 
the iniquity of the holy things 
which the children of Israel shall 
hallow in all their holy gifts; and 
it shall be always upon his fore- 
head, that they may be accepted 
before the Lord." — Exod, xxviii. 
36-38. 



" And they made the plate of 
the holy crown of pure gold, and 
wrote upon it a writing, like to 
the engravings of a signet, HOLI- 
NESS TO THE LORD. 

«* And they tied unto it a lace 
of blue, to fasten it on high upon 
the mitre; as the Lord com- 
manded Moses." — Exod. xxxix. 
3°» 3»- 



This golden plate is described before the mitre, (see 
chap, xxviii. 39) the object of the mitre being, to enable 
the high priest to wear this plate of gold before the Lord. 

The word plate (Tzeetz) is elsewhere, with but one 
exception, translated flower. For instance, Psa. ciii. 15, 
16, " As for man, his days are as grass : as a flower of 
the field, so he flourisheth. For the wind passeth over 
it, and it is gone ; and the place thereof shall know it no 
more." — Isa. xxviii. I, 4, "Whose glorious beauty is a 
fading flower" — Isa. xl.6, 7, 8, " All flesh is grass, and 
all the goodliness thereof as the flower of the field. The 
grass withereth, the flower fadeth." 

May not this word have been chosen to direct our 
thoughts to the contrast between the beautiful, though 
fading flower of the field, to which man in his glory is 



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likened, and the imperishable glory of the flower of gold, 
borne on the forehead of the high priest, with its holy 
inscription ? Deeply engraved on this golden plate, like 
the engravings of a signet, was the writing, HOLINESS 
TO JEHOVAH. One short expressive sentence, indel- 
ibly fixed upon the forehead of the high priest, without 
which he could not appear in the presence of the Lord, 
on behalf of Israel. 

What a volume of truth does this little sentence 
contain ! How expressive of Him, who alone has title 
to bear it, the true Priest ! A life of holy separation to 
God, ending in the Nazarite separation of the cross, 
made manifest the fitness of God's blessed Son, to be the 
priest for ever. God has exalted Him, because of His 
deep and holy self-humiliation, in first emptying Himself, 
taking upon Himself the form of a servant, and in being 
made in the likeness of men ; next, in humbling Himself, 
and becoming obedient unto death ; and lastly, to such 
a death, even the death of the cross : — a wondrous 
threefold humiliation. Throughout this lowly course, 
Holiness to Jehovah was the ruling purpose of His 
mind. 

The forehead is especially that portion of the human 
countenance on which is depicted the purpose, will, and 
mind. Impudence and self-will are marked there. Jer. 
iii. 3, "Thou hjist a whores forehead." — Ezek. iii. 7, 
" All the house of Israel are impudent (margin, stiff of 
forehead.) and hard-hearted." — Isa. xlviii. 4, " I knew 
that thou art obstinate, and thy neck as an iron sinew, 
and thy brow brass." Stern resolution, also, in a good 
-cause, is expressed by the forehead. — Ezek. iii. 8. 9, 
"I have made thy forehead strong against their foreheads 

As an adament, harder than flint, have I made 

thy forehead" — Isa. 1. 7, "The Lord Jehovah will help 
me : therefore shall I not be confounded : therefore 
have I set my face like a flint, and I know that I shall 
not be ashamed." 

Thfe worst species of leprosy, as described in Lev 



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xiii. 42, 44, was when that fearful plague made its 
appearance in the forehead. " He is a leprous man ; he 
is unclean ; the priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean ;. 
the plague is in his head." The self-will of our evil 
hearts exhibits itself in two ways ; in the indulgence of 
the lusts of the flesh ; and in the insubjection of the 
mind and reason to the word of God. Leprosy of the 
forehead is of the latter character, of which we perceive 
abundant traces at the present day. Men seem to think 
that their minds, as well as their lips, are their own z. 
" Who is Lord over us ? " Psa. xii. 4. And thus, 
speculations of every kind are indulged at the expense 
of the word of God, though under the pretence of 
maintaining, defending, or explaining it. And the 
children of God themselves give heed to these things, 
and read, admire, and praise them. Death is openly 
declared to have existed prior to the fall of man. This 
world is said to be a creation out of pre-existent creations r 
and men have even gone so far as to write about a 
pre-adamite man. The deluge also, is openly declared 
to have been so slight and partial, that no traces of it 
remain. The marvel is, that God's saints should for 
a moment, allow their minds to indulge in these 
unhallowed triflings with His truth. 

But the Word of God is powerless against these 
speculations. What with the oppositions of science 
fitlsely so called, on the one hand, and superstitious 
indulgence of human traditions and fancies on the 
other ; truth is well nigh fallen in the street. " Yea* 
truth faileth ; and he that departeth from evil maketh 
himself a prey," (margin : is accounted mad.) Isa. lix^ 
14, 15. Yes, the time is come, when those who will 
cleave to the Bible, and nothing else, must be content to- 
take the place of fools in the estimation of men around 
them or to be accounted mad, as the prophet says - r 
and to wait for the coming of the Lord, when the 
secrets of all hearts will be revealed, when " the wjsdorrt 
of this world, and of the princes of this world, will 



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come to nought." " Cease ye from man, whose breath 
is in his nostrils : for wherein is he to be accounted of?" 
" The Lord alone shall be exalted in that day." 

One remarkable case of leprosy in the forehead, is 
recorded in 2nd Chron. xxvi. Uzziah, king of Judah, 
sought the Lord and prospered, as long as he was 
under the instruction of Zechariah, who had under- 
standing in the visions of God. He was a man also of 
simple tastes, loving husbandry ; of much power and 
skill in invention ; and a philanthropist. He fortified 
Jerusalem ; built towers in the desert digged many 
wells. Moreover, he had a powerful army, and his 
name spread abroad : for he was marvellously helped 
till he was strong. But when he was strong, his heart 
was lifted up to his destruction. He shewed his self- 
will in transgressing against the word of God : for he 
went into the temple of the Lord to burn incense on the 
altar of incense. He thus arrogated to himself the place 
of priesthood, though God had not called him. The 
high priest, Azariah, with a company of priests of the 
Lord, valiant men, withstood the king, and said : " It 
appertaineth not to thee, Uzziah, to burn incense unto 
the Lord, but to the priests, the sons of Aaron, that are 
consecrated to burn incense : go out of the sanctuary, 
for thou hast trespassed : neither shall it be for thine 
honour from the Lord God. Then Uzziah was wroth, 
and had a censer in his hand to burn incense : and 
while he was wroth with the priests, the leprosy even 
rose up in his forehead before the priests in the house of 
the Lord, from beside the incense-altar. And Azariah 
the chief priest, and all the priests, looked upon him ; 
and behold, he was leprous in his forehead ; and they 
thrust him out from thence ; yea, himself hasted to go 
out, because the Lord had smitten him. And Uzziah 
the king was a leper unto the day of his death, and 
dwelt in a several house, a leper : for he was cut off 
from the house of the Lord." 

This history of God's sudden judgment upon the 



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king stands out remarkably in the midst of the history of 
the kings of Judah ; a solemn warning against all self- 
willed perversions of the truth of God. Idolatries had 
been practised ; and yet those kings who sanctioned or 
led the way in such evil courses, had not been smitten. 
But here was a man who had more light and truth, and 
whom God had greatly prospered. The very mercies 
and blessings he had received from the Lord, raised his 
pride ; and his heart was lifted up to his destruction, so 
that he committed a fearful religious error ; something 
of the same character as that which had been manifested 
before in Korah. 

God had appointed an ordered, priesthood of His own 
selection : and what right had any one, however ex- 
alted, to interfere with that order, or to usurp its holy 
offices ? 

God has also His own order of priesthood at this 
time, of which the Lord Jesus, the great High Priest, is 
the head. The priesthood is a family loved of Christ ; 
washed from, their sins by Him in His own blood ; 
anointed with the Holy Spirit ; and separated off to 
God from the world, in the power of eternal life, in 
resurrection ; a risen company, quickened together with 
Christ, raised up together with Him ; including all true 
believers. How the leprosy of arrogant self-will and 
pride, shews itself in those who usurp the place of near- 
ness to God as His priests, when they have not been 
washed from their sins, and have not the gift of the 
Holy Ghost bestowed upon them ! Surely this is a 
leprosy of the very worst character ; a leprosy of the 
forehead ; a grievous sin in the sight of God, because 
it is a consecration of the very filthiness of human self- 
will ; an attempt to make pride and assumption a holy 
thing ; a pretence of the flesh, as if God could be deceived. 

We are naturally prone to weigh and measure sins by 
certain conventional standards. Immoral practices of 
the flesh are openly stigmatized : natural conscience can 
appreciate their evil. On the other hand, self-indulgence 



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'of die mind is little, if at all, condemned. Men account 
those comparatively blameless who take upon themselves 
the conducting of all kinds of religious observances to- 
wards God, although they be, in His sight, still dead in 
trespasses and sins. 

" Satan is transformed into an angel of light ;" and 
no marvel therefore, that his devices take the form of 
religious devotedness, or of approving the Scriptures, 
all the time that he is insidiously attempting to under- 
mine them. 

May we be preserved from in any way countenancing 
such leprosy of the forehead : and having such great 
and precious promises as are given to us by God in His 
Word, may we " cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of 
the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of 
God." (2nd Cor. vii. I.) 

The inscription, HOLINESS TO JEHOVAH, upon 
the golden plate, affords us a beautiful type of the truth 
legibly written on the forehead of our great High Priest, 
in contrast with the constant spots of leprous defilement 
which God sees in our holy things. The Lord Jesus, 
a little while before His death, in His last prayer amidst 
His disciples, said : " For their sakes I sanctify myself, 
that they also might be sanctified through the truth." 
Holiness to the Lord expresses that great truth which 
the Cross manifested. There the Lord Jesus sanctified 
Himself to God, a sacrifice wholly presented to Jehovah. 
And again, in resurrection, " holiness to the Lord" is 
declared in the High Priest. It is written, (Heb. vii.) 
"Such an high priest became us, holy, harmless, unde- 
filed, separate from sinners, and made higher than the 
heavens." A wonderful way of speaking of the High 
Priest, with reference to ourselves. It is not here said 
that we needed such an high priest ; but that such an 
one became us. What must be the height of glory and 
holiness into which we shall be raised, since such is the 
High Priest whom God has chosen to be our representa- 
tive and head ! 



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This sentence was indelibly engraved, "like the 
engravings of a signet " or a seal, on the plate of gold. 
It is also called " a writing." It was the stamp of 
Jehovah's name upon the forehead of the high priest, 
claiming him as His own ; as one peculiarly separated 
off in holiness to Himself. In like manner we read in 
Rev. vii. 2 — 4, of an angel sealing the servants of God 
in their foreheads with the seal of the living God ; and 
in chap. xiv. I, we read of a company standing with 
the Lamb on Mount Sion, " having His Father's name 
written in their foreheads." Here again this remarkable 
type is used. God selects, out of a multitude given 
over to destruction, a company for Himself, Also in 
Rev. xxii. 4, where the servants of God are described in 
the heavenly city, it is said, " they shall see his face, 
and his name shall be in their foreheads." What a 
contrast this, to the fearful judgment upon those who 
have not the seal of God in their foreheads, but who 
bear the mark of the beast instead. Rev. xiii. 16, and 
xx. 4. 

The days are approaching when men will be 
manifestly ranged on one side or the other. Their 
very countenances will proclaim whether they belong 
to God and the Lamb, or to Satan and Antichrist. 
No half-measures will be allowed; but men will be 
compelled definitely to make their choice, and to be 
numbered either for God unto eternal life, or for the 
man of sin unto eternal perdition. 

Although the Aaronic priesthood did not combine in 
its order, king and priest together, yet there seems to be 
in the garments, prophetic indications of a time when 
such would be the case. Thus we have the word robe 
given to one portion of the dress ; and the mitre, with 
its golden plate bound round it by a lace of blue, 
formed a very near approach to the attire of royalty in 
some of the eastern monarchs. The mitre is translated 
diadem. Ezek. xxi. 26. In the latin translation by 
Montanus, it is called cidaris, which was the royal 



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bonnet worn by the kings of Persia, encircled by a blue 
ribband called the diadem.* 

This ribband may be observed round the head of 
George III. on some of our coins. In Rev. xii. 3, the 
Dragon is represented as having seven diadems upon 
his seven heads ; and in chap. xiii. I, the beast has ten 
diadems upon his ten horns. Here evidently these 
diadems are emblems of royalties. And in chap. xix. 
12, the Lord is represented as coming forth, having 
many diadems, He being King of kings. 

The other Greek word used for crown (Stephanos) 
properly refers to the crown that was bestowed upon a 
conqueror as a reward of victory, or which was given 
to the successful competitor in the ancient contests for 
strength or swiftness. In this sense it is commonly 
used in the New Testament. Thus we have the 
crowns of " life," " righteousness," and " glory." 

This golden plate has the word crown attached to it : 
" the plate of the holy crown." Exod. xxxix. 30, Lev. 
viii. 9, and in Exod. xxix. 6, it is designated $s " the 
holy crown," including the golden plate and the blue 
lace. The Hebrew word for crown, here employed, 
is nezer, found also 2nd Sam. i. IO, (Saul's royal crown,) 
2nd Kings, xi. 12, and 2nd Chron. xxiii. II, (the royal 
crown placed upon the head of Jehoash when he was 
proclaimed king,) Psa. lxxxix. 39, and cxxxii. 18, 
where also the crown royal is manifestly intended. It 
Is a remarkable word, because throughout Num. vi., it 
is translated Nazariteship, Consecration, and Separation, 
and is thus beautifully applicable to the golden plate 
upon the forehead of the high priest, whose true 
royalty consisted in being separated off in holiness to 
Jehovah. 

The Lord Jesus, because He preserved throughout 

* The diadem originally means the blue and white band worn by the 
Asiatic monarclis round the tiara. Subsequently, the diadem was a broad white 
band, fastened round the head, and tied in a bow behind, adopted by other 
nations as an ensign of sovereignty. Thus, in works of art, the diadem indicates 
a regal station, like the crown of modern times." (Rich's Companion.) 



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His life, and when made sin, and in death, His holy* 
Nazariteship to God, has been raised the High Priest 
and King for ever, after the order of Melchizedek. 
The same Psalm, ex., which speaks of Him as Davids 
Lord, who is to rule in kingly power hereafter in the 
midst of His enemies, smiting through kings in the day 
of His wrath, and wounding the head over many 
countries, (the wilful king, the Antichrist.) — the same 
Psalm also declares Him the Priest, made so by God's 
oath. 

Surely " holiness to the Lord " is true royal dignity 
and glory. Where that truth is inscribed upon the 
forehead, there will be no servile subjection to sin or 
Satan. There will not be the yielding to self, or the 
indulging of a will contrary to that of the Lord. 
Neither will there be any cringing to man, but complete 
unswerving devotedness of heart and mind to Him 
whose name is " holy," the unchangeable I AM, with 
whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. 
Would that we might follow more closely the ways of 
our great High Priest, perfecting holiness in the fear 
of the Lord ! 

The holy crown was fastened " on high " upon the 
mitre, (Exod. xxxix. 31) and was always to be on 
Aaron's forehead, (Exod. xxviii. 38) that he might 
" bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children 
of Israel should hallow in all their holy gifts, that they 
might be accepted before the Lord." The eye of 
Jehovah was to fall first upon this holy plate, with its 
deep inscription ; therefore it was to be borne on high* 
The high priest, also, must never be without it : but, as 
continually as the lamb was presented on the altar for a 
burnt-offering ; and as the shew-bread stood perpetually 
in the presence of God ; and the seven-branched candle- 
stick shed forth its constant light in the sanctuary ; and 
lasdy, as the incense constantly ascended in a fragrant 
cloud from the golden altar ; so the living high priest 
always presented himself to Jehovah, in holy devoted 




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separateness, as the representative of the people. He 
was to bear the iniquity of their holy things ; that is 
especially of the holy gifts, which the children of Israel 
might give to the Lord. 

In his representative character, Aaron clothed with 
" garments for glory and beauty," was to bear the names 
of the children of Israel before the Lord upon his two 
shoulders for a memorial. He was also to bear their 
names in the breastplate upon his breast, for a memorial 
before the Lord. 

He was to bear the judgment of the children of Israel 
upon his heart before the Lord. 

And he was to bear the iniquity of their holy things. 

Thus the shoulders of his strength, the heart of his 
affections, and the forehead of his mind and counsel, 
were all employed on behalf of the people, for whom 
he ministered before the Lord. 

We may, by means of this type, be enabled to distin- 
guish between the sacrifice beaiing sin in the way of 
wrath, and the priest bearing the iniquity of an already 
saved people. When the question of judgment upon sin 
was involved, nothing could expiate but the shedding of 
blood; for, without shedding of blood tljere is no 
remission. But, after sinners are perfectly saved as 
regards deliverance from wrath, and have forgiveness of 
sins, they stand before God in an entirely new relation. 
They are children, saints, priests, kings, and worshippers. 
In their very best services however, sin still cleaves to 
that which they do. Even the gifts they sanctify to God 
are tainted with their own iniquity. It is on this account 
that they need a High Priest, to stand in His presence, 
presenting to the Lord the very contrast of what they 
are-, holy, where they are unholy ; righteous, though 
they be sinful ; pure, though they be defiled ; — a High 
Priest, who is also the propitiation ; and whose inter- 
cession of perpetual fragrance sustains them in continual 
acceptance, and carries on their salvation to the very 
end. It is with reference to this truth that we read, 



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"This One (the Lord Jesus,) because He continueth 
ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. Wherefore He 
is able to save them to the uttermost, (to the very end,) 
that come unto God by Him ; seeing He ever liveth to 
make intercession for them." Heb. vii. 24, 25. And 
again : "If any man sin, we have an Advocate with the 
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous : and He is the pro- 
pitiation for our sins." 1st John ii. I, 2. And in Rom. 
v. 9, 10, " Much more then, being now justified by His 
blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. 
For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to 
God by the death of His Son, much more, being 
reconciled, we shall be saved by His life :" (or rather, in 
His life.) Justification is stated to have been accomplished 
by His blood ; now accomplished. But there is another 
salvation also intimated, to which the words "much 
more " are attached. Having been already justified by 
His blood, much more then shall we be saved from 
wrath through Him. This evidently has reference to 
the Lord Jesus as the High Priest, saving to the end 
those that come unto God by Him. Again, we have 
another " much more " in the following verse. Whilst 
enemies, paving been reconciled to God by the death of 
His Son ; much more, we shall be saved in His life. 
For, the Lord Jesus is not only our living representative 
before God, and ever living to make intercession ; but 
we, as reconciled persons, have a salvation in union with 
Him. He is our life : and there is an indissoluble life- 
existence between the believer and Christ. 

Aaron could only present "Holiness to Jehovah" 
engraved upon the holy crown, on his forehead. 
Christ is Holiness to Jehovah. Aaron stood only on 
behalf of Israel, before the Lord. Christ not only 
stands on behalf of His people, but they are united to 
Him in His life. We are members of His body, of His 
flesh, and of His bones. 

What a remarkable connexion : " Iniquity of holy 
things !" Could we ever have conceived that two such 



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words could be united ? Yet so it is. Our very best 
gifts to God are defiled by the iniquity of the giver. 
Our purest worship is mingled with infirmity and sin. 
Our most devoted acts are tainted with self-pleasing, 
pride, and complacency. What a merciful provision has 
been made for us in this living Christ ; who even now 
* appears in the presence of God for us, and through 
whom we can draw near with boldness, and present 
gifts and sacrifices acceptable to the Father. 



THE EMBROIDERED COAT. 



"And thou Shalt embroider 
the coat of fine linen." — Exod. 
xxviii. 39. 



"And they made coats of fine 
linen." — Exod. xxxix. 27. 



The portion of the High Priest's dress called the coat, 
was more properly a tunic ; the Hebrew and Greek 
words being very similar. It was the innermost garment 
worn by the high priest, .being placed first upon him 
after he was washed. Lev. viii. 7. It seems to be derived 
from a verb meaning " to cover, or hide." It is called a 
broidered coat. Exod. xxviii. 4, and in the 39th verse of 
the same chap., " thou shalt embroider the coat. When 
made it is said to be of woven work, (xxxix. 27;) 

The word embroider (shahvatz) only occurs once 
more. Exod. xxviii. 20, " they (the precious stones) shall 
be set in gold." In 2nd Sam. i. 9, the same word in the 
Hebrew is translated "anguish is come upon me: " the 
margin however reads " my coat of mail, or my 
embroidered coat hindereth me." 

Ouches, or settings (Exod. xxviii. II, 13, 14, 25; 
also xxxix. 13, 16) is derived from the same word as 
embroider. Psa. xlv. 13, the king's daughter is represented 
as having a clothing " of wrought gold." Here 
" wrought " is again the same word. Judging from the 



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various uses of the word which we have above, it may 
be concluded that the fine linen coat was interwoven, 
like net, or chequer work, so as to present, what in 
modern days we should call, a damask appearance, 
combining weaving with a species of embroidery. 
" Fine twined linen " was used for the door curtain ; the 
vail ; the ten curtains ; the court of the tabernacle ; the 
gate of the court ; the high priests ephod ; the curious 
girdle of the ephod ; and the breastplate. 

" Fine linen," without the word " twined," was 
employed in making the mitre and brbidered coat of the 
high priest : and the coats and bonnets of the priests. 
It is difficult to say why this variation occurs. The 
word "twined" would imply that the fine linen was 
twisted into a strand of many threads, before it was 
worked into the curtains and garments. It may be in 
order to give it more strength. 

The blue robe, and gorgeous ephod, with its cluster 
of brilliant precious stones on the shoulders and breast- 
plate, would entirely conceal from the eye of an observer 
this fine linen coat. Beneath therefore the splendid 
dress of the high priest there was a more humble attire 
of pure white, though it was still a " garment for glory 
and beauty." The outer garments were distinctly of a 
representative character : that is, they bore the names of 
Israel before the Lord. And also, the pomegranates 
around the hem of the robe, had relation to that people 
as bearing fruit to God. But in this under tunic there 
was no apparent connexion with that people. It was 
rather the personal clothing of the high priest ; 
manifesting him, beneath all his official glory as one 
who could minister before the Lord in a perfect 
righteousness of his own. A glory and beauty no less 
costly and precious than was displayed by the other 
garments, though to the eye of sense not so striking in? 
appearance. 

In fact, the high priest could not have worn his 
magnificent apparel unless he could previously exhibit a 



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spotless purity, diversified in every possible way like the 
embroidered fine linen coat. 

The Lord Jesus, in the days of His flesh, passed 
through an ordeal of temptation and suffering, throughout 
which He evinced His complete fitness to be the great 
High Priest in resurrection, shewing forth a righteousness 
and holiness, as well as grace, sympathy and tenderness 
which proved Him perfectly suited for the high dignity 
and responsibility to which God called Him by an oath, 
" thou art a Priest for ever after the order of 
Melchisedek." " King of righteousness/' first, by reason 
of His own intrinsic righteousness. " King of peace," 
next, because able to introduce perfect peace into His 
dominions. 

This coat is the same word as we find in Gen. iii. 21, 
«• unto Adam also and his wife did the Lord God make 
coats of skins, and clothed them." Disobedience had 
made them sinners, and naked to their shame. They 
had invented a mode of concealing that shame from one 
another, and it answered their purpose well for a time, 
until the voice of the Lord God was heard in the garden. 

Man's ingenuity was thus first developed through sin» 
His inventive faculty shewed itself in devising a way by 
means of which he hid his own shame from the eyes of 
his fellow, and pacified a disquieted conscience. 

Cain was the next to exhibit still further this 
remarkable power of invention, fostering his pride in 
the very act of worshipping God. He began by what 
may be called religious inventions ; and when they failed 
turned his attention to others of an entirely worldly 
kind. He and his family were the great architects, 
agriculturists, artificers, and musicians of the antidiluvian 
world, as well as founders of a self-righteous religious 
system. 

The aprons of fig leaves which gave self-complacency 
to the man and woman after the fall, proved of no avail 
when God manifested His presence in the garden. 
Fertile in expedients, our first parents next sought 



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amongst the trees of the garden a hiding place from the 
presence of the Lord, and Adam confessed that his 
nakedness had made him fear, although he had before 
attempted to conceal that nakedness, and had for a time 
effectually done so, so far as Eve and himself were 
concerned. 

The religious garments which men devise to hide their 
nature of sin and shame, become mere " spiders' webs" 
when the presence of God is realized. " The covering 
is narrower than that he can wrap himself in it." 
' They weave the spiders web." " Their webs shall 
not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves 
with their works." Isa. xxviii. 20, lix. 5, 6. 

After that wonderful interview between the Lord 
God and fallen man, and after Adam had shown an 
entirely new intelligence, the intelligence of faith, by 
calling his wife's name Eve, (life) because she was the 
mother of all living, " unto Adam also and his wife did 
the Lord God make coats of skins and clothed them." 

These coats were for clothing as well as to hide their 
shame. They were not their own ; not of their own 
invention, but made by Jehovah from skin taken off 
some slain victim, and placed by His hand upon the 
■man and woman who needed them. 

It may be here observed that "skin" is in the original 
in the singular number, and not plural as in our version, 
apparently to make the type more significant ; one victim 
supplying the whole covering. Also the Hebrew word 
translated skin, is derived from a root, signifying to be 
naked. The victim was made naked, stripped of its 
skin, that a covering might be provided for the naked 
ones. What a type of Him who went into the shame 
and nakedness of death, that we through His obedience 
might be made righteous. 

The high priest's coat of fine linen, woven in a 
beautifully embroidered pattern, may appropriately 
represent the righteous servant, " By his knowledge 
shall my righteous servant justify many, for he shall 



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bear their iniquities." Isa. liii. II. God's righteous- 
Servant has borne our iniquities, and in that death upon 
the cross has made His obedience, His righteousness 
manifest to the full. He now therefore justifies us by 
His blood. He has washed us from our sins in His 
own blood. This justification becomes ours in the 
way of faith, "by his knowledge," that is, "by the 
knowledge of him " through faith. 

Because He justifies us by having borne our iniquities, 
He is our advocate with the Father. One who 
completely identifies Himself with us and maintains our 
cause, notwithstanding our sin and failure Jesus Christ 
the righteous ', personally spotless in righteousness and 
holiness ; and at the same time, the propitiation for our 
sins. A representative who can appear for us before 
God, on the ground of His own perfect obedience and 
purity-, and who can present for us the "precious blood 
which cleanseth us from all sin," the efficiency of which 
is daily and hourly perpetuated, preserving us in perfect 
cleanness in the presence of the Father, as His children, 
kings, and priests. 

How the blessed Lord was vindicated as the 
righteous man at the very moment of His condemnation. 
Judas was obliged to confess to the chief priests and 
elders, that he had sinned and betrayed innocent blood. 
The pieces of silver which he returned were silent 
witnesses to this truth. Matt, xxvii. 4. 

Pilate thrice repeated the words, " I find no fault in 
Him," and declared that He was a righteous person. 
John xviii. 38. xix. 4, 6. Matt, xxvii. 24. 

The wife of Pilate sent to beg he would have nothing 
to do with that righteous man. Matt, xxvii. 19. 

Herod also could discover no evil in the ways of 
Jesus. Luke xxiii. 15, 

On the cross, a malefactor condemned himself whilst 
he vindicated Christ, "this man hath done nothing 
amiss." Luke xxiii. 41. 

And the Gentile Centurion was the first after the 



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Lord had given up the Ghost, to glorify God, by 
proclaiming the truth, " certainly this was a righteous 
man." Luke xxiii. 47. 

Three times in the Acts is the Lord called the Right- 
eous One. Peter in preaching to the Jews, says : " Ye de- 
nied the holy one, and the Just," (or righteous one,) iiLl.4. 

Stephen, in his last address, tells them " that their 
fathers had slain them who shewed before of the 
coming of the Just One." vii. 52. 

And Paul in relating the facts connected with his 
conversion, repeats the words of Ananias to him. " The 
God of our fathers hath chosen thee, that thou shouldest 
know his will, and see that Just One, and shouldest hear 
the voice of his mouth." xxii. 14. God has vindicated 
His Son by raising Him to His own right hand of power 
and glory •, and the Holy Ghost come down from 
heaven is witness of the exaltation of Jesus, and of the 
guilt of the world in putting Him to death. 

The world is condemned under a threefold sentence ; 
and the Holy Spirit is by His presence here, an evidence 
of its solemn judgment. 

In John xvi. 7 — II, the Lord Jesus promises to His 
disciples, after His departure, to send the Comforter : 
" And when he is come, he will reprove the world of 
sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment." That is, 
the presence of the Comforter here, abiding with God s 
people, would of itself be the sentence of conviction of 
the world. Not that he would convict the souls of all 
men in the world, of sin. The Lord was not speaking 
of this action of the Holy Spirit upon the heart and 
conscience of the sinner ; but of the solemn fact, that 
the personal presence of the Comforter with the children 
of God, would be the condemnation of the world as in 
God's sight. First, on the ground of sin, " because 
they believe not on me." The fact of Christ's absence, 
and the result of that absence, the presence of the Holy 
Spirit here, proves that the world was guilty of the 
-deepest sin, viz. unbelief of Him. ^ 



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This is the crowning sin of all others. If the world 
had believed, had known and owned Him, its princes 
would not have slain Him. But they manifested their 
complete ignorance and unbelief by killing the Lord of 
glory ; and under the guilt of this sin the world lies. 
The Spirit of God having come, sent by the crucified 
and risen Christ, is the conviction of the world upon 
this ground. 

Secondly, " of righteousness, because I go to my 
Father, and ye see me no more." God and the world 
are fearfully at issue upon the question of righteousness. 
And the question has been brought to a definite point 
by the death of Christ. The world has slain Him as 
a malefactor, hanged Him upon a tree with thieves : 
preferred an abominable criminal, guilty of robbery, 
sedition, and murder, to the Son of God. But God has 
raised the same rejected and despised Christ to the 
throne of His glory, and counted Him worthy of sitting 
at the right hand of His Majesty in the heavens. 

What a solemn difference thus exists upon the ques- 
tion of righteousness, between the world and God. 
Why is Jesus gone to the Father ? Why do His people 
see Him no more ? Why has the Holy Spirit come ? 
Because He has been murdered and slain ; rejected and 
disowned ; scourged, spit upon, stripped naked, and 
crucified. He has been dealt with thus, as an un- 
righteous one by the world. God has received Him as 
the righteous one to glory. And the people of God 
have the Holy Spirit as the Comforter, because of Christ's 
rejection, and His exaltation to the highest heavens. 

Lastly, " of judgment, because the prince of this 
•world is judged." 

Three times in the Gospel of John is the title " prince 
4)f this world" given to Satan by the Lord Jesus. 

" Now is the judgment of this world ; now shall the 
prince of this world be cast out." xii. 31. 

This the Lord spoke in contemplation of His Cross. 
His being lifted up upon the tree, was at the same time 



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the judgment of the world, the dethronement of its 
Prince as to the final result, and offered a new source of 
attraction, powerful enough to draw unto Himself away 
from the allurements of the world, and the seductions 
of Satan. 

" Hereafter I will not talk much with you, for the 
prince of this world cometh and hath nothing in me." 
xiv. 30. The Lord's converse with His disciples was 
about to cease, for He was to meet and resist unto blood 
the closing fierce attacks of the adversary. But that 
prince would find nothing in Christ of which he could 
obtain one moments possession. No shaft of the tempter 
could lodge in that bosom of purity. No temptation 
would have any response from that Righteous One. 
The prince of this world had no possession of any kind 
in Christ. For the first and last time he found a Man, 
proof against every inlet to sin, every suggestion of evil. 
One of whom it could be said, " Jehovah is well pleased 
for His righteousness' sake." And though the serpent 
was permitted to bruise the heel of the woman's seed, 
in that very act he hurled down destruction upon 
himself. The cross of Christ, and its inseparable result, 
resurrection, was the judgment of the prince of this 
world. 

The coming of the Holy Spirit from the throne of 
glory, to which God had exalted His Son, is the evidence 
that this is a judged world, because Satan its prince has 
been vanquished, made nought of, and judged. Thus 
we live in a place already sentenced. The blood of the 
Lamb has redeemed us out of it to God : and we must 
look away to another region, to another country for 
righteousness and holiness. "Delivered out of the 
power of darkness, and translated into the kingdom of 
God's dear Son," our life, our hopes, our affections, and 
our fellowships are above. Christ is there, God's right- 
eous servant, our Great High Priest, " who of God is 
made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctifica- 
tion, and redemption." ^ S F 64 



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THE GIRDLE. 



" A broidered coat, a mitre, 
and a girdle. 

"And thou shalt make the 
girdle of needlework." — Exod. 
xxviii. 4, 39. 



" And a girdle of fine twined 
linen, and blue, and purple, and 
scarlet needlework," — Ex. xxxix. 
2 9- 



It has been before observed, that " the curious girdle of 
the ephod" was not a girdle in the ordinary sense of the 
word, {see page 200.) The true girdle, (avneht,) is here 
described. The Hebrew word is exclusively used for 
this inner girdle, and that of the high priest on the day 
of atonement, and for the girdles of the priests ; except 
in one other instance, Isa. xxii. 21, where Eliakim is to 
be clothed with Shebna's robe, (coat,) and strengthened 
with his girdle. 

The use in this passage of the two parts of the 
priestly dress, coat, and girdle, may intimate, that the 
treasurer and ruler of David's house stood in a kind of 
priestly capacity : and may afford another instance of 
the frequent incidental allusions in Scripture to the future 
glory of the Lord Jesus ; who will combine with His 
office of Priest, that of King, Lord, Treasurer, Gover- 
nor, and Ruler. 

This girdle was made of the same materials a$ those 
of the vail ; but the order of their arrangement was 
that of the innermost curtains of the tabernacle, viz. 
4t fine linen, blue, purple, scarlet." 

The fine linen, type of righteousness comes first, 
answering to that beautiful passage in Isaiah xi. 5. 

Righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and 
faithfulness, the girdle of his reins." Righteousness and 
faithfulness which the Lord Jesus has made perfectly 
manifest, and proved to the utmost in His death upon the 
cross. Faithfulness is the same word as truth. 

The object of the girdle was to strengthen the loins 
for service. And^h^^ beneath his outward 



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garments of majesty, glory, brilliancy, and power, still 
preserved his place, as the girded righteous servant of 
the Lord. So the Lord Jesus upon the throne of glory, 
having all power in heaven and in earth, and with the 
name above every name, yet delights to maintain His 
place as Gods servant, fulfilling the Fathers counsels, 
and accomplishing His will in the salvation and ultimate 
perfection of those that are His, 

We have in John xiii. a striking illustration of our 
blessed Lord's holy service ; deeply instructive to -us in 
two ways ; first, as teaching us what His present occu- 
pations are in our behalf, and next, as giving us an 
example which we have to follow, if we would taste of 
His happiness and joy. 

The chapter opens with these words : " Now before 
the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour 
was come, that he should depart out of this world unto 
the Father, having loved his own which were in the 
world, he loved them unto the end." 

The cross was thus before Him, that strange path- 
way of sorrow by which He was to depart out of this 
world unto the Father. The joy was before Him of 
being with the Father ; but His love, unshaken by the 
fearful prospect of woe, or by the joyous hope of un- 
speakable rest and gladness, abode firm in His bosom 
towards His own. " He loved them unto the end." 
Faithfulness of true affection for them, and true de- 
votedness to God, was the girdle of His loins. 

" And supper being ended, the devil having now put 
into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray 
him ; 

Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things 
into his hands, and that he was come from God, and 
went to God ; 

He riseth from supper, 

And laid aside his garments ; 

And took a towel, 

And girded himself. 



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.29* 

After that he poureth water into a basin, 
And began to wash the disciples' feet, 
And to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was 
girded." 

The supper which afforded emblems of His broken 
body and shed blood, was still before them. The devil 
had now full mastery of the heart of Judas. Thus in 
figure the Cross was passed. Satan had accomplished 
his purpose. Jesus took His stand as one who had 
gained the victory. He knew that the Father had given 
all things into His hands. All power in heaven and 
earth was His. He had come from God, and He was 
going to God. " He had come forth from the Father 
and had come into the world 5 again, He was about to 
leave the world and to return to the Father." — John 
xvi. 28. 

Here is the true power for lowly service. The con- 
sciousness of a height of glory and exaltation beyond 
all mere human reach ; and the knowledge that God is 
the strength, as well as the object of all service. 

We have next a picture of the perfection of service, 
a seven-fold action of the Lord. 

" He riseth from supper." He ceases to rest in the 
interchange only of thought and feeling in fellowship 
with " His own." He stands as one who has a work 
to accomplish. 

" And laid aside his garments." He divests Himself 
of any robe of dignity that might impede his lowly and 
active ministry. 

" And took a towel," or linen cloth. The girdle of 
righteousness ; the righteousness of true obedience to 
God. 

" And girded himself." Thus standing before His 
disciples and before His Father as the true servant : 
delighting in His Father's will, and rejoicing in His 
purpose to bless others. 

" After that he poureth water into a basin." The 
words " after that" may be significant. The first part 
of this wonderful scene may be typical of the deep 

L 2 



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and blessed service of Christ on the cross, whereby He 
provided that cleansing which should not only purge the 
sinner so as to make a full atonement for him and 
justify him, but should also cleanse him and keep him 
clean on to the end of his course. The precious blood, 
in the shedding of which there is remission of sins, and 
which cleanseth us from all sin. 

" And began to wash the disciples' feet." They sat 
whilst the Lord stooped to wash even their feet. He 
bent down to their need, that He might cleanse away 
every stain of defilement which they had unavoidably 
contracted, in passing through a world of sin and death. 
A priestly ministration this of the Lord in glory : keeping 
us from falling, upholding us by His living intercession. 
Daily and hourly cleansing us from ten thousand con- 
tacts with evil, of which we are not conscious, that He 
may finally present us faultless in the presence of His 
glory with exceeding joy. 

" And to wipe them with the towel wherewith he 
was girded." Using the spotless girdle to wipe off all 
remaining traces of defilement, so as to complete the 
cleansing. In this action two thoughts are embodied. 
The cleansing power of the blood itself, and the appli- 
cation of it by the living High Priest, who though exalted 
in glory, still ministers to us in humble, lowly service. 

It may here be remarked that the Lord uses two 
words subsequently, in answer to Peter. " He that is 
washed, needeth not save to wash his feet." That is, 
he who has been once completely washed all over, only 
needs afterwards to have his feet washed, but is clean 
every whit. 

The first words, " he that is washed" is the same as 
that in Rev. i. 5. " Unto him that loved us and washed 
us from our sins in his own blood." Expressing the 
complete priestly cleansing, which the sinner first re- 
ceives, making him at once clean fof God. The sub- 
sequent cleansing having reference to his conduct and 
his ways, rather than to his person. 



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" So after he had washed their feet, and had taken 
fyis garments, and was set down again, he said unto 
them, know ye what I have done to you ? Ye call me 
Master and Lord : and ye say well ; for so I am. If I 
then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet, 
ye also ought to wash one another's feet ; for I have 
given you an example, that ye should do as I have done 
to you. Verily, verily, I say unto you, the servant is not 
greater than his lord ; neither he that is sent, greater 
than he that sent him. If ye know these things happy 
are ye if ye do them." The question often occurs, how 
should this precept and example of our Lord and Master 
be carried out ? One way in which we may wash 
one another's feet is by prayer and intercession for one 
v another : especially where we know that the world 
and Satan are presenting snares and temptations, which 
may turn the feet aside into paths of defilement. " Look- 
ing diligendy lest any man fail of the grace of God : 
lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and 
thereby many be defiled." Heb. xii. 15. 

Another mode of fulfilling this direction of the Lord 
is by seeking to deliver any of the Lord's people, that 
may be ensnared, from the entanglements into which they 
may have fallen. But the example of the Lord must 
be accurately followed, when we attempt to deal with the 
failures of our brethren. Many have been fastened more 
firmly in that which is evil, through the proud and un- 
gracious way in which they have been dealt with. 
Herein therefore this beautiful action of Christ is of 
great value. He divested Himself of all seeming 
superiority, though He was truly " Lord and Master. ' 
He stooped to the feet of those He washed. He did 
it calmly, gently, and effectually; and failed not to 
wipe the feet after He had washed them. In all this 
we have a pattern of meekness, grace, and compassion, 
which we should do well to imitate. 

In John xvii, Jesus takes the place by anticipation 
beyond the Cross. He speaks of His having glorified the 



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Father on the earth, and having finished the work given 
Him to do. And says, " now I am no more in the 
world looking back to the time as passed when He 
was with His disciples in the world. This wonderful 
chapter especially reveals to us, the subjects of deepest 
interest to the heart of Christ, and of constant interces- 
sion between Him and the Father. It opens to us the 
holiest, and tells us what the converse is there between 
the Son and the Father ; the High Priest, and God. 
We find the Lord still keeping His place as the righteous 
servant, rendering an account of His work, and asking 
to be glorified, in order that He may pursue the same 
object for which He came down to die, viz. to glorify 
the Father, " Glorify thy Son that thy Son also 
may glorify thee." He closes His prayer with the words, ' 
" I have declared unto them thy name and will declare 
it, that the love wherewith thou hast loved me, may be 
in them and I in them." He serves us still in making 
known to our souls the unspeakable value of the name, 
Father. And through the revelation of that name 
instructing our hearts in the Father's love towards us, 
as towards His own blessed Son. 

The fine linen coat/and girdle of needlework, were as 
much garments for glory and beauty, as the gorgeous 
ephod with its breastplate of precious stones. Who 
shall estimate the glory and beauty of the Lord, as God's 
servant, who has glorified Him on earth and glorifies 
Him still ? The glory and beauty of spotless righteous- 
ness and obedience, manifested to the full here below in 
every scene and circumstance of human life ; perfected in 
the suffering of the cross- in death, and now perpetuated 
for ever in the holiest above. 



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THE GARMENTS FOR AARON'S SONS. 



" And they made coats of fine 
linen of woven work for Aaron 
and for his sons. 

"And goodly bonnets of fine 
linen." — Exod. xxxix. 27, 28. 



"And for Aaron's sons thou 
shalt make coats. And thou shalt 
make for them girdles, and bon- 
nets shalt thou make for them for 
.glory and ior beauty." — Exod. 
xxviii. 40. 

The Garments for glory and beauty with which the 
sons of Aaron were clothed, consisted of coats, girdles, 
and bonnets of fine twined linen. There was no orna- 
ment or embroidery : no gold or brilliant colours. 
They were arrayed in pure white garments. 

Aaron, as the high priest, appeared in the presence of 
the Lord in a representative character, personating we 
may say, the whole nation Israel, and upholding it in the 
glory and beauty required by God ; bearing the names 
of the tribes on his shoulders and breastplate, graven on 
precious stones. His sons the priests stood in no such 
official dignity, but had access into the holy place and 
ministered at the altar, on behalf of the people, not as 
representing them, but rather as leaders of their worship, 
and instructors of them in the holy things of God. 
They were types of one aspect of the church of God — 
the heavenly priesthood. In the Revelation, the four 
and twenty elders have a priestly standing ; they form 
the heavenly council, being elders, and therefore also 
judges. They are seated on thrones, because kings. 
They are clothed in white raiment, as priests, and they 
have on their heads crowns of gold, that is, victor's 
crowns, or chaplets. Chap. iv. 4. 

The countless multitude are also seen clothed with 
white robes ; a priestly company serving day and night 
in the heavenly temple. Chap. vii. 9. The Lambs wife 
is seen arrayed in fine linen clean and white : for the 
line linen is the righteousness of saints. Chap. xix. 8.* 

* In page 6 of this work there is a mistake in the reference to Jeremiah xxiii- 
and xxxiii. 16. In these two passages the Hebrew is not in the plural. But we 
find the plural used in Isaiah xlv. 24, " Surely shall one say, in Jehovah have I 
rtghteotuness'sand strength." In contrast with chapter lxiv. 6," But we are all as an 
unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses as filthy rags, and we all do fade as a leaf." 



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We have white raiment also alluded to in Rev. iii. 4, 
18 ; and in vi. II. 

Thus the priestly dress of fine linen, and the garments 
of unsullied whiteness represent the same thing — spotless 
righteousness. The standing of the believer in Christ 
before God ; not having his own righteousnesses, but the 
righteousness which is of God by faith. 

There is an interesting passage in Isaiah lxi. 10, "I 
will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul shall be joyful 
in my God •, for he hath clothed me with the garments 
of salvation, he hath covered me with the robe of right- 
eousness, as a bridegroom decketh himself with orna- 
ments, and as a bride adorneth herself with her jewels." 

It will be observed from the margin that this might 
be translated, "as a bridegroom decketh himself as a 
priest with ornaments ," and the word for ornaments is the 
same as that used Exod. xxxix. 29, 4 u goodly bonnets." 
The garments of salvation, the robe of righteousness, are 
like the bridegrooms priestly glory ; and like the brides 
adornments. May not this passage in Isaiah have been 
in the mind of the Spirit of God, when inditing that 
portion of Rev. xix. 8, referred to above. 

The bridal ornaments are the priestly robes of fine 
linen. Christ our righteousness. The Church will 
shine forth in His spotless white and glistening raiment, 
clean and bright, clothed with Christ. 

We are exhorted Rom. xiii. 14, to "put on the Lord 
Jesus Christ," and in Gal. iii. 27, it is said, " as many of 
you as have been baptized into Christ have/*// on Christ."' 

As believers in Jesus we have already put on Christ* 
He is our spotless robe of righteousness. But we have 
also to remember the exhortation to be constantly putting 
on the Lord Jesus Christ. Our conduct and walk should 
correspond with our real standing before God, and our 
way to aim at this is by setting the Lord alway before 
us, and seeking to walk in His steps ; remembering ever 
to connect our thoughts and meditations of Him with 
His death upon the cross ; for thereby we shall get the 



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strength we need, at the same time, that we have before 
us the perfect example. 

In this respect the Lord's people often fail and are 
discouraged : they very properly look at the Lord Jesus 
as the pattern of what they should be in their Christian 
course, but they fail to realize the power required in 
order to follow Him. This arises from their not eating 
His flesh and drinking His blood whilst they gaze on Him. 

We shall find many beautiful illustrations of this 
truth in the Epistles. Paul, when he says, " the life 
which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the 
Son of God," immediately adds, "who loved me, and 
gave himself for me," proving that all his strength was 
derived from this remembrance of the love of Christ, 
manifested in His death. Both the Epistles to the 
Corinthians are filled with direct or incidental allusions 
to the death of Christ. They are Epistles containing 
many rebukes, and much practical exhortation. When 
the apostle Peter puts before those to whom he wrote, 
the exceedingly difficult grace of bearing patiently 
sufferings wrongly inflicted, he presents Christ as an 
example, and adds " who his own self bare our sins in 
his own body on the tree — by whose stripes ye were 
healed." 



GIRDLES. 

"And thou shalt make for them girdles." — Exod. xxviii. 40* 

We have no mention of these girdles as subsequently 
made in Exod. xxxix. But Moses is directed to gird 
Aaron and his sons with girdles. Exod. xxix. 9. And 
he does so as related in Lev. viii. 13. We have 
allusions in the New Testament to the girdle, both as a 
portion of the believer's armour, and as a part of his 
ordinary garments. 

"Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, 



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that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and 
having done all to stand. Stand therefore having your 
loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate 
of righteousness, and your feet shod with the preparation 
of the gospel of peace ; above all taking the shield of 
faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery 
darts of the wicked. And take the helmet of salvation, 
and the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God." 
Eph. vi. 13 — 17. 

This Epistle which begins with the perfect rest, and 
blessing of believers in Christ, ("blessed with all 
spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ :" "raised 
up together, and made to sit together in heavenly places 
in Christ Jesus." I. 3, ii. 6.) closes with a description of 
the most severe struggle and conflict, to which we are 
continually exposed. It tells us we are seated, and 
afterwards bids us "stand" It assures us of an 
inheritance obtained in Christ, but exhorts us to wrestle 
against enemies usurping possession of the place of our 
inheritance. It extends the sphere of conflict from the 
world to the highest heavens } and whilst telling us of 
the exceeding greatness of God's power towards us, 
and in us, according to the working of the might of His 
power which he wrought in Christ when He raised 
Him from the dead, at the same time encourages us to 
be strong in the Lord and in the power of His might. 
This is ever the order of the Epistles. Our full blessings 
with all their stability and irreversible security in Christ 
are first declared; and then follow exhortations to 
realize and use them, and to live in the power of them. 
God ever declares the victory won before He sends us 
into the conflict. We must by faith realize our 
perfect rest and peace and security, before we attempt 
to stand in conflict with the foe. We fight from rest 
and victory, instead of for them. 

In this Scripture we are told to put on the whole 
armour of God, that we may be able to stand against 
the wiles of the devil; to wrestle against the vast 



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principalities and powers of wicked spirits, rulers of the 
darkness of this world; and to quench all the fiery darts 
of the wicked one. A wonderful combination of evil 
spirits with deceits, dark delusions, and fiery weapons 
arrayed against us. Little do we comprehend the 
vastness of the struggle, and alas ! slow are we often to 
perceive the snares, and guileful devices laid for us. 
We need to take unto us, and to put on the whole 
armour of God, that we may "withstand" and 
" stand." Twice we are exhorted to "stand" for we 
have no ground to gain ; we have only to hold our own. 
God has raised us up in Christ to the loftiest height of 
glory — we cannot attain a higher place, for there is none. 
All we have to do is to maintain our footing firm in the 
super-heavenly places. The armour for offence and 
defence has been provided by God, and the strength 
alone is His. 

It is to be observed that the Girdle is mentioned first. 
" Girded about as to your loins with truth." ' 

And the sword is mentioned last ; "the sword of the 
Spirit which is the word of God." The girdle and 
sword must be closely connected together, and all the rest 
of the armour seems, as it were, to be included within 
these two pieces. Truth is unchangeable, eternal; it can 
never alter or vary with time or circumstances. It is 
fixed like the everlasting hills. It is the word of God. 
It is Christ. The whole strength of the warrior to 
stand and wrestle depends upon the close fitting of this 
firm girdle. If his loins be weak, and not knit firmly 
by this sinew of strength, Satan will soon cast him down 
from his excellency, and he would then cease to stand 
In his high calling, and would probably sink into some 
darkness of the world's delusions : ensnared either by 
Its vanities and glittering honours, or its learned 
speculations of so called wisdom. Truth, that is, 
the word of God, all that centres in Christ and 
proceeds from Him, is our only support and our only 
weapon ; our girdle and our sword. 



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The Girdle is also an important part of die 
ordinary garments of the believer, as a priest and 
servant. 

In Luke xii. 35, 36, the Lord exhorts His disciples 
to be ready for His return. " Let your loins be girded 
about, and your lights burning ; and ye yourselves like 
unto men that wait for their Lord." 

They are to have the true attitude of expectancy, 
which can only be maintained by constant activity in 
service, and letting the light of truth shine out. The 
hope of the Lord's return will not really abide in the 
heart, unless we keep our loins girded as engaged in our 
Masters work, and let our light shine out before men. 
An inactive believer is sure to become a worldly minded 
one, and he will begin to eat and drink with the 
drunken. He will have companionship with the men 
of the world, whose intoxicating pursuits of avarice, 
ambition, and pleasure, deaden their hearts and con- 
sciences to all the truth of God. "Occupy till I come," 
is another precept of Jesus of the same kind, as "let your 
loins be girded." The light also must not be hidden. 
The bed and the bushel are two snares to the believer. 
Men indeed do not put the candle under either ; for the 
children of this world are in their generation wiser than 
the children of light. Indolence and supineness, of 
which the bed is an emblem, enervate many of those 
who ought to let their light shine brightly ; whilst the 
active and engrossing pursuits of life, legitimate in their 
way, trade and commerce, of which the bushel is a 
" resemblance." Zech. v. 6, alas ! too often bury out 
of sight the manifestation of the life and light of the 
believer. 

We find another exhortation 1st Peter i. 13, "where- 
fore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and hope 
to the end for the grace which is to be brought unta 
you at the revelation of Jesus Christ." Here believers 
are especially addressed as strangers and pilgrims on 
their journey through a foreign country into their own 



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land, where an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, 
and that fadeth not away is reserved for them. 

Two subjects of an all engrossing nature are presented 
to them. Subjects which the very prophets who spoke 
of them understood not, though they enquired and 
searched diligently, and which the angels of glory 
desire to look into : " the sufferings of Christ, and the 
glories after these." If we would press on as strangers 
and pilgrims, we must gird up the loins of our mind, to 
the constant contemplation of the great Salvation, 
which comprises these two subjects. 

A man who allows his garments to be loose, and 
who girds not up his loins, will make but little progress 
on his journey. We must therefore gather in our loose 
floating thoughts and wandering imaginations, and learn 
to fix more continually our minds and understandings 
upon the death, resurrection, and coming of Jesus, and 
the great truths connected therewith, if we would 
pursue our path with less distraction. The girded 
priest and pilgrim must also be sober. The Lord gave 
■a precept to Aaron and his sons, not to drink wine or 
strong drink when officiating in the Tabernacle. Lev. 
x. 9. The pilgrim also will walk unsteadily if he 
indulge himself in intoxicating draughts. We live in a 
world especially given up at the present time to 
drunkenness of all kinds. Men are hurrying on their 
projects with a determination of purpose, an eagerness 
of mind which prove that they have drunk largely of 
Babylon's golden cup of abominations. What with 
science, commerce, exhibitions, politics, wars, commo- 
tions, men have no time for considerations respecting 
eternity. The god of this world has filled up with 
consummate skill every moment of human existence; 
and all hurry with railroad velocity, along the broad 
road that leads to destruction. In the midst of this 
.scene the girded servant of the Lord must be sober, and 
hope on to the end, assuredly knowing that grace will 
be brought to him, (even the glory itself, for glory is 



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grace,) at the revelation of Jesus Christ. 1st Peter i. 13* 
The revelation of that hidden One whom the world has 
rejected, and of whom it is willingly ignorant.' 

In the Revelation, the Son of Man, as seen in visions 
by John, was "girt about the paps with a golden girdle."" 
The object of this girdle seems not to have been to 
strengthen Him who wore it for priestly service of 
judgment, but rather to bind the robe of blue — the robe 
of heavenly love and peace firmly around His heart, so 
that in the midst of searching words of reproof and 
warning, mercies might be poured forth from breasts 
of consolations. 

In Rev. xv. 6, the seven angels having the seven 
plagues, are seen coming out of the temple clothed in 
pure and white linen, their breasts girded with golden 
girdles. 

Here again the girdle is not upon the loins, the 
emblem probably being, that the heart of the angels to 
whom the vials of wrath were entrusted, needed to be 
strengthened for their terrible work of judgment. The 
fine linen, expressive of righteousness was therefore 
firmly girt with gold around their breasts. 



THE BONNETS. 



"And bonnets shalt thou make 
for them, for glory and for 
beauty. — Exod. xxviii. 40. 



"And goodly bonnets of fine 
linen. — Exod. xxxix. 28. 



The word (migbahgohth) translated "bonnets" only 
occurs four times, and is exclusively used for the head 
dress of the priests. It is derived from a verb signifying 
"elevation," often used for a hill. They apparently 
differed from the mitre of the high priest, in the fact 
that they were bound round the heads of the priests* 
which is never said of the mitre. 



3^3 

And put (margin bind) the bonnets on them. Exod. 
xxix. 9. 

And put (margin bound) bonnets upon them. Lev. 
viii. 13. 

They were probably rolls of fine linen, folded like 
a turban round the head. The word translated 
" goodly," (Exod. xxxix. 28,) is worthy of notice. It 
is rendered "bonnets? Isa. iii. 20,; Ezek. xliv. 18, \ 
" tire of the head? Ezek. xxiv. 17, 23, " beauty? Isa. 
lxi. 3. ; " Ornaments? Isa. lxi. 10, and is derived from 
a verb, signifying " to beautify, or glorify." 

These head dresses were therefore for exaltation, for 
ornament, and for glory and beauty. 

It has been before remarked that the covering of the 
head betokened subjection, and the recognition of being 
in the presence of a superior. The Jews to this day, 
always keep their heads covered in the synagogue ; and 
even in private, when a strict Jew opens the Bible he 
covers his head. A priestly standing is one of constant 
subjection to the revealed will of God ; and of abiding 
consciousness of His presence. And this is true dignity. 
God has raised us up in perfect righteousness, complete 
in Christ, ever to abide before Him ; His kings and 
priests. And in this height of elevation, we walk in the 
liberty of Christ, holding Him only as our Head, subject 
to Him in all things, and " not the servants of man." 
The righteousness of faith — the obedience of faith, 
instead of the self-will of the flesh, and the unsubject 
mind, is the truly priestly clothing from head to foot. 
Being made free from sin we are servants of righteous- 
ness, servants of God. Rom. vi. 18, 22. Our blessed 
occupation is during this night of the world's darkness, 
to stand in the house of the Lord to praise His name. 
Psa. cxxxiv. I cxxxv. I — 3. 

These head-tires of white are said to be goodly or 
ornamental. There was nothing of display to attract 
the common gaze, but like the adorning recommended 
for Christian women, (1st Pet. iii. 4, 5,) they were types 



304 

of the meek and quiet spirit which in the sight of God 
is of great price. Like the holy women of old who 
trusted in God, and thus adorned themselves, in subjec- 
tion to their own husbands. 

There is a " glory and beauty" in spotless righteous- 
ness which may be little accounted of by men, but which 
enables us to approach God with confidence, and fits us 
for His Holy presence. Such was in type the dress of 
Aaron's sons the priests. Psa. cxxxii. 9, 



THE LINEN BREECHES. 



"And linen breeches of fine 
twined linen." — Exod. xxxix. 28. 



"And thou shalt make them 
linen breeches to cover their naked- 
ness ; from the loins even unto the 
thighs they shall reach : 

"And they shall be upon Aaron, 
and upon his sons, when they 
come in unto the tabernacle of 
the congregation, or when they 
come near unto the altar to min- 
ister in the holy place ; that they 
bear not iniquity, and die : it shall 
be a statute for ever unto him and 
his seed after him." — Exod. xxviii. 
4 2 > 43- 



A remarkable exception here occurs, and also a 
difficulty, respecting the materials of which this article 
of priestly dress was made. In Exod. xxviiL 42, the 
word linen is used, but in the Hebrew (bad) is em- 
ployed to express this, an.d not (shehsh.) This last is 
the word used in all other instances, and the only material 
of the kind said to be brought by thp people, usually 
translated fine linen. This is not all ; for in Exod. xxxix. 
28, both words occur, which may be translated " and 
the breeches the linen, (the bad,) fine linen twined, 
shehsh-mashzar. It may be, two sorts of linen were 
woven together. 



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In the other places where these vestments are men- 
tioned they are only called "breeches of linen" (bad.) 
Lev. vi. io ; xvi. 4. The garments for glory and 
beauty apparently close at Exod. xxviii. 40, and they 
seem to be the only garments needed for the consecra- 
tion of the priests : see v. 41, and Lev. viii. 7, 9, 13. 
But when officiating in certain service, Aaron and his 
sons had to put on the linen breeches. " When they 
came in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when 
they came near unto the altar to minister in the holy 
place, (v. 43.) That is, when they came into the co- 
vered building, or when they ministered at the incense 
altar, which is the altar in the holy place. It is probable 
therefore, that in all ordinary ministrations at the altar 
of burnt-offering, they were not worn. The two 
ceremonies recorded Lev. vi. 10 ; and xvi. 4, being 
exceptions and peculiar. 

The first result of the entrance of sin was to discover 
to man his own nakedness. The feeling of shame, a 
guilty feeling crept over his soul : and his attention was 
immediately directed to some mode of quieting his con- 
science in this respect, that he might appear unabashed 
in the presence of his fellow. No thought of his fall 
as regarded God, or of his inability to stand in His 
presence, occurred to him. And so it is to this day. 
The great object which men propose to themselves is to 
quiet their own consciences, and to stand well with 
their neighbours. To this end they invent a religion. As 
soon as we have to do with God, the conscience is 
convicted, and the guilt and shame which before were 
quieted, spring up within, and nothing can still the 
restless uneasiness of the heart. We become aware that 
all things are naked and opened to the eyes of Him with 
whom we have to do. The soul in vain attempts 
concealment. The still smalf voice" of God sounds 
within, and drags the culprit out to stand before Him. 

It is here that a righteousness not our own becomes 
unspeakably precious to the soul. A covering that both 



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blots out all sin, and for ever clothes the sinner with 
spotless purity •, which conceals from the searching eye 
of God all iniquity, and in so doing completely justifies 
the sinner before Him. Psa. xxxii. 1,2. 

The sinner not only needs, for the sake of his peace, 
to know that his innumerable transgressions are for- 
given, but also, that the sin and iniquity of his evil 
heart, his evil nature, his corrupt self, is gone for ever 
from the sight and remembrance of God. The naked- 
ness of the flesh must be obliterated, otherwise there 
can be no confidence of access to Gods presence — 
there can be no true-hearted service rendered to Him. 

These last mentioned garments of the priests directly 
shadow this truth. They were " to cover the flesh of 
their nakedness," and to reach " from the loins to the 
thighs." The whole strength of nature was thus to be 
concealed ; that strength of evil which would be mani- 
fested in the walk of the sinner, and which would 
oppose God with all its energy, as in the case of Jacob 
with whom the angel wrestled. 

This part of the dress was especially required when 
the priests entered the more immediate presence of God. 
They would know more of their own iniquity in pro- 
portion as they drew near unto Him. And He provided 
that covering in order that they might not bear their 
iniquity and die. There seems to be here a beautiful 
allusion to the truth, so often expressed in the Word of 
God, viz., that the righteousness of God by faith is 
justification through the blood. If sin be covered from 
the eye of Jehovah, He sees perfect righteousness. If 
the priest could hide his nakedness, " the nakedness of 
the flesh" from God, he would no longer bear his own 
iniquity and die. And how can this be accomplished ? 
Isaiah liii. reveals the way. Gods righteous servant 
justifies many through faith in Him, by having borne 
their iniquities. 

This is one of those eternal statutes, an irreversible 
decree of the Lord which cannot be evaded. Whoever 



307 



draws nigh to God, must previously have had his guilt 
and ruin buried out of sight. 

In connection with this type, another precept of the 
Lord may be noticed. " An altar of earth thou shalt 
make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt 
offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep and thine 
oxen : in all places where I record my name I will come 
unto thee, and I will bless thee. And if thou wilt 
make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of 
hewn stone : for if thou lift thy tool upon it, thou hast 
polluted it. Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto 
mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon." 
Exod. xx. 24 — 36. 

We have here three directions respecting altars which 
might be erected in certain cases. 

If God were to record His name in some peculiar 
place, an altar might be erected there for burnt-offerings 
and peace-offerings ; but it must be of earth. This com- 
mandment necessitated that the name of Jehovah must 
first be known and trusted, before sacrifice could be pre- 
sented to Him. He must have displayed His own 
power and mercy, so as to record His name, and then 
the Israelite was at liberty to perpetuate his remembrance 
of that name, by offerings of sheep and oxen upon an 
altar of earth. 

The altar was not to be the object. In idolatrous 
worship, the shape and cosdy materials of which the 
altar is composed especially engross the thoughts of 
the worshipper, and it becomes^ the attractive object. 
But the name of Jehovah was that which the Israelite 
had to remember. And earth ready on the spot was to 
be used for building up a sacrificial place. 

Are we not here taught, to lay no stress upon the 
imposing ceremonials, with whuch men seek to please the 
eye and gratify the imagination in religious observances ? 
" Worship in spirit and in truth" is what God requires ; 
and the very absence of pomp and fleshly dignity, will 
conduce to lowliness of heart and self-abasement, and 



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will at least help towards reality in drawing nigh to 
God. The altar of earth was a lowly thing, and stood 
out in contrast with the high places, selected by the 
heathen nations of Canaan, for their places of worship. 
Calvary was a place of no esteem. The Cross had no 
attractiveness for the eye, and He who hung on it had 
" no beauty that we should desire Him." 

If the Israelite made an altar of stone he was not 
to build it of hewn stone. The rough unhewn stones 
around him were to be taken ; and no shapeliness to 
please the natural eye was to be attempted. " To lift 
up a tool" upon it would pollute it. Here again the 
same truth is recorded with additions. The Cross of 
shame, and woe, and curse has in modern days been 
turned into an ornamental device. It is stamped in gold ; 
emblazoned in colours ; and worn as an ornament of 
female dress. Truly it is polluted by being thus handled 
by human fancy ! 

We have two kinds of religion running in powerful 
streams around us •, a Cross without a Christ ; and, a 
Christ without a Cross. 

In the first case the mere emblem is cherished and 
portrayed in every variety of form ; ' whilst the living 
Christ, who died, is not trusted. The emblems of His 
flesh and blood it may be, reverenced : His flesh and 
blood in reality not eaten and drunk. Outward adorn- 
ments of holy things carefully and elaborately wrought. 
Vestments, and buildings, and altars, studied with deep 
interest, formed after patterns recovered out of by-gone 
days of darkness and idolatry ; whilst the true priests 
washed in the precious blood of the Lamb are almost 
unknown. The building of " living stones" in union 
with " the living stone," is disregarded ; and the tree of 
curse, and He who hung on it, are in reality despised. 

In the latter, a Christ without a Cross, a wide-spread 
taint of Socinianism pervades vast numbers of the 
religious publications of the day. Christ is pre- 
sented as an example to the unbeliever, instead of 



3°9 

being exalted as a Saviour through the blood of His 
Cross. Mankind is supposed to have been raised in 
the scale of existence by the Son of God having 
become man. A kind of regeneration of the human 
race is preached through c< the Word having been made 
flesh/' and the sinner is directed to cultivate his own 
better thoughts and feelings, and to aim at a kind of 
mystical abstraction of soul, instead of being pointed to 
the Son of Man lifted up upon the tree. What is all 
this but trampling under foot the blood of Christ ? 

" Steps" were not to be made to God's altar. It was 
to stand on the level ground, upon the dust of the 
earth, so that any one might approach it immediately, 
without having to advance higher and higher to reach it. 
Beautiful type this, of the universal aspect of the Cross 
of Christ, presented by God to the whole needy world. 
No priest stands between the sinner and God to intercede 
for him, or to help him in his approach, for he needs 
none. In his ungodliness, his sins, his uncleanness, 
degraded, lost, undone, a prey of Satan, and steeped in 
iniquity, he may at once accept the gift of Gods love, 
His blessed Son. Neither has he to advance step by 
step in reformation or improvement, before he may 
venture to draw near to the sacrifice God has provided. 
Every attempt Godward, every step higher, is only a 
further discovery of the nakedness of the flesh. Every 
outward amendment, as a plea for the mercy of God is 
a fresh exposure of the uncleanness and evil of the heart. 
It is a slander on the death of Christ ; it impugns the 
love and mercy of God. He has fully calculated the 
sinner's corruption and sin, and He has provided' accord- 
ing to that divine calculation, a sufficiency in the blood 
of the Lamb to meet every necessity ; to blot out all 
iniquity, and to give everlasting righteousness. 

If we would see our nakedness in all its evil, God 
has laid it bare in the death of His Son ; and that 
same death clothes us for ever, and fits us for His glory. 
A sinner is either far off from God in the distance of 



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utter condemnation ; or, he is made nigh by the blood 
of Christ. There are no steps of approach or improve- 
ment. There can be no interval between death and 
life : between lost and found. 

This concludes the priestly garments for glory and 
beauty. There were other garments which will be 
hereafter noticed, mentioned in Leviticus. 

When all the work of the tabernacle was finished it 
was brought to Moses. 

" Thus was all the work of the tabernacle of the tent of the congre- 
gation finished : and the children of Israel did according to all that the 
Lord commanded Moses, so did they. 

" And they brought the tabernacle unto Moses, the tent, and all his 
furniture, his taches, his boards, his bars, and his pillars, and his sockets, 

"And the covering of rams' skins dyed red, and the covering of 
badgers' skins, and the vail of the covering, 

" The ark of the testimony, and the staves thereof, and the mercy 
*eat, 

" The table, and all the vessels thereof, and the shewbread, 

"The pure candlestick, with the lamps thereof, even with the lamps 
to be set in order, and all the vessels thereof, and the oil for light, 

" And the golden altar, and the anointing oil, and the sweet incense, 
and the hanging for the tabernacle door, 

" The brazen altar, and his gate of brass, his staves, and all his vessels, 
the laver and his foot, 

"The hangings of the court, his pillars, and his sockets, and the 
hanging for the court gate, his cords, and his pins, and all the vessels 
■of the service of the tabernacle, for the tent of the congregation, 

" The cloths of service to do service in the holy place, and the holy 
garments for Aaron the priest, and his sons' garments, to minister in 
the priest's office. 

" According to all that the Lord commanded Moses, so the children 
•of Israel made all the work. 

"And Moses did look upon all the work, and, behold, they had done 
it as the Lord had commanded, even so had they done it : and Moses 
blessed them." — Exod. xxxix. 32 — 43. 

The enumeration of the things thus made, is divided 
out into seven portions, as may be perceived on looking 
down the verses : connecting those together which begin 
with the word " and." For instance, verses 33 and 34 
are the first portions, viz, the tabernacle and vail. 

Verse 35, the second, the ark and mercy seat. 

Verse 36, the third, the table of shewbread and its 
vessels. 



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Verses 37 and 38, the fourth, including the candle- 
stick, the golden altar of incense, the anointing oil, and 
the tabernacle door. 

Verse 39, the fifth, the brazen altar and the laver. 

Verse 40, the sixth, the court of the tabernacle. 

Verse 41, the seventh, the cloths of service, and the 
priests' garments. 

There is in this enumeration a classing together of 
certain things which are more intimately connected, and 
which it is interesting to contemplate. The vail is 
classed with the tabernacle itself : because it divided the 
building into two distinct parts or rooms, and it is called 
the vail of the covering because it covered or hid the ark 
and mercy-seat, and holy of holies. ( Allusion has been 
before made to this in the exposition of the vail.) 

The candlestick, golden altar, anointing oil, and sweet 
incense, are classed together, because there was a close 
connection between them. Incense was burned upon 
the altar when the lamps were dressed and lighted. 
One constituent also of the anointing oil, was the same 
kind of oil as that for the light. Light, fragrance 
of Christ's work, and the graces of the Holy Spirit, are 
closely connected together. The hanging of the taber- 
nacle door was also classed with these, because, by 
means of that door, the way of access was provided to 
these vessels of priestly service.* 

The brazen altar and laver are connected, for no 
ministry could take place at the former, unless the priests 
had washed their hands and feet at the latter. It is to 
be observed also, that all the vessels of service were 
presented to Moses, ready for use. The mercy-seat 
was brought with the ark and staves. The shewbread 
was presented with the table. Oil for light with the 
candlestick, and sweet incense with the golden altar. 

This betokens an understanding of the objects for 
which these various holy vessels were made. We should 

* In the work on " The Holy Vessels," this subject is fully treated, together 
with the connection of the different Vessels of the Tabernacle one with the 
other, 



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do well to imitate this by seeking to know more of the 
various blessed occupations of our High Priest in the 
presence of God for us. 

This is the only chapter in the Bible where it is 
recorded of a people, that they finished and did all that 
the Lord commanded. This is thrice repeated. 

" The children of Israel did according to all that the 
Lord commanded Moses, so did they." 

" According to all that the Lord commanded Moses, 
so the children of Israel made all the work." 

" They had done it as the Lord had commanded, even 
so had they done it." Exod. xxxix. 32, 42, 43. 

What a high commendation is this ! Where shall we 
find a people who have followed this example ? Can it 
be said of the Church of God — according to all that the 
Lord has commanded, so have they done. Have we 
attended as minutely to His directions, as this people 
followed accurately the commandments of the Lord 
given to them by Moses. His word to us, is, " If ye 
love me keep my commandments." Alas ! we seem to 
think we may dispense with this little precept, or vary 
that appointment as we think fit. We hear of " non- 
essentials," and "things that are immaterial." Some- 
times even the question is asked, "what does it signify ?" 

Could the Lord have placed this thrice repeated 
commendation of the children of Israel, at the close of 
this book of Exodus, if they had felt at liberty to omit 
some little " border " of a holy vessel — some " pin " or 
" cord ;" or if they had thought the golden altar too 
plain, and had added ornaments to it : or the dress of 
the priests too common, and had embroidered it with 
more costly materials ? If God's directions were enough 
for them, and they kept within His commandments, 
adding nothing to them, and omitting none of them 
ought we not to consider that His words in the New 
Testament are sufficient for our instruction and guidance, 
in all matters of Gospel truth, worship, and service? 
Would it not be well for us to confine ourselves within 



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3*3 

the limits of His holy word, and also to hold all the 
truths it contains ? 

We have moreover an infallible interpreter ever present 
with us, and dwelling in us ; the Spirit of truth, the 
Holy Ghost ; so that we are without excuse if we abide 
by human traditions, instead of cleaving to the word of 
God ; or if we willingly remain in ignorance of what 
that word declares. 

The blessing of Moses rested on the people, when he 
saw how they had carried out to the letter the will of 
God. The blessing of a greater than Moses will 
abundantly rest on us, if we diligently give ourselves, 
first to ascertain the mind of God as revealed in His 
word; and next, seek to the utmost of our power by the 
help of the Holy Spirit, to carry out the mind and will of 
God. As we do His will we shall still know more of 
His teaching. Our path will become more and more 
the path of the righteous, of the obedient ones, shining 
more and more unto the perfect day. And we shall 
find our prayers more fully answered, and our hearts 
more full of joy. And our fellowship with the Father 
and with His Son, Jesus Christ, and with one another 
will be more complete and uninterrupted. ' ' If ye abide in 
me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye 
will and it shall be done unto you." John xv. 7. "If 
a man love me, he will keep my words : and my Father 
will love him, and we will come unto him, and make 
our abode with him." xiv. 23. 



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3M 

THE REARING UP OF THE TABERNACLE. 



"And the Lord spake unto 
Moses, saying, 

" On the first day of the first 
month shalt thou set up the 
tabernacle of the tent of the 
congregation. 

"And thou shalt put therein 
the ark of the testimony, and 
cover the ark with the vail. 

"And thou shalt bring in the 
table, and set in order the things 
that are to be set in order upon it ; 
and thou shalt bring in the can- 
dlestick, and light the lamps 
thereof. 

"And thou shalt set the altar 
of gold for the incense before the 
ark of the testimony, and put the 
hanging of the door to the taber- 
nacle. 

" And thou shalt set the altar 
of the burnt offering before the 
door of the tabernacle of the tent 
of the congregation. 

" And thou shalt set the laver 
between the tent of the congrega- 
tion and the altar, and shalt put 
water therein. 

"And thou shalt set up the 
court round about, and hang up 
the hanging at the court gate. 

"And thou shalt take the 
anointing oil, and anoint the 
tabernacle, and all that is therein, 
and shalt hallow it, and all the 
vessels thereof: and it shall be 
holy. 

"And thou shalt anoint the 
altar of the burnt offering, and all 
his vessels, and sanctify the altar : 
and it shall be an altar most holy. 

"And thou shalt anoint the 
laver and his foot, and sanctify it. 

"And thou shale bring Aaron 
and his sons unto the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation, 
and wash them with water. 



"And it came to pass in the 
first month in the second year, 
on the first day of the month, 
that the tabernacle was reared up. 

"And Moses reared up the 
tabernacle, and fastened his sock- 
ets, and set up the boards thereof, 
and put in the bars thereof, and 
reared up his pillars. 

" And he spread abroad the tent 
over the tabernacle, and put the 
covering of the tent above upon 
it; as the Lord commanded 
Moses. 

"And he took and put the 
testimony into the ark, and set 
the staves on the ark, and put the 
mercy seat above upon the ark : 

"And he brought the ark into 
the tabernacle, and set up the vail 
of the covering, and covered the 
ark of the testimony ; as the Lord 
commanded Moses. 

" And he put the table in the 
tent of the congregation, upon the 
side of the tabernacle northward, 
without the vail. 

" And he set the bread in order 
upon it before the Lord ; as the 
Lord commanded Moses. 

" And he put the candlestick in 
the tent of the congregation, over 
against the table, on the side of 
the tabernacle southward. 

"And he lighted the lamps 
before the Lord; as the Lord 
commanded Moses. 

"And he put the golden altar 
in the tent of the congregation 
before the vail : 

"And he burnt sweet incense 
thereon ; as the Lord commanded 
Moses. 

"And he set up the hanging at 
the door of. the tabernacle. 

" And he put the altar of burnt 
offering by the door of the taber- 



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"And thou shalt put upon 
Aaron the holy garments, and 
anoint him, and sanctify him; 
that he may minister unto me in 
the priest's office. 

"And thou shalt bring his 
sons, and clothe them with coats : 

" And thou shalt anoint them, 
as thou didst anoint their father, 
that they may minister unto me 
in the priest's office: for their 
anointing shall surely be an ever- 
lasting priesthood throughout 
their generations. 

"Thus did Moses: according 
to all that the Lord commanded 
him, so did he." — Exod. xl. i — 
x6. 



3*5 

nacle of the twit of the congrega- 
tion, and offered upon it the burnt 
offering and the meat offering ; as 
the Lord' commanded Moses. 

" And he set the laver between 
the tent of the congregation and 
the altar, and put water there, to 
wash withal. 

"And Moses and Aaron and his 
sons washed their hands and their 
feet thereat: 

"When they went into the 
tent of the congregation, and 
when they came near unto the 
altar, they washed ; as the Lord 
commanded Moses. 

"And he reared up the court 
round about the tabernacle and 
the altar, and set up the hanging 
of the court gate. So Moses 
finished the work." — Exod. xi. 
17—33. 



A new order of time was instituted by God when Israel 
was delivered from wrath and from Egypt, through the 
blood of the paschal Lamb. " And the Lord spake unto 
Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, this month 
shall be unto you the beginning of months, it shall be 
the first month of the year to you." Exod. xii. I, 2. 
For the first lime also was that people nationally 
contemplated, and constituted an assembly or congrega- 
tion, (v. 6,) and accounted the hosts of the Lord. v. 41. 

The name Israel was then given to them, (v. 15,) 
and they were reckoned in houses and families, 
v. 3, 21, 27. Thus they dated their existence as a 
people from the ordinance of the passover, and their 
first year commenced. 

The months had run out during their sojourn in 
the wilderness, and now their second year of national 
existence was celebrated by the erection of the 
Tabernacle. God selected the desert for this glorious 
building. He could not dwell in the midst of them in 
Egypt ; but as strangers and pilgrims, redeemed by the 
blood of the Lamb to Himself, separated off from that 



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3*6 ■ 

land of darkness and of death, He could take up His abode 
in the midst of them. He could dwell among them and 
walk among them, and be their God. They were His 
people. A striking type this of God in reality dwelling 
in the midst of His church, because they are a people 
redeemed to Him by the blood of the true paschal Lamb. 
" Not of the world even as Christ is not of the world." 

As the people had completed their , part of the work 
according to the minute commands of God ; so Moses 
did " according to all the Lord commanded him, so did 
he." And seven times is that short emphatic sentence 
repeated " as the Lord commanded Moses. Exod. xl. 
19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 32. The tabernacle was made, 
reared up, filled with its appointed vessels, and set in 
order for use according to the exact requirements of God. 
No pin was wanting, no addition to the perfect work 
was attempted. And the same word "finished," 
(so Moses finished the work, v. 33,) is emphatically 
used, as when God had completed His work of creation. 
" Thus the heavens and the earth were finished : 
and in the seventh day God ended His work which He 
had made." Gen. ii. I, 2. His creation work was ended 
on the seventh day. This work of the Tabernacle was 
finished on the first day. A ty£e of the great redemption 
work of Christ, which was completed on the day of His 
resurrection, the first day of the week. 



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317 



THE CLOUD. 

" Then a cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory 
of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 

" And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of the congregation, 
because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the Lord filled the 
tabernacle. 

" And when the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the 
children of Israel went onward in all their journeys : 

" But if the cloud were not taken up, then they journeyed not till 
the day that it was taken up. 

" For the cloud ot the Lord was upon the tabernacle by day, and lire 
was on it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout 
all their journeys." — Exod. xl. 34 — 38. 

The first mention of the Cloud occurs in Exod. xiii 
20 — 22. " And they took their journey from Succoth, 
and encamped in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness. 
And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a 
cloud, to lead them the way ; and by night in a pillar of 
fire, to give them light ; to go by day and night : He 
took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the 
pillar of fire by night, from before the people." 

The Israelites had fairly left Egypt, having journeyed 
from Succoth, (booths,) and encamped in the edge of the 
wilderness. The Lord now manifested His presence as 
their Leader, going before them by day, in the pillar of 
a cloud, and by night, in the pillar of fire. The first 
guidance of this cloud was indeed a strange one : for, 
instead of leading them far away into the wilderness out 
of the reach of their enemies, it turned down by the 
west coast of the Red Sea, and led them into a defile, 
where they were shut in by the sea, in their front, and 
mountains on each side, so tnat Pharoah said, " they are 
entangled in the land." They seemed to offer him an 
easy prey ; and he pursued them with all his host. 

The cloud having thus brought them into a place of 
difficulty, next varied its position. " And the angel of 
God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed 
and went behind them ; and the pillar of the cloud went 



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3 :8 

from before their face, and stood behind them. And 
it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the 
camp of Israel ; and it was a cloud and darkness to 
them, but it gave light by night to these : so that the 
one came not near the other all the night*" Exod. xiv. 
19, 20. The cloud became their defence, protecting 
them from the approach of the enemy. It also lighted 
up a path between walls of deep and dark waters,, 
opened for them through the sea, by the almighty power 
of God. 

Pharaoh urged on by the blinding power of Satan, 
pursued them into the sea. " And it came to pass, that 
in the morning watch the Lord looked unto the host of 
the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, 
and troubled the host of the Egyptians, and took off 
their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily : so 
that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of 
Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them against the 
Egyptians." ver. 24, 25. 

Thus was that mighty host of Egypt taken in its own 
craftiness. The swift chariots of their strength became- 
the hindrance to their escape ; and when the morning 
dawned, and Moses at the command of God, stretched 
forth his hand over the sea, the sea returned to its 
strength, and overwhelmed in its mighty waters all the- 
host of Pharaoh : " There remained not so much as one 
of them." 

The next record of the cloud is in Exod. xvi. 10.. 
The whole congregation murmured because they saw 
no provision of bread to supply their need. They had 
become accustomed to the presence of the cloud after a 
month's journeyings. That which at first doubtless 
astonished and comforted them, (the manifested presence- 
of God going before them,) had become an ordinary 
thing, and they turned their murmurings against Moses 
and Aaron, declaring that they had brought them inta 
the wilderness, to kill the whole assembly with hunger. 

The Lord answers these bitter complaints of unbelieF 



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by a promise of fulness of bread. " And Moses and 
Aaron said unto the children of Israel, at even then ye 
shall know that the Lord hath brought you out of the 
land of Egypt. And in the morning then ye shall see 
the glory of the Lord," (ver. 6, 7.) 

The quails were to cover the camp in the evening, 
and the manna was to witness to the glory of the Lord 
in the morning. In confirmation of this, Moses spake 
unto Aaron, "Say unto all the congregation of the 
children of Israel, come near before the Lord : for he 
hath heard your murmurings. And it came to pass, as 
Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the 
children of Israel, that they looked towards the wilder- 
ness, and, behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in 
the cloud," (ver. 9, 10.) 

Here were two remarkable displays of the glory 
of Jehovah. A manifestation of that glory in the 
morning, in the vast provision of bread from heaven, 
strewed upon " the face of the wilderness." A display 
also of His glory in the bright shining cloud, appearing 
before them in the same wilderness. Two very signifi- 
cant types to us. First, the gift of the bread of life « 
a resurrection gift : to communicate life eternal, and 
then to sustain it. Jesus, " the true bread from heaven," 
our wilderness food. Secondly, the constant companion- 
ship of God with us through our wilderness journey, 
notwithstanding the murmurings of our unbelieving 
hearts. 

After the fearful sin of the golden calf " Moses took 
the tent, and pitched it without the camp, afar off from 
the camp, and called it the tent of the congregation, and 
it came to pass that every one which sought the Lord 
went out unto the tent of the congregation which was 
without the camp. And it came to pass when Moses 
went into the tent, that all the people rose up and stood 
every man at his tent door, and looked after Moses until 
he was gone into the tent. And it came to pass, as 
Moses entered into the tent, the cloudy pillar descended, 



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and stood at the tent door, and talked with Moses, 
all the people saw the cloudy pillar stand at the? 1 
door : and all the people rose up and worshipped, , 
man in his tent door." Exod. xxxiii. 7 — 10. 

It will be observed that throughout this passage ' 
word " tabernacle " does not occur in the original, 
fact the tabernacle had not yet been constructed. 

Moses took a tent (probably that in which he 
accustomed to assemble the elders of the people 
their instruction) and pitched it afar off without 
camp, giving it the name subsequently used for 
tabernacle, that is, "the tent of the congregatio 
God sanctioned this act of His servant by descending 
the tent door in the pillar of the cloud, and thence ta" 
with Moses. 

The camp had become a leprous unclean place 
reason of the worship of the golden calf, and every 
that sought the Lord, had to go out afar off from it. 

Israel's dwelling place in the wilderness had beco 
very much what the professing church is now. Mo 
had gone up into the mount, and the people having 1 
sight of the man to whom they had attributed their deliv 
ance out of Egypt, were in dismay because they saw 
leader who could go before them through the wildern 
Their eyes were blinded by unbelief, so that they sa 
not the pillar of the cloud, and they remembered not 1 " 
mighty power of Jehovah, who had wrought th 
deliverance. The flesh can only trust in man, "a 
make flesji its arm." It cannot confide in the living < 

• Aaron, actuated it may be by fear, yielded to th 
request, and made a molten calf of gold, and fashion 
it with a graving tool, and they said " these be thy <~ 
O Israel which brought thee up out of the land 
Egypt. And Aaron built an altar before it, and m 
proclamation, and said, to morrow is a feast to Jehovah 

How could nominal Christianity exist if it were n 
sustained by an ordered worldly priesthood, with 
worldly sanctuary and ceremonials ? It bears the 

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321 



of Christ, just as the worship of the golden calf bore 
the name of Jehovah, but it is the flesh's substitute for 
faith. It addresses the senses, or deals with the imagi- 
nation, but heart and conscience are neglected. 

It is remarkable in this history that the people called 
themselves by the one name of Israel, just as the mass 
of unbelievers claim to be Christians. 

" And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered 
burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the 
people sat down to eat and to drink j and rose up to play." 

The Spirit of God quotes the latter part ot this verse 
in 1st Cor. x. 7, as an exhortation to us, " neither be 
ye idolators as were some of them ; as it is written, the 
people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play." 

We are not so much warned against the grossness of 
idolatry as displayed in the worship of a golden calf, and 
as it may still be seen in the Popery and Puseyism 
around us. It requires but little spiritual sensitiveness 
to recoil from such barefaced abominations. But, we 
are exhorted not to follow the worldly practices which 
inseparably accompany all false religion ; viz., sitting 
down to eat and drink, and rising up to play. 

When the people of Israel mixed die name of their true 
God with an idol, they settled down in the wilderness, 
turning it into a very Egypt, or Sodom ; making it a 
place of revelry and amusement. And so, in proportion 
as the Church of God ceases to walk by faith, and to 
trust in the unseen presence of an absent Lord, and to wait 
for His return ; she will settle down at ease in the world ; 
she will make that, which should be a desert, a place of 
rest and enjoyment ; and she will " begin to eat and drink 
with the drunken," saying in her heart, "my Lord 
delayeth His coming." 

"Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and 
pilgrims abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against 
the soul." 1st Peter ii. II. "Little children, keep 
yourselves from idols." 1st John v. 2 1. 



Moses, who 




^ith the Lord during this 



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scene of profanation, discerned at once the polluted state 
of the camp ; and pitched the tent for a meeting place 
with God afar off ; and all the true worshippers resorted 
thither, where the Lord manifested His presence in the 
pillar of the cloud. 

Thus early in Israel's history, the place of little esteem 
in the eyes of men, became that of true fellowship with 
God. 

Subsequently the death of the Lord Jesus outside the 
gate of Jerusalem, proclaimed the same truth in a still 
more emphatic way ; and the apostle exhorts us to " go 
forth unto Jesus, without the camp, bearing his reproach, 
for here have we no continuing city, but we seek one to 
come." The Cross of Christ has put an end to all 
religion of mere form and ceremony. Even that which 
was originally handed down from God by Moses, has 
become a system of weak and beggarly elements, classed 
by the apostle Paul with idolatry, (Gal. iv. 8 — io) and 
true-hearted believers separating themselves from the 
religions of the day, have to follow their Lord, bearing 
His reproach ; seeking a city that is to come, daily 
realizing that they are strangers here-, and instead of 
conforming to the world and its respectable religious 
ceremonies, they are to " assemble themselves together, 
exhorting one another, and so much the more as they 
see the day approaching." 

Moses, after having conversed with God face to face, 
turned again into the Camp. He was able to re-enter 
the place of profanation without contracting defilement, 
because he had the power and presence of God with 
him. " But his servant Joshua, a young man, departed 
not out of the tabernacle." (tent.) 

This is an important hint to those who are young in 
faith, not to venture into worldly scenes, or into mixed 
religious associations, lest they become ensnared, and be 
not able to stand. Like Joshua they should abide in the 
presence of the Lord, even though it involve separation 
from much that is attractive and enticing. 



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3*3 

Moses in his pleading with God on this occasion 
makes three requests, of all importance. Three petitions 
which it will be well for us to have constantly in our 
hearts. 

" Shew me now thy way " If thy presence go not 
with me, carry us not up hence ; " and, " I beseech thee 
shew me thy glory." 

God's way is in the sanctuary, (Psa. lxxvii. 13) there 
the blood of the Lamb speaks in a voice of peace and 
reconciliation. There the holiness of God is made 
known by His judgment upon sin, in the cross of His 
beloved Son. God's way is a way of holiness and 
righteousness ; and if we would pursue His path, we 
must avoid all ways into which we cannot carry the 
remembrance of the cross. We must shun all com- 
panionships from which the name of Jesus is excluded. 
A way, without the power to testify to the precious 
blood of Christ, cannot be God's way. 

If we know His way, we are then sure of His presence. 
He will go with us. And what is life worth, if God be 
not with us ? Where can the soul find rest ? How can 
peace of mind be preserved, but by abiding in the secret 
place of the Most High— and how can we prosper, or 
triumph, or bear fruit, unless we are habitually in the 
presence of God ? Moses knew that if God went with 
them they would be truly a separated people from all 
the people upon the face of the earth. The way and 
presence of God will ever preserve us from contacts 
with the world around us. 

Emboldened by God's ready response to his requests, 
Moses made a third petition, " I beseech thee shew me 
thy glory." "And the Lord said, I will make all my 
goodness pass before thee." So the Lord provided for 
Moses a place by Him that he might stand upon the 
rock 9 and be put in a cleft of the rock, and be covered 
with His hand. 

Accordingly Moses went up into Mount Sinai in the 
morning, and then the Lord descended in the cloud and 

M 2 



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3 2 4 

stood with him and passed by before him, and proclaimed: 
" Jehovah, Jehovah God, merciful and gracious, long- 
suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping: 
mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression 
and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty;, 
visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and 
upon the children's children, unto the third, and to the 
fourth generation." 

Thus from this cloud of glory the Lord made all His 
goodness pass before Moses and proclaimed His name. 
The name by which He was to be known throughout 
all the hosts of Israel, and which He would make 
manifest in all His dealings with them. Blessed as this 
revelation of God was, yet it only gave a distant view of 
His glory. It remained for " the only begotten of the- 
Father " to declare His name fully. The blessed Lord 
in the very act of revealing God in all the height and' 
depth of His boundless love, and wisdom and grace,, 
through His death, provided at the same time a way of 
approach to God; whereby with confidence we may 
draw near, and know His unveiled glory, and abide in 
His holy presence without fear. 

God has provided for us the " Rock of Ages," He has 
hidden us in a cleft of that rock : He has sheltered us. 
by His hand. But He has done more than give us a. 
distant or passing view of Himself. We have seen the- 
Father, we have known the Father. John xiv. 7 — 9. 

When the Tabernacle was set up as described in' 
Exod. xl., then the cloud covered the tent of the 
congregation, and the glory of the Lord filled the 
Tabernacle. This is repeated twice, verses 34, 35* 
is interesting to observe that the two names are here 
given "the tent of the congregation," and "the 
tabernacle." The former designating this building as 
the tent of assembly for the people, Israel ; the latter as 
the dwelling place of God. 

A striking similarity occurs between this setting up of 
the Tabernacle, and the subsequent consecration of the 



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Temple. " And it came to pass, when the priests were 
• come out of the holy place, that the cloud filled the 
house of the Lord, so that the priests could not stand 
to minister because of the cloud : for the glory of the 
Lord had filled the house of the Lord." 1st Kings viii. 
io, II; see also 2nd Chron. v. 13, 14. In both 
unstances a dwelling place had been erected according 
to the precise directions given by God. Neither man's 
thought, or taste, or imagination had been consulted. 
But the Lord had given the complete pattern, and Moses 
with the workmen under him, and Solomon with those 
employed by him, had to the letter, fulfilled the 
commands of God. May we not say that implicit 
obedience was the peculiar characteristic stamped upon 
each building, and upon every part. 

There is however, a difference between the two 
consecrations. In the case of the tabernacle it is simply 
related that Moses finished the work, then a cloud 
covered the tent of the congregation. The lamps had 
been lighted, the incense was burning in the holy place, 
the burnt-offering was sending up its sweet savour from 
the brazen altar ; the tabernacle, and its vessels, were 
standing complete and in full use, before the Lord; 
when thus He manifested His presence and glory, in 
-approval of the faithful way in which His requirements 
had been catried out ; and according to His promise, 
" there I will meet with the children of Israel, and the 
tabernacle shall be sanctified by my # glory. And I will 
sanctify the tabernacle of the congregation, and the 
;altar : I will sanctify also both Aaron and his sons, to 
minister to me in the priest's office. And I will dwell 
among the children of Israel, and will be their God. 
And they shall know that I am the Lord their God, that 
brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may 
dwell among them : I am the Lord their God." Exod. 
xxix.43— 46. 

This was a dwelling place for the Lord in the midst 
of His people, during their wilderness journey, and 



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326 

during their season of warfare and conflict in the land 
before it was subdued, so that a reign of peace might 
begin under Solomon, 

We find in the Epistle to the Hebrews the tabernacle 
alone mentioned as a type, and no direct reference to 
the temple •, because we are strangers and pilgrims,, 
pressing on, towards our glorious city of habitation 
whose maker and builder is God ; and we have at the 
same time conflict with wicked spirits in heavenly places, 
seeking to hinder us from keeping possession of our 
own inheritance above, into which we have already 
been introduced in Christ; and where by faith we 
stand. 

When the temple was dedicated, the ark had entered 
its final rest ; for the staves which bore it on the journey 
were removed from their rings. Countless victims from 
the altar sent up their sweet savour towards God, and. 
one sound of trumpet, music, and song, burst forth 
from priests and Levites, "praising the Lord for he 
is good for his mercy endureth for ever." It was a 
scene typical of the future glory, when the resurrection 
shout, blended with the trumpet's sound from heaven 
and rolling on "as the voice of many waters and as the 
voice of mighty thunderings," combined with harp and 
song, will sound forth the great eternal truth, that God 
is good, that His mercy endureth for ever. 

In both instances the cloud of glory so filled the 
place that all human ministry was suspended. Moses 
was not able to enter the tabernacle-, indeed he had 
finished his work — the great object was accomplished, 
God was there. The priests could not stand to minister 
in the temple, for the great end' of their priesthood was 
accomplished, the glory of God filled the house. 

" And on the day that the tabernacle was reared up 
the cloud covered the tabernacle, namely the tent of the 
testimony : and at even there was upon the tabernacle 
as it were the appearance of fire, until the morning. So 
it was alway : the cloud covered it by day, and the 



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appearance of fire by night. And when the cloud was 
taken up from the tabernacle, then after that the 
children of Israel journeyed : and in the place where 
the cloud abode, there the children of Israel pitched 
their tents. At the commandment of the Lord the chil- 
dren of Israel journeyed, and at the commandment of 
the Lord they pitched : as long as the cloud abode upon 
the tabernacle they rested in their tents. And when 
the cloud tarried long upon the tabernacle many days, 
then the children of Israel kept the charge of the Lord, 
and journeyed not. And so it was, when the cloud 
was a few days upon the tabernacle ; according to the 
commandment of the Lord they abode in their tents, 
and according to the commandment of the Lord they 
journeyed. And so it was, when the cloud abode from 
even unto the morning, and that the cloud was taken up 
in the morning, then they journeyed : whether it was by 
day or by night that the cloud was taken up, they 
journeyed. Or whether it were two days, or a month, 
or a year, that the cloud tarried upon the tabernacle, 
remaining thereon, the children of Israel abode in their 
tents, and journeyed not : but when it was taken up, 
they journeyed. At the commandment of the Lord 
they rested in the tents, and at the commandment of the 
Lord they journeyed : they kept the charge of the Lord, 
at the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses." 
Numb. ix. 15 — 23. 

In this passage we have a very full account of the 
cloud. And seven times do the words " at the com- 
mandment of the Lord" occur in connection with this 
manifestation of His presence. " At the commandment 
of the Lord the children of Israel journeyed." (Verses 
18, 20, 23.) " At the commandment of the Lord/' 
they pitched, abode in their tents, rested in their tents. 
(Verses 18, 20, 23.) " At the commandment of the 
Lord they kept the charge of the Lord." (Ver. 23.) 

The moving of the cloud was " the commandment of 
the Lord" for their journeying. The resting of the 



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328 

cloud was " the commandment of the Lord" for pitching 
their tents. The prolonged tarrying of the cloud upon 
the tabernacle, was " the commandment of the Lord" 
for them to keep the charge of the Lord. 

Throughout this passage, the word translated com- 
mandment, is literally " mouth." 

The cloud was God's mode of declaring to them His 
will ; and they had to watch its movements in order to 
ascertain that will. 

We have no external beacon to direct us, as to our 
journeys through this world. But we have that which 
is far better, the in-dwelling of the Holy Spirit. Far 
better, because God does not deal with us now as 
slaves, bidding us go hither and thither without our 
having any fellowship with Him or His purposes. He 
deals with us as children, having given us the spirit of 
Sonship whereby we cry, " Abba, Father." He would 
have us seek to know His mind and will in every fresh 
change that we propose. In this respect the Word 
must £rst be consulted that we may ascertain whether 
the counsel of our hearts is in any way opposed to the 
smallest injunctions of Christ. If so, it is plain that 
we have not the guidance of God for our undertaking. 

On the other hand, there are many changes in our 
place of service, or in our circumstances of life, which 
may have in them no decided evil as contrary to the 
direct word of God ; but which must be yet submitted 
to Him in prayerful and patient waiting, that we may 
have His guidance. 

In these things we are very ignorant of the leadings 
of the Holy Spirit. He has been so long grieved by 
us, and our faith is 60 weak, that we are but little 
conscious of His blessed directing power. Doubtless 
where there is confession of our low estate, and a true 
desire to ascertain the will of God, He will make known 
that will, either by a direct intimation upon our souls, or 
by so ordering circumstances round us, that we shall 
be able to perceive it. 



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3 2 9 

We have to learn from Israel's history, to move at a 
moment's notice. The cloud was often an inconvenient 
interruption to their will. By night or day they had 
to journey. Scarcely had they pitched their tents, when 
again the signal might be given for another journey 
onward. The place they were in might seem most 
convenient ; and yet they might have to remove to a 
spot just the contrary. God gave no account of His 
purposes. The cloud seemed to be an expression of 
the words " I will." 

Are we content to be guided by God, when that 
guidance crosses our self-will and our purposes ? Do 
we really believe that He knows best ? And are our 
utterances true, when we ask for His leading, and when 
we profess to desire to know His will ? 

When the cloud tarried long, Israel was not to be 
listless or impatient. They had always a definite work 
and service to accomplish, expressed by the words, " to 
keep the charge of the Lord." 

So the believer has always a service for God, and an 
important one, though his daily life may have but little 
variety. He has to contemplate Christ. He has to 
keep his heart with all diligence. He has to remember 
his fellow saints in prayer. He has to learn what "the 
patience of hope " means ; and what is expressed by 
those words, " I waited patiently for the Lord." And 
how they may be combined with the concluding 
paragraph of the same Psalm, "make no tarrying 
O my God." xl. I. 17. 

Many a saint of God has to endure long the monotony 
of a couch of weakness and sickness, laid aside from 
active service, and perhaps deprived of much power of 
thought ; but to such the church of God owes much. 
They are sustaining the hands of many servants of the 
Lord by prayers night and day. Their faith and 
patience are a bright testimony for Jesus ; and the sick 
chamber is often a meeting place for many of the 
Lord's people. 



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33° 



"The fruit of the spirit, love, joy, peace, long-suffer- 
ing, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance," 
may be all abundantly borne to the glory of God, by 
those who are quite excluded from the activities of the 
Christian life. Very precious, and alas ! comparatively 
rare, is such fruit. 

" The pillar of the cloud by day," became " a pillar 
of fire by night." It was to give light in the night ; "by 
night in a pillar of fire to give them light." Exod. xiii. 21- 
" It gave light by night to these." (Israel) xiv. 20. 
" Fire to give light in the night." Psa. cv. 39. " The 
pillar of fire by night, to shew them light." Neh. ix. 19. 

Thus light streamed from the tabernacle all over the 
camp. The darkness was no darkness to them. " The 
night was light about them." Psa. cxxxix. II. 

A very significant type of the church of God, who- 
not only have the Lord Jesus as their light, but wha 
are " light in the Lord." God has brought us out of 
darkness into His marvellous light. And we are no- 
longer "of the night, nor of darkness," but "children of 
light and of the day." Although it is night all around, 
yet the true light shineth upon God's children, and that 
light makes manifest what is true and what is false. 

A wonderful message has been declared to us, that 
" God is light, and in him is no darkness at all." He 
can allow of no compromise with evil. Ways of 
crookedness and expediency, which we find sometimes- 
practised by saints in the Old Testament times, cannot 
be permitted now, since this message has been delivered 



solemn judgment upon sin, manifested in the cross 
of Christ. 

"If we say we have fellowship with him, and walk 
in darkness, we lie and do not the truth." We may 
make strong assertions respecting our intercourse with 
God, but if we walk in darkness, our assertions are: 
mere falsehood. 

The truth has to be "done" — lived — and we shalL 



to us, that God is light. A 




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shew by our ways whether we have communion with 
God. "But if we walk in the light as he is in the 
light, we have fellowship one with another, and the 
blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin." 

One great evidence of walking in the light is, that we 
have fellowship one with another. Fellowship, not 
with a restricted company, not merely with those who 
think precisely as we do, but with one another. The 
words " one another " have a wide sense — they include 
all saints ; and we may fairly estimate our communion 
with the Father and the Son, by our capacity for 
fellowship with the Lords people. We shall also 
more constantly realize the cleansing power of the 
precious blood as we walk in the light" with God, and 
as intercourse with one another causes the evil of our 
hearts, the sectarian spirit of the flesh to rise up within 
our bosoms ; discovering of what spirit we naturally are, 
and necessarily casting us upon the value of that blood, 
which not only has cleansed, but cleanseth us from 
all sin. 

The pillar was not only a light to the whole camp, 
but gave light in the way. " Thou leddest them in the 
night by a pillar of fire, to give them light in the way 
wherein they should go." " The pillar of fire by night, 
to shew them light, and the way wherein they should 
go." Neh. ix. 12, 19. Our path may sometimes be 
very obscure, and then the danger is, that we seek by 
our own wisdom and efforts to throw light upon it. 
Oftentimes also the believer mistakes the providences of 
God, for the guidance of God. Moses is an instructive 
example to us in this respect. By a remarkable series 
of events, he was made to pass the first" forty years of 
his life in Pharaohs court ; brought up as the son of 
Pharaoh's daughter. Carnal reasoning would have 
suggested, " continue where you are, God has placed 
you in your present circumstances, and you may be very 
useful in your place of honour and authority, both in 
easing the burdens of the children of Israel, and in 



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instructing the learned in Egypt in the knowledge of 
the true God." But he judged otherwise. Light from 
the Lord told him that the reproach of Christ was to 
be preferred to the treasures of Egypt. Making one bold 
decided step, he identified himself with an oppressed, 
despised people. Setting aside all the advantages in 
which from his infancy he had been remarkably placed 
by the providence of God, he took the path of faith, 
and became for many years a wanderer far off from his 
brethren, whom it was his desire to serve. 

On the other hand Abraham, in his early history 
exhibits to us the opposite of this. Having been led 
into the land of promise by the guidance of God ; and 
having implicity trusted Him for a length of time ; when 
famine came he went down into Egypt, not consulting 
the Lord as to his course, but induced by the fact that 
there was plenty in that country, whilst there was 
scarcity in the land where he was. 

The results of this false step clave to him for many 
years-, Hagar the Egyptian slave was brought from 
thence. 

Should we not be able to discern the guidance of 
God ; should the pillar by night be for some reason 
hidden from our sight, it is an intimation to us that we 
are to be still. " Who is among you that feareth the 
Lord, that obeyeth the voice of his servant, that walketh 
in darkness, and hath no light I let him trust in the name 
of the Lord, and stay upon his God." Isa. 1. io. We are 
to exercise faith in our God ; to trust in Him, and stay or 
lean upon Him. Perhaps there is no more difficult or 
trying exercise of faith, than patiently to wait for the 
help and guidance of the Lord, when circumstances are 
difficult and dark. The flesh prone to be either restless 
or sluggish, would tempt one to activity when the Lord 
says, " wait ;" and to indolence when He says, "act." 

" Behold, all ye that kindle a fire, that compass 
yourselves about with sparks ; walk in the light of your 
fire, and in the sparks that ye have kindled. This 



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shall ye have of mine hand, ye shall lie down in 
sorrow. Ver. 1 1. 

The Lord preserve us from walking in the false light 
of our carnal wisdom, and from compassing ourselves 
about with sparks of human reason and expediency. 

The word of God, and the Spirit of God, will be 
our infallible guides, if we truly submit ourselves and 
our own will to them. " Thy word is a lamp unto 
my feet, and a light unto my path/' That wor„d which 
first gave light by its entrance into the soul through the 
power of the Holy Ghost, will continue to shed its light 
upon the path all our journey through. 

' ' Light is sown for the righteous." The * ' incorruptible 
seed " of the word is scattered by the hand of God all 
along our way ; and the more faithfully we follow the 
guidance of that word, the more will our path be that 
of the just, shining more and more unto the perfect 
day. 

Another use of the cloud was to be a covering or 
shelter for Israel during the day. The first allusion to 
this is in Num. x. 34, "And the cloud of the Lord was 
upon them by day, when they went out of the camp." 
In this instance the cloud seems to have been displaced. 
Moses sought to induce Hobab to accompany the 
children of Israel in their journeys ; and on his refusal, 
repeated his request upon the ground that they were to 
encamp in the wilderness, and that he might be to them 
instead of eyes. The Lord could not permit this. No 
human wisdom or experience could be allowed to supplant 
the direct guidance of God. Accordingly we find that the 
Lord Himself took the lead, (if we may so express it, in 
person,) for the ark of the covenant of the Lord went 
before them. The cloud thus superseded by the ark, 
spread itself over them by day, when they went out of 
the camp on the march. An allusion to this is again made, 
Num. xiv. 14. " Thy cloud standeth over them," and 
Psa. cv. 39, " He spread a cloud for a covering." If 
we are under the guidance of God, we are also under 



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His protection and shelter. " The Lord is thy keeper. 
The Lord is thy shade upon thy right hand. The sun 
shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon by night. 
The Lord shall preserve thy going out and thy coming 
in from this time forth, and even for evermore." Psa. 
cxxi. 5, 6, 8. 

The cloud on ordinary occasions, searched out a 
fitting place for a temporary rest in the wilderness, 
where they might pitch their tents. Deut. i. 33, "who 
went in the way before you to search you out a place to 
pitch your tents in, in fire by night, to shew you by 
what way ye should go, and in a cloud by day." 

The shepherd care of God was beautifully manifested 
in the movements of the cloud. That favourite Psalm 
the 23rd, is a short but full description of the Lords 
watchful care of His people. It speaks for the most 
part in the present tense. 

Jehovah is my Shepherd. 

He maketh me to lie down in green pastures. 

He leadeth me beside the still waters. 

He restoreth my soul. 

He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for His 
name's sake. 

Thou art with me. 

Thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. 
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of 
mine enemies. 

Thou anointest my head with oil, 
My cup runneth over. 

The green pastures and still waters are places of 
encampment, where the believer finds rest, food, and 
refreshment. 

The paths of righteousness are the wilderness 
journeyings. 

In the very presence of enemies the table is prepared 
for strengthening the soul for conflict. 

The head is enriched with oil, and the countenance 
thus made to shine, though the path be rugged, and 



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The cup of joy brims over, although the way be full 
of sorrow and trial. 

The only futures of the psalm are — first, an absolute 
negative — 

I shall not want. 

Secondly. — Should even the path lie in the valley of 
the shadow of death, 
I will fear m evil. 

Thirdly. — An absolute certainty of goodness and 
mercy following all the days of one's life, and the 
closing future, with its sure eternity of glory, 

I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever. 

The only place for " goodness and mercy" in th(< 
pathway of the believer, is behind him ; for the Shep- 
herd is in front to lead — at hand to restore — and with 
him, as on the right hand and on the left, to dispel 
even the fear of evil. 

Thus goodness and mercy close up the rear, pre- 
venting any failings and faults of the past from overtaking 
the child of God ; obliterating the heel-prints of past 
iniquities, and pursuing him so as to hasten his entrance 
into the house of the Lord. 

The pillar of cloud and of fire by day and by night, 
seem to have somewhat symbolized this shepherd care 
of the Lord. 

It was a guide, a defence, a shelter, a light, a place 
of intercourse with God, from whence He spoke, and 
from whence He manifested His power and His glory. 

This token of the presence of Jehovah reappeared 
after a lapse of ages, upon the Mount of Transfiguration. 
Israel's Lord was there. Their departed leader, Moses, 
was summoned from the grave ; and one of their 
choicest prophets, Elijah, was brought from the glory, 
as His attendants upon the holy mount. 

It was a scene depicting, and anticipative of the Lord's 
'Coming, when the dead saints will be raised and the 
living ones changed, represented by Moses and Elijah, 
types of each company. The bright cloud of glory 



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received them, and the disciples, (Peter, James, and 
John,) feared, when they saw them enter the cloud. 

The cloud will again appear upon the earth during 
the future reign of the Lord Jesus. This is foretold in 
Isa. iv. 4, 5. A remnant of the people of Israel will be 
spared in Jerusalem after they have passed through the 
fearful oppression of the man of sin, the wilful king, 
and that remnant will be all holy. They will look 
upon Him whom they have pierced, and mourn. 

Jerusalem will be established, and will become the 
city of the great King. " And the Lord will create 
upon every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and upon 
her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the 
shining of a flaming fire by night : for upon all the 
glory shall be a defence." 

Israel's wanderings of unbelief will then all be at an 
end, and the presence of the cloud will make manifest 
that the former loving kindness and tender mercies oF 
God, have never utterly forsaken them. They will 
then be reminded of their early history, and of the 
unchangeableness of Jehovah, for "His gifts and calling 
are without repentance." 

Having endeavoured to trace out the type of the 
Tabernacle, and the priestly garments, and to cite some- 
of the Scriptures wherein allusions are made to this wide- 
aubject, we have to turn back again, and contemplate- 
the consecration of the Priesthood, directed in Exodus 
xxix., and accomplished in Lev. viii. and ix. 

The Book of Exodus closes with the rearing up of 
the Tabernacle, with which the consecration of the- 
priesthood was intimately connected. See Exod. xL 
9 — 15. The subject is however interrupted by directions 
given from the Tabernacle by Jehovah, respecting the* 
various sacrifices, occupying the seven first chapters oF 
the book of Leviticus, and then we have Aaron and his 
sons fully installed into the office of Priests. As if God 
would have our thoughts more occupied with the 
sacrifices, than with the priests who had to conduct them. 



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THE CONSECRATION OF THE PRIESTS. 



"And this is the thing that 
thou shalt do unto them to hallow 
them, to minister unto me in the 
priest's office: Take one young 
bullock, and two rams without 
blemish, 

"And unleavened bread, and 
cakes unleavened tempered with 
oil, and wafers unleavened anoint- 
ed with oil: of wheaten flour 
shalt thou make them. 

" And thou shalt put them into 
one basket, and bring them in 
the basket, with the bullock and 
the two rams. 

" And Aaron and his sons thou 
shalt bring unto the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation, 
and shalt wash them with water. 

"And thou shalt take the 
garments, and put upon Aaron 
the coat, and the robe of the 
ephod, and the ephod, and the 
breastplate, and gird him with 
the curious girdle of the ephod : 

" And thou shalt put the mitre 
upon his head, and put the holy 
crown upon the mitre." — Exod. 
xxix. i — 6. 



"And the Lord spake unto- 
Moses, saying, 

"Take Aaron and his sons 
with him, and the garments, and 
the anointing oil, and a bullock 
for the sin offering, and two 
rams, and a basket of unleavened 
bread ; 

" And gather thou all the con- 
gregation together unto the door 
of the tabernacle of the congre- 
gation. 

"And Moses did as the Lord 
commanded him ; and the assem- 
bly was gathered together unto 
the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

"And Moses said unto the 
congregation, This is the thing 
which the Lord commanded to 
be done. 

"And Moses brought Aaron 
and his sons, and washed them 
with water. 

"And he put upon him the 
coat, and girded him with the 
girdle, and clothed him with the 
robe, and put the ephod upon 
him, and he girded him with the 
curious girdle of the ephod, and 
bound it unto him therewith. 

"And he put the breastplate 
upon him: also he put in the 
breastplate the Urim and the 
Thummim. 

"And he put the mitre upon 
his head ; also upon the mitre, 
even upon his forefront, did he 
put the golden plate, the Holy 
crown; as the Lord commanded 
Moses." — Lev. viii. i — 9. 



It is interesting to observe that seven different things 
were necessary for the consecration of the priests. 



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Aaron and his sons were to be 

Taken, 

Brought, 

Washed, 

Clothed, 

Anointed, 

Their hands filled, 

And they were to be sanctified. 

" Taken. 9 * " Take thou unto thee Aarcn thy brother, 
and his sons with him, from among the children of 
Israel." Exod. xxviii. I. "Take Aaron and his sons 
with him." Lev. viii. 2. Allusion is probably made to 
this in Heb. v. I, " every high priest taken from among 
men." 

Aaron was thus " called of God " unto the priesthood. 
He did not take this honour unto himself, or assume it 
out of his own fancy or self-will. "So also Christ 
glorified not himself to be made an high priest." Heb. 
v. 5. He was God's servant, His elect in whom His 
soul delighted. He was the called of Jehovah. " I fhe 
Lord have called thee in righteousness." " The Lord 
hath called me from the womb." Isa. xlii. 1,6; xlix. I. 
And finally God raised him from the dead, saying unto 
Him, " thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee " — 
and, "thou art a priest for ever after the order of 
Melchizedeck " — thus taking Him from among the dead, 
and giving Him His call in resurrection, "called of God 
an high priest after the order of Melchizedeck." 
Heb. v. 10. 

What was true of Aaron was also true of his sons ; 
they were also " taken," or called unto the priesthood. 
And the Lord severely judged the sin of Korah, when 
he endeavoured to assume the priesthood, although he 
had apparently a nearer title to it than any of the other 
tribes, seeing he was of Levi. 

And what is true of Christ as the High Priest is also 
true of all. His priestly house — They are called of God. 
" We know that all things work together for good to 



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them that love God, to them who are the called accord- 
ing to his purpose. For whom he did foreknow, he 
.also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his 
Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. 
Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also 
called." Rom. viii. 28 — 30. " Holv brethren, partakers 
of the heavenly calling, consider the apostle and high 
priest of our profession Christ Jesus." Heb. iii. I. 

Sonship afresh declared in resurrection was joined 
with Gods oath calling the Lord Jesus to be a Priest. 
So also, Christ's own house of priests are children of 
God, " of one" with Him that sanctifieth them, so that 
He is not ashamed to call them brethren. Of one life, 
of one Father, of one resurrection ; of one family with 
Him who is the Head. If the Lord so judged the sin of 
Korah for attempting to intrude upon the earthly priest- 
hood, what will be His solemn sentence against those 
who assume to be of the heavenly priesthood, taking 
their authority from mere human appointment, but who 
are still of the world, unconverted lost sinners — ignorant 
•of Giod and of Christ, and leading into the ditch the 
blind, having their own eyes darkened. 

" Brought." " Aaron and his sons, thou shalt bring 
unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation." 
" Moses brought Aaron and his sons." Exod. xxix. 4 ; 
xl. 12 ; Lev. viii. 6. Having been selected from the 
rest of Israel, and from the tribe of Levi, Aaron and his 
sons were brought before the Lord, to the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation, where already the assem- 
.bly was gathered together. The whole ceremony of 
their consecration was conducted in the presence of the 
Lord, and in the presence of the people, The objects 
for which they were sanctified as priests, were twofold : 
first, that they might be- brought near to God, and 
secondly, that they might use the access which was 
given to them, for the benefit and blessing of the people. 

The Lord Jesus was brought again from the dead as 
the great shepherd of the sheep, and the High Priest of 



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34° 

His people. "He is now in the presence of God for us." 
"He ever liveth to make intercession for us." His 
interests, His affections, His intercourse with God, are 
all in full ceaseless exercise on behalf of His own. His 
thoughts, His heart are with us here. 

Ourselves being priests brought nigh to God, children 
of God, and of the household of Christ, we should have 
our interests, our affections occupied in the work and 
service of God on behalf of His saints. There is now 
no assembly distinct from the priestly house ; but all 
who compose the assembly of God are kings and priests 
alike. In this respect therefore, there is a contrast 
between the scene in Lev. viii, where, Aaron and his 
sons, were distinct from the congregation-, and the church 
of God, which is composed of the saints of the Most 
High, all alike loved by the Father, and by Christ — 
all alike washed in His precious blood — all children of 
God, and " kings and priests unto His God and Father." 

Resurrection is, we may say, the new standing which 
God has given all that are His. It is a calling above 
the heavens, super-heavenly. The believer begins his 
existence as raised from among the dead — receiving a 
life in union with the risen Christ, " quickened together 
with him," brought nigh to God in Christ Jesus, by the 
blood of Christ ; partaker of a super-heavenly calling, 
which has left the flesh and the world, and death, far, 
far behind ; separated off for ever to God in Christ ; a 
calling of which Christ Himself in glory is the pattern ; 
a profession of which He is the apostle, instructing the 
saints in all its blessings and glories ; and of which He is 
the High Priest, ministering the power of such a 
wondrous calling, and sustaining the believer unceasingly 
in its height and glory. 

" Washed." " And shall wash them with water." 
" And washed them with water." Exod. xxix. 4 ; xl. 
12 ; Lev. viii. 6. This was the only time when Aaron 
and his sons were washed by another with water. Other 
washings they had constantly to observe, such as washing 



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their hands and feet, but on this occasion they were 
washed all over. It is very interesting to remark here, 
that although in the Hebrew the same word ( rah-ghatz ) 
is used for both bathing or washing the whole of the 
body in water, and for washing the hands and feet ; yet, 
in the Septuagint two words are employed; the one 
<(louo) for the washing the whole body: (Exod. xxix. 
a ; xl. io ; Lev. viii. 6) and the word (nipzo, in later 
Greek nipto,) for the washing the hands and feet. 
Exod. xxx. 18, 19, 20 ; xl. 28, 29. 

The use of the two words appears to be kept very 
distinct in John xiii. where the Lord employs them 
Tsoth. When he speaks of washing the disciples' feet, 
He uses the word " nipto ;" but when He alludes to their 
Slaving been altogether washed from their sins, and being 
personally clean, He uses the word " louo." John xiii. io ; 
*"he that is washed " louo" (or that has been perfectly 
washed all over,) needeth not save to wash his feet, 
" nipto? but is clean every whit ; and ye are clean but 
not all." They were all personally clean except Judas, 
for they had all in truth believed on the Lord Jesus, with 
the exception of that false professor — and subsequently 
when he was gone out, the Lord could say of them all, 
without an exception, " ye are clean." John xv. 3. So 
the believer at the present time has been once for all 
washed, and is clean. But he contracts daily defilements, 
which need to be washed off through the constant 
intercession of Christ, and ceaseless cleansing power of 
the blood — although he never again has to be rewashed 
all over, but is every whit clean, and made meet for the 
inheritance of the saints in light. 

This washing of the priests is evidently a figure of 
the complete cleansing, through which the sinner passes 
when he is saved, the washing of regeneration. It is the 
blood of Christ applied to the person by the Lord 
Himself, through the word, and by the instrumentality 
of the Holy Spirit* Thus in Rev, i. 5, it is said, " unto 
Him that loveth us and washed us from our sins in his 



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own blood." Here the precious blood is the bath In 
which we have been washed from our sins, by the Lord 
Jesus. In Eph. v. 25, 26, it is written, " Christ loved 
the church and gave himself for it, that he might sanctify 
and cleanse it by the washing of water by the word.'" 
In this passage, the same word is employed for washing 
as that in Titus ill. 5, " the washing of regeneration.*'' 
The word of God is here designated as the bath of water 
in which the church is cleansed : the Scriptures of truth 
revealing the death of Christ, and when received by 
faith, cleansing the sinner, and being also the incorrupt- 
ible seed of life. 

In John iii. the Lord Jesus says to Nicodemus,. 
" Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he 
cannot enter into the kingdom of God." Here the new 
birth is effected by that which cleanses, and by the 
power of the Holy Ghost. The blood of Christ revealed 
in the Word of God and applied by the power of the 
Holy Ghost, regenerates the soul. Subsequently in the 
same chapter the Lord explains the mystery, by stating 
that the Son of Man must be lifted up upon the cross,, 
and that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, 
but have eternal life. Christ crucified, gazed upon by 
faith, becomes thus the source of life to the sinner 
perishing in his sins. 

In 1st Cor. vi. 9 — II, the apostle describes a variety 
of fearful uncleannesses and sins, which shut out those 
that commit them from the kingdom of God ; and then 
adds, " Such were some of you : but ye are washed,, 
but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of 
the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." In this 
beautiful passage we have the threefold condition of 
the saved sinner : washed, made holy, and made 
righteous ; and all through the power of the name of 
Christ, applied by the Spirit of God. The consecration 
of priests which we are considering presents also three 
aspects of the work of Christ. 

They were washed, Lev, viii. 6 ; they were sanctified,. 



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v. 30 : and clothed with the linen garments, v, 13, em- 
blems of righteousness. 

The most direct reference to this washing is in 
Heb. x. 22. " Let us draw near with a true heart, 
in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled 
from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with 
pure water." 

In this chapter the sinner is through the one offering 
of Christ, for ever sanctified and perfected for priest- 
hood. A striking contrast is instituted between the 
outward sprinkling of the blood upon the persons and 
garments of the priests in Leviticus, and the inward 
sprinkling of the blood by the Spirit of God, upon the 
hearts of believers ; cleansing them not only from sin r 
but from an evil conscience, which would otherwise 
keep them at a distance from God. Their bodies also 
are said to be washed with pure water, like the priests 
in Lev. viii. The word " pure" being added in order 
to distinguish the cleansing water of the New Testament 
from the mere typical water of the Old Testament. 

The precious blood of Christ, the true Laver of rege- 
neration, not only cleanses, so as to free us from wrath 
and judgment, but makes us altogether personally clean, 
in order that we may with confidence draw near to 
God. Ours is not a mere salvation from sins, and the 
penalty due to them but it is a salvation of our whole 
persons ; so that our bodies are the Lord's, and we are 
redeemed to God by the blood. It is this perfect fitness 
to stand in the presence of God which is here repre- 
sented by the bodies washed with pure water. All 
distance between ourselves and the Most High has been 
abolished ; we are made nigh by the blood of Christ, 
and it is our responsibility to know and use this nearness 
of approach, in the full assurance of faith. 

"Clothed." Aaron and his sons were. all washed 
together. In this perhaps there was a shadow of the 
resurrection of Christ and the Church, accomplished in 
the sight of God at the same time. Aaron was however 



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Kt clothed" separately and before his sons. Exod. xxix. 
5, 6 ; xl, 13 ; Lev. viii. 7 — 9. 

It is interesting to observe the order in which the 
garments were placed upon Aaron by Moses. The 
-words in the Hebrew also are varied. First, he put 
upon him, (or literally, gave to him,) the coat. This is 
the embroidered coat described in Exod. jcxviii. 39, and 
already referred to in page 28 1 of this work. 

Next, " he girded him with the girdle." The girdle 
of needle-work. Exod xxviii. 39 ; and xxxix. 29, 
{(page 289) these were the two innermost garments. 
Then " he clothed him with the robe," " the robe of 
the ephod," Exod. xxviii. 31 — 35, (page 256 :) " and 
put the ephod upon him, (literally gave to him,) the 
ephod ; and girded him with the curious girdle of the 
ephod — or, the ephod-belt — and bound it unto him 
therewith : (literally ephodized him therewith.) Exod. 
xxviii. 6 — 8. (pages 198, 200.) 

And he put the breastplate upon him, (literally placed ;) 
also he put in (or gave to) the breastplate the Urim and 
the Thummim. Exod. xxviii. 15 — 30, (page 203.) 

And he put (or placed) the mitre upon his head : 
also upon the mitre upon his forehead did he put 
(placed) the golden plate, the holy crown. Exod. xxviii. 
36,38. (page 266.) 

Thus Aaron was fully clothed in the garments for 
glory and beauty : and here is marked the first division 
of the chapter we are considering, by the words, " as 
the Lord commanded Moses T 

This seems again to be an intimation of the separate 
glorious standing of the High Priest in his representative 
capacity on behalf of others ; and may also dimly inti- 
mate the fact of the Lord Jesus, being raised as the 
Great High Priest for His people, previous to their 
being actually raised, as they will be at His second 
•coming. Before that great day of manifestation arrives, 
Ave already by faith see Jesus at the right hand of God, 

crowned with glory and honour/ 



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THE ANOINTING OIL. 

"Moreover the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 

"Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five 
"hundred, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, two hundred and fifty, 
and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty, 

"And of cassia five hundred, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and 
of olive oil an hin : 

" And thou shaft make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment 
compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy 
anointing oiL 

"And thoushalt anoint the tabernacle of the congregation there- 
with, and the ark of the testimony, 

"And the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick and his 
vessels, and the altar of incense, 

" And the altar of burnt offering with all his vessels, and the laver 
and his foot. 

" And thou shaft sanctify them, that they may be most holy : what- 
soever toucheth them shall be holy. 

" And thou shaft anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them 
that they may minister unto me in the priest's office, 

"And thou shaft speak unto the children of Israel, saying, This 
shall be an holy anointing oil unto me throughout your generations. 

" Upon man's flesh shall it not be poured, neither shall ye make any 
other like it, after the composition of it : it is holy, and it shall be 
holy unto you. 

" Whosoever compoundeth any like it, or whosoever putteth any of 
it upon a stranger, shall even be cut off from his people." — Exod. xxx. 
22—33. 

A hin of olive oil mingled with four spices formed 
this fragrant compound. 

Of myrrh there was five hundred. 
Of cinnamon two hundred and fifty 
Of calamus two hundred and fifty. 
And of cassia five hundred. 

Thus the two middle spices added together equalled 
in weight the first, the myrrh ; and the last, the cassia ; 
the four forming three weights of five hundred. 

Myrrh. — Myrrh has the word "pure" attached to it. 
This word (drohr, Heb.) is always translated wherever 
it elsewhere occurs, " liberty." 

" Proclaim liberty throughout the land unto all the 



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inhabitants thereof : it shall be a jubilee unto you ; and 
ye shall return every man unto his possession, and 
ye shall return every man unto his family." Lev. xxv. io. 

" The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me because the 
Lord hath anointed me to preach glad tidings unto the 
meek ; he hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, 
to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of 
the prison to them that are bound." Isa. lxi. I. 

Proclaim liberty. Jer. xxxiv. 8, 15, 17. 

The year of liberty. Ezek. xlvi. 1 7. 

Another word translated 6 6 sweet smelling" Cant, v, 
5, 13, is connected with myrrh. (The margin has it, 
passing, or, running about.) Both words, "pure" and 
"sweet smelling" may have reference to the myrrh 
flowing out spontaneously, or freely from the plant. 

In Canticles v. 5, the hands and fingers of the Bride 
are represented as dropping with myrrh upon the han- 
dles of the Lock when she rose to open to her beloved. 
And in the 13th verse the lips of the Bridegroom are 
likened unto " lilies dropping sweet smelling myrrh" 

The full fragrance of this spice is descriptive of the 
beloved Himself. " A bundle of myrrh is my well- 
beloved unto me." Cant. i. 13. And " all his garments 
are of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia." Psa. xlv. 8. 

Amongst the plants of the enclosed garden, descrip- 
tive of the Bride, are "myrrh and aloes, with all 
principal spices." Cant. iv. 14. And the Bridegroom in 
chap. v. I, enters His garden, and says, "I have 
gathered my myrrh with my spice." She is herself 
represented at the conclusion of her wilderness journey, 
"like pillars of smoke, perfumed with myrrh and frankin- 
cense, with all powders of the merchant." Cant. iii. 6. 

The mountains of myrrh, and the hill of frankincense, 
are the safe and pleasant places of retreat to which the 
Bridegroom invites the Bride, until the day break and 
. the shadows flee away ; in contrast with the lion's dens, 
and mountains of the leopards. 

The adulterous woman, type of the seducing world 



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around us, professes also to use this perfume. " I have 
perfumed my bed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon." 
Prov. vii. 17. 

This spice was probably bitter to the taste, as its 
Hebrew derivative implies. An oil was extracted from 
it, which was used for purification. Esther ii. 12. 

" Sweet cinnamon" properly cinnamon of spice, 
or aromatic cinnamon, occurs again, Cant. iv. 14, 
another of the plants of the enclosed garden — the 
Spouse-, and Proverbs vii. 17, where it is connected 
with myrrh and aloes, as a perfume for the bed. 

"Sweet Calamus/' or cane of spice, or aromatic cane. 
This word " calamus," is translated 

Stalk. — Gen. xxi. 5, 22. 

Branch, of the candlestick. — Exod. xxv. 31, 32, 33, 
35, 36, etc. 

Reed. — 1st Kings xiv. 1 5 ; 2nd Kings xviii. 21, etc. 
Sweet Cane. — Isa. xliii. 24 ; Jer. vi. 20. 
Balance. — Isa. xlvi. 6. 

And a measuring reed, or rod. — Ezek. xl. 3, etc. 

This is also another of the plants of the enclosed 
garden. Cant. iv. 14. 

"Cassia." — This word only occurs once more in the 
Scripture. Ezek. xxvii. 19. Its origin is doubtful, but 
if the derivation suggested by Robertson be correct, it 
springs from a root which signifies "to cleave," and 
also " to stoop" and " bow down." 

These spices gave their fragrance to the oil with 
which Aaron was anointed. 

The fragrant graces of the Holy Spirit seem to be 
typified by this holy perfume. 

In Isa. xi. I — 3, we have a prophecy respecting the 
Lord Jesus ; as a rod springing from the stem of Jesse; 
a branch out of his roots ; referring to His being of the 
seed of David, as born into this world ; and it is said,. 
" The Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him ; 

The spirit of wisdom and understanding, 

The spirit of counsel and might, 



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The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord, 
and shall make him of quick understanding (or scent 
or smell) in the fear of the Lord." 

Possibly the anointing oil may have some typical 
reference to the Holy Spirit, thus resting on Him. It 
is remarkable that the way in which these graces of the 
Spirit are arranged in Isaiah, has some analogy to 
the proportions of the spices in the anointing oil. 
There were five hundred of Myrrh which would answer 
to the " Spirit of wisdom and understanding/' There 
were two hundred and fifty of Cinnamon, and two 
hundred and fifty of Calamus, which would correspond 
with "the spirit of counsel and might," each in equal 
proportions. The spirit of ' * wisdom and understanding" 
being represented by one spice, because there is a close 
•connexion between wisdom and understanding, one 
could hardly exist without the other; whereas there 
is a considerable difference between "counsel" and 
" might," which is expressed by the two distinct spices 
4( cinnamon " and " calamus :" the two together making 
another five hundred in weight. The "spirit of 
knowledge and of the fear of the Lord" being 
represented lastly by the five hundred of " Cassia" ; 
one spice only • for all true knowledge is embodied in 
the " fear of the Lord." Without the fear of the Lord 
man is a fool. If he reverence not God, and believe 
not in His word, he is like the beasts that perish ; or 
rather he is more brutish than the ox or ass. For 
*" the ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's 
crib ;" but a man ignorant of God, does not know ; 
he is a fool, saying in his heart, " there is no God." 

The words of wisdom and understanding dropped 
freely from the lips of the blessed Lord when he was 
on earth, like sweet smelling myrrh from the lips of 
the bridegroom. When questioned by the high priest 
as to His doctrine, Jesus answered, " I spake openly to 
the world ; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the 
temple, whither the Jews always resort ; and in secret 



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have I said nothing." John xviii. 20. His words were 
spirit and life. His tongue was the tongue of the wise, 
using knowledge aright, and giving health to sin-sick 
souls. His lips dispersed knowledge, and His mouth 
was instructed by His heart. The law which proceeded 
out of His mouth was a fountain of life, to cause men 
to depart from the snares of death. Prov. xii. 1 8 * r 
xiii. 14; xv. 2,12 ; xvi. 23. 

Grace proceeding from a heart of love, was poured 
into His lips. Psa. xlv. 2. 

In like manner should the hands and fingers of the 
Bride drop with wisdom like myrrh, from handling the 
word of life, instead of touching that unclean thing the 
world. And out of the heart's affections should flow 
living waters to a thirsty world around, through the 
power and help of that same blessed Spirit received 
from the anointed Head. 

The spirit of counsel rested also upon Christ ; and 
His name is Counsellor. He understood completely 
the purposes of God, and undertook nothing without 
duly taking counsel with the Most High. The 
testimonies of the Lord were especially His counsellors.. 
Psa. cxix. 24. And he blessed the Lord for giving, 
him counsel. Psa. xvi. 7. When upon the tree His. 
utterances of woe and anguish were the Spirit's utterances 
in the prophetic psalms. And when suffering from 
the thirst of death, His desire was still to magnify the 
word of God ; and knowing that all things had been 
accomplished, and that one only Scripture remained ta 
be fulfilled, said, "I thirst." And when he had 
received the last proof of human scorn and hatred,, 
had tasted the vinegar placed upon the bitter hyssop, 
He uttered that most memorable and blessed sentence,, 
"it is finished." The counsels of God were accom- 
plished, not a jot or tittle had fallen to the ground ;. 
and He who was filled with the spirit of counsel, 
bowed His head and gave up the Ghost. What 
fragrance of unspeakable value there was in those 



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words and in that act. What a sweet full perfume of 
richest obedience, rose up to God from that tree 
of curse. 

The spirit of power also abode upon Him. Power to 
help the weak ; to comfort the sorrowing ; to bear the 
afflictions of the afflicted ; to bear our griefs and carry 
our sorrows. Power to save instead of to destroy. 
Might, used in the perfection of grace and lowliness, 
to bind up the broken hearted ; to proclaim liberty to 
the captive, and the opening of the prison to them 
that are bound. 

The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord, 
made Him of quick perception in the fear of the Lord, 
so that His judgments were correct, were righteous. 

The fear of the Lord that is wisdom. Job. xxviii. 28. 

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. 
Psa. cxi. 10. 

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. 
Prov. ix. 10. 

The fear of the Lord is the instruction of wisdom. 
Prov. xv. 33. 

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge. 
Prov. i. 7. 

The fear of the Lord is clean. Psa. xix. 9. 
The fear of the Lord is to hate evil. Prov. viii. 1 3. 
The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life. Prov. 
xiv. 27. 

The fear of the Lord (is) to life. Prov. xix. 23. 
The fear of the Lord prolongeth days. Prov. x. 27. 
In the fear of the Lord is strong confidence. Prov. 
xiv. 26. 

And now that the Lord is in the glory exalted, and 
dwelling on high, the same spirit rests upon Him ; and 
He will come forth in a little while, and " will fill Zion 
with judgment and righteousness, and wisdom and 
knowledge shall be the stability of thy times, and 
strength of salvation : the fear of the Lord is his 
treasure." Isa. xxxiii. 5, 6. 



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The spices of which the anointing oil was made, are 
called "principal" standing at the head of the most 
esteemed perfumes. The oil was to be skilfully mingled 
with them ; a holy ointment 5 an ointment compound 
after the art of the apothecary ; a holy anointing oil. 
The fragrance of the spices was to be evenly diffused 
through the whole hin of oil olive, so that no one 
perfume took precedence above another; but the oil 
sent forth the fragrance of all alike. 

A beautiful type this of the graces of the Holy Spirit, 
which were all displayed in the Lord Jesus, without 
one interfering with, or suppressing another ; ever 
sending up to God a perfection of fragrance. 

This holy anointing oil was not to be " poured upon 
man's flesh." It was poured on Aaron's head after the 
mitre and holy crown had been placed . on him. 
Although the Aaronic priesthood was in reality a 
priesthood in the flesh, for Aaron was " taken from 
among men," yet there seems to be an intimation of 
another priesthood given in this precept, which was 
not to be in the flesh, but in resurrection. 

Flesh, human flesh, is sinful and corrupt. There 
can be no congeniality between it and the graces of 
the Holy Spirit. The flesh must ever lust against the 
spirit, they cannot agree together. And as the word 
of God says, " ye are not in the flesh, but in the spirit, 
if so be that the spirit of God dwell in you." In the 
flesh there dwelleth no good thing. 

No one therefore can have the Holy Spirit, unless he 
be born of the spirit, a new creature in Christ Jesus. 

Another precept connected with the holy anointing 
oil was, that no imitation was to be made of it, 
^'neither shall ye make any other like it, after the 
composition of it : it is holy, and it shall be holy unto 
you. Whosoever compoundeth any like it, shall be cut 
off from his people." 

There is an assumption at the present day, of a power 
to convey the Holy Spirit by virtue of a mere human 



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appointment. There is also a danger amongst the 
children of God themselves, of assuming to be guided 
by and acting under the power and direction of the 
Holy Spirit, when they are only indulging their own 
self-will or self-conceit. In both cases the Holy Spirit 
is greatly dishonoured. To suppose on the one hand, 
that He is handed down through . a channel of 
unconverted sinners, so as to be bestowed by the- 
laying on of the hands of one who happens to have 
an official standing in the nominal church, by reason 
of some political favour, is surely greatly to outrage the 
holiness .and Godhead of the blesssed Spirit. On the 
other hand, where such superstitious sinful practices 
are rightly disowned, believers should be careful not 
to grieve that Holy Spirit by imitations of His power 
and grace ; and not profess to be prompted or led by 
Him, unless their habitual lowly walk, and study of ~ 
and acquaintance with the word of God, give them a 
warrant for believing that they truly have the teaching 
and help of the Spirit of truth and holiness. The 
Spirit of God will not be found to teach or lead a 
believer when he is meeting in an assembly of God's 
children, unless that believer is habitually under the- 
guidance and instruction of the same spirit in his 
ordinary life, in his own house, and in his daily 
occupations. Not only does the Spirit divide to every 
man in the church of God, severally as He will, gifts 
for the edification of the body ; but those upon whom . 
He bestows such gifts, need to study the word of God, 
and to cultivate the conscious presence and help of the 
Spirit Himself, if they would use them to the profit 
of others. 

Is there not also a danger of a false spirituality— 
— refinement — imagination — sentiment — a danger from 
the habit of contrasting spirit with that which is material ? 
True spirituality is always essentially connected with 
Truth. It was " in the power of the Spirit," that the 
Lord uttered the truth, (Luke iv. 25 — 27,) which so 

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enraged the men of Nazareth. Mysticism may pass for 
spirituality. 

This holy anointing oil was not to be put upon a 
stranger. In this precept we have an intimation that no 
unconverted person, ought on any account to be allowed 
to take any part in the service or worship of God. He 
does not belong to God's people. He is not of the 
house— the Church of God — he is not one of the 
family of whom God is the Father. He is a stranger ; 
and until he is washed from his sins in the blood of 
Christ, and is a child of God by faith in Christ Jesus, 
he can have no part or lot in any thing connected with 
the true worship of God. They that worship Him 
must worship Him in Spirit and in truth. An uncon- 
verted person is without Christ, and he is therefore an 
alien from the commonwealth of Israel, and a stranger 
from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and 
without God in the world. Eph. ii. 12. 

" Anointed" Moses took this " anointing oil, and 
anointed the tabernacle, and all that was therein, and 
sanctified them. And he sprinkled thereof upon the 
altar seven times, and anointed the altar and all his 
vessels, both the laver and his foot, to sanctify them." 
Lev. viii. io, II; see also Exod. xxx. 26 — 29 ; xl. 9 — 1 1. 

The vessels of the sanctuary represent various offices 
of priesthood, which the Lord now sustains on behalf 
of His people. The same Eternal Spirit by which He 
offered Himself as the sacrifice without spot to God, 
(Heb. ix. 14,) is still the power of His service in " the 
tabernacle not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

In Acts i. 2, we find that the Lord Jesus after His 
resurrection, was still speaking through the Holy Ghost ; 
" Until the day in which he was taken up, after that he 
through the Holy Ghost had given commandments to 
the apostles whom he had chosen.'* 




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Aaron's sons, but upon Aaron's head alone. Thus Aaron 
stood clothed in garments for glory and beauty, and 
anointed, previous to the clothing of his sons. In fact, 
he was the only anointed one of the house : the word 
"anointed" being in Exod. xxix. 7, and Lev. viii. 12, 
confined to Aaron, a type of the Messiah, the Christ, 
the Anointed One. The anointing of Aaron's sons was 
included in the anointing of Aaron himself. " And 
thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons." Exod. xxx. 30. 
" Of the anointing of Aaron and of the anointing of his 
sons." Lev. vii. 35. 

A passage in Exod. xl. 1 5, seems to contradict this* 
" And thou shalt anoint them, (Aaron's sons,) as thou 
didst anoint their father ; that they may minister unto 
me in the priest's office : for their anointing shall surely 
be an everlasting priesthood throughout their genera- 
tions." But this text looks onward apparently to the 
succession of the sons of Aaron, who were to execute 
the office of high priest after his death. 

In Numbers ui. 3, we have another passage which 
speaks of Aaron's sons as anointed. "These are the 
names of the sons of Aaron, the priests which were 
anointed, whom he consecrated to minister in the priest's 
office." Here also the anointing of Aaron seems to have 
been considered the anointing of his sons. So remark- 
ably is this thought carried on, that when Aaron was 
about to die, Moses stripped off his garments and put 
them upon Eleazer his son. Numb. xx. 23 — 28. But 
we do not read of Eleazer having been anointed. It is 
as if the anointing of his father was perpetuated unto 
himself. The anointing oil was indeed sprinkled upon 
Aaron's sons, to which reference will subsequently be 
made ; but this is kept quite distinct from the pouring 
of the oil upon Aaron himself. 

The Lord Jesus was the Christ, the Anointed One 
from His birth. He was also anointed with the Holy 
Spirit at His baptism, for service. Thus in the syna- 
gogue at Nazareth, where He seems to have commenced 



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His testimony after His baptism in Jordan, and the 
descent of the Holy Ghost upon Him, He opened the 
book of the prophet Isaiah, and found the place where 
it was written, " The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, 
because he hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to the 
poor." Lukeiv. 1 8 ; Isa. lxi. I. Also Peter in his dis- 
course to Cornelius and his house, refers to this anointing; 
" How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy 
Ghost and with power." Acts x. 38. Again in resur- 
rection He was anointed with the Holy Ghost, Priest, 
and King according to Psalm ii. " Yet have I set (margin 
anointed) my King upon my holy hill of Zion," ver. 6. 
That same psalm speaks of the kings of the earth and 
their rulers taking counsel together against Jehovah, and 
against His Christ. Peter quotes the psalm, Acts iv. 
25, 26, and adds, " For of a truth against thy holy 
Child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and 
Pontius Fdate, with the Gentiles, and the people of 
Israel, were gathered together." And continues his 
prayer as if the same company were still in league 
against the same Christ. " And now Lord behold 
their threatenings ; and grant unto thy servants, that with 
all boldness they may speak thy word, by stretching 
forth thine hand to heal ; and that signs and wonders 
may be done by the name of thy holy Child Jesus." 
Ver 20, 30. 

In Psa. xlv. where the Lord is especially represented as 
the King in resurrection, His. anointing is alluded to as a 
reward of His righteous service. " Thou lovest righte- 
ousness and hatest wickedness, therefore God thy God 
hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy 
fellows," ver. 7 ; Heb. i. 9. In Acts ii. 30, 31, Peter 
speaking of the resurrection of the Lord, foretold by 
David in the Psalms, says, therefore he, (David,) " being 
a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an 
oath to him that of the fruit of his loins according to the 
flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne ; he, 
seeing this before, spoke of the resurrection of Christ." 

n 2 



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And adds a little further on, " God hath made this same 
Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ" 
ver. 36. 

The holy anointing oil was poured upon the head of 
Aaron, being poured upon the mitre which covered his 
head. This is again referred to in Lev. xxi. 10 — 12. 
" He that is high priest among his brethren upon whose 
head the anointing oil was poured — the crown of the 
anointing oil of his God is upon him." 

The Lord Jesus is also the High Priest among His 
brethren; allusion to which is made in Heb. ii. II : 
" For both he that sanctifieth, and they who are sancti- 
fied are all of one ; for which cause he is not ashamed 
to call them brethren ; saying, I will declare thy name 
unto my brethren ; in the midst of the Church will I 
sing praise unto thee." He stands as the Anointed One, 
the Christ, in the midst of His brethren, the Church. 
And He will be the leader of their praises in glory when 
the morning of the resurrection comes, and He presents 
them individually faultless before the presence of His 
glory with exceeding joy; presenting the Church to 
Himself, " a glorious Church not having spot or wrinkle, 
or any such thing, but holy and without blemish." 
Jude 24; Eph. v. 27. 

This anointing oil is spoken of as the crown of the 
anointing oil of his God, (Lev. xxi. 12 ,) or, may it not 
rather be translated without the " of" — the crown, 
(that is) the oil, the anointing (oil) of his God : the 
anointing oil of his God, being the crown; commu- 
nicating to him a priestly, and a kind of regal dignity. 
An allusion being here made by anticipation to the royal 
priesthood, of which Melchizedek was the true type, 
and of which Christ Himself is the true commencement. 

Oil was poured* upon the head of the high priest, 
and upon the head of the king. 1st Sam. x. I ; 
2nd Kings ix. 3,6. It is worthy of remark that Saul 

* In our translation of Lev. xiv. 18, it would seem as if oil were pound upon 
the head of the leper; but the word used here is not in the Heb. pour, but give; 
" he shall give upon the head of him that is to be cleansed." 



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was anointed captain. 1st Sam. ix. 1 6 ; x. I. Subse- 
quently Samuel alluding to this anointing, speaks of it 
as anointing for kingship, xv. 2, 17. 

David was thrice anointed. He was anointed to God 
as His king in the midst of his brethren. 1st Sam. xvi. 

3, 13 ; 2nd Sam. xii. 7. He was anointed king by the 
men of Judah, over the house of Judah. 2nd Sam. ii. 

4, 7. He was lastly anointed long over Israel, by the 
elders of Israel. 2nd Sam. v. 8, 17. 

Thus David was especially anointed to God. And 
a similar expression occurs again only with respect to 
Solomon, who was twice anointed ; first, by Zadoc 
the priest and Nathan the prophet, 1st Kings i. 34, 
39, 45 ; and the second time anointed king unto the 
Lord. 1st Chron. xxix. 22. 

The Lord Jesus has made us kings and priests unto 
God and His Father. Rev. i. 6. And He is Himself 
especially God's King — " My King" — His Christ. Psa. ii. 
6 ; ii. 2 ; xviii. 50. 

It has been before observed that the word " anointed" 
is confined in Exod. xxix. 7, and Lev. viii. to Aaron the 
high priest, and is not used in reference to his sons. 
So the Heavenly Priesthood, of which Christ is the 
head, receive the anointing of the Spirit by virtue of their 
union with the risen Christ. His body, the Church, 
was formed of Him in death and resurrection ; as Eve 
was fashioned by God's hands out of Adam while he 
was in a deep sleep, which the Lord God had caused to 
fall upon him. The remarkable expression is used in 
Gen. n. 22, with reference to this — " And the rib 
which the Lord God had taken from man, builded he a 
woman, and brought her unto the man." 

The very rib itself God builded a woman. It is 
not said " out of," or " of" the rib. Neither did God 
breathe any breath of life into the woman, as He is said 
to have done with respect to the man. But the life of 
the woman was part of the life which the man had 
already received from God. God " brought her unto 



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the man, and Adam said this is now bone of my bones, 
and flesh of my flesh. She shall be called woman 
(isha, or female man,) because she was taken out of 
man." (ish.) A beautiful type this of the church, 
which is Christ's body ; fashioned out of His death, 
springing up in union with Him in resurrection, 
composed of members of His body, of His flesh, and 
of His bones, partaker of life in union with and derived 
from Him. God's gift to Christ, to be presented 
faultless before the presence of His glory, on the 
morning of the resurrection. 

This body is now in the process of being formed, 
" in continuance fashioned," the members having been 
all written in the book of God, and having been all 
seen in union with Christ when He was raised from 
the dead, and curiously wrought in the lowest parts 
of the earth. 

Allusion is made to this in Eph. iv. 9, where the 
Lord is spoken of as having ascended up on high, and 
giving gifts unto men — His ascension being the result 
of His having descended first into the lower parts of 
the earth. This expression "lower parts of the earth," 
(katotera,) Eph. iv. 9, seems to be taken from the 
Greek of the 139th Psalm, (Sept. cxxxviii. 15,) where 
we have the words "lowest parts of the earth.'* 
{tots katotato.) 

The Lord Jesus being raised up from the dead, and 
exalted by the right hand of God, and having received 
of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, shed 
forth that blessed spirit upon His disciples, thereby 
giving gifts which should fit them for their various 
places in the body ; knitting them together in the unity 
of the Spirit, that they might grow up into Him in all 
things which is the head even Christ, 

We have this type of the anointing of Aaron 
alluded to in Psa. cxxxiii, "Behold how good and how 
pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity. 
It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran 



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down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard, that went 
down to the skirts of his garments." 

The good oil is spoken of as first upon the head, 
then descending upon the beard, and finally upon the 
skirts of Aaron's garments. The word which we 
translate " skirts," is properly "mouth" in the singular 
number. It is nowhere else in Scripture translated 
skirts, but on two other occasions when connected with 
dress it is rendered " hole," and " collar." It is the 
"hole" in the top of the blue robe of the Ephod, 
around which a band was placed that it be not rent. 
Exod. xxviii. 32.; xxxix. 23. In Job xxx. 18, the 
same word is rendered "collar of my coat. Two 
entirely different Hebrew words are used for "skirts." 

From this it has been surmised, that the allusion is to 
the holy anointing oil descending from Aaron's beard, 
upon the hole of the blue robe of the Ephod, which 
was very close to the breastplate.; and that the type 
thus employed was to represent the anointing of 
Aaron's head, reaching the ephod robe, and the names 
of Israel engraved on the ephod breastplate, linking on 
those names, by means of one stream of oil, with the 
head of the high priest. The only difficulty which 
arises to make one question this interpretation is, that 
garments is in the plural, and therefore implies that 
more than one garment of the high priest was reached 
by the oil. 

Whichever way it be taken the truth prefigured is 
much the same. Aaron's garments were aU representa- 
tive, being worn by him as one who stood before God 
on behalf of others. This good oil wherewith he was 
anointed, flowed from his head down to these garments 
for glory and beauty, forming a connexion between 
his anointing, and the people whom he represented 
before God. 

We as believers have received an unction from the 
Holy One, from Christ Jesus, our anointed Head. 
The Lord is called the " Holy One *' in the following 



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Scriptures: Mark.i. 24.; Luke iv. 34.; Acts iS. 14. 
The title, " the Holy One " does not seem to be riven 
to the Spirit of God ; but when He is spoken or, the 
word Spirit is always added. 

This unction, (chrism,) 1st John ii. 20, teaches us all 
things, enabling us to discern between truth and error : 
" is truth and is no lie," abides in us, and teaches us to 
abide in Him, Christ. It is the spirit of unity and 
of brotherhood, helping us to dwell together in unity, 
(not merely to meet occasionally together,) but to abide 
in one, and that with all saints. Wherever separation 
comes in and divides believers from one another, the 
bond of brotherhood is made to yield to some other 
bond ; the tie of life and union with Christ, witnessed 
by the Holy Spirit's presence and power, is sacrificed 
to some fleshly association. A portion it may be of 
Gods truth is made the bond which links certain of 
God's children together, or they gather round some 
human leader or head, and the dwelling together in 
unity of the " holy brethren " is set aside. The apostle 
saw the germ3 of all this schism working at Corinth, 
and he spoke to them as carnal in consequence, although 
they were distinguished for much manifestation of the 
gifts of the Spirit. Even the name of Christ may be 
used in a sectarian way. "I of Christ." 1st Cor. i. 12. 
It may be adopted in the way of a boastful assertion, to 
imply that others are not of Him, because they are not 
taking precisely the same course, or viewing certain sub- 
jects of truth exactly in the same way. This tendency 
was early displayed in the disciples. Even John rebuked 
one who was clearly on the Lord's side ; " because he 
followeth not with us." 

The Spirit would, doubtless, lead us into all truth if 
we were willing to be led •, but early prejudices, and 
our own natural self-will and self-conceit, are grevious 
hindrances to His power. Division and dissention are 
almost sanctioned now as of the Spirit, and are sometimes 
gloried in as good for the church of God. Thus the 



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Holy Spirit is grieved, and the word of God becomes 
of none effect ; and love, that bond of perfectness is 
chilled in the heart. There is evidently a struggle in 
the church of God at this time after more manifested 
and conscious unity, and fellowship. May the Lord 
increase this desire a hundred-fold — and may we be 
more like little children, seeking to learn through that 
anointing and the word of God, how to keep " the 
unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace." " God hath 
not given us the spirit of cowardice, but of power, 
and of love, and of a sound mind." 2nd Tim. i. 7. 
"Where envy is, there is confusion and every evil 
work. But the wisdom that is from above, is first 
pure, then peaceable, gentle, easy to be entreated, full 
of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, without 
hypocrisy." James iii. 1 6, 1 7. 

Believers have not to form a unity ; but " with all 
lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing 
one another in love," they are to endeavour " to keep 
the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace." 

The Spirit's unity is described in the seven unities 
which follow. 

One body, 

And one Spirit. 

One hope of your calling. 

One Lord. 

One Faith. 

One Baptism. 

One God and Father of all, 
Who is above all, and through all, and in you all. 
Eph. iv. 2 — 6. 

To endeavour to keep the unity of the Spirit will 
consist in our endeavouring to hold fast these seven 
truths, in which every believer is supposed from the 
first to have been grounded and settled. God has 
already formed and defined the one body; and one 
Spirit dwells in and pervades that one body. The 
responsibility rests upon each member of that body, to 



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use all diligence to keep the unity of the Spirit, by 
holding fast these great truths, these facts upon which 
the body is founded as one. 

Let us remember that uniformity or confederacy is not 
unity. The unity of the Spirit must extend to the 
whole of the one body, and therefore anything which 
on our part hinders any member of that one body from 
manifesting the unity of the Spirit, or anything that 
hinders the edifying of the one body as a whole, is a 
breach of the unity of the Spirit. 

Aaron having been clothed and anointed, his sons 
were next clothed with their garments for glory and 
beauty ; and the second part of the chapter ends with 
the words, " as the Lord commanded Moses? 

Aaron and his sons now stood arrayed in fitting 
garments for service. But the means whereby they had 
been separated off to God, had not yet been made 
manifest in the type. Neither had they as yet, any gifts 
or sacrifices which they could present. The subsequent 
part of the chapter therefore takes up the sacrifices in 
detail, which were the real power of their consecration, 
and with which their hands were filled for service. 



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THE BULLOCK FOR A SIN-OFFERING. 



" And thou shalt cause a bullock 
to be brought before the taber- 
nacle of the congregation : and 
Aaron and his sons shall put their 
hands upon the head of the 
bullock. 

" And thou shalt kill the bul- 
lock before the Lord, by the door 
of the tabernacle of the congre- 
gation. 

"And thou shalt take of the 
blood of the bullock, and put it 
upon the horns of the altar with 
thy finger, and pour all the blood 
beside the bottom of the altar. 

" And thou shalt take all the 
fat that covereth the inwards* and 
the caul that is above the liver, 
and the two kidneys, and the fat 
that is upon them, and burn them 
upon the altar. 

" But the flesh of the bullock, 
and his skin, and his dung, shalt 
thou burn with fire without the 
camp: it is a sin offering." 
Exod. xxix. 10 — 14, 



" And he brought the bullock 
for the sin-offering: and Aaron 
and his sons laid their hands upon 
the head of the bullock for the sin- 
offering. 

" And he slew it : and Moses 
took the blood and put it upon 
the horns of the altar round about 
with his finger, and purified the 
altar, and poured the blood at the 
bottom of the altar, and sanctified 
it to make reconciliation upon it. 

" And he took all the fat that 
was upon the inwards, and the 
caul above the liver, and the two 
kidneys, and their fat, and Moses 
burnt it upon the altar. 

" But the bullock, and his hide, 
his flesh, and his dung, he burnt 
with fire without the camp, as 
the Lord commanded Moses."— 
Lev. viii. 14. — 17. 



The first offering brought by Moses was " the bullock 
for the sin-offering," or as it might be better rendered, 
" the bullock the sin." The word " offering " is never 
found in the Hebrew, connected with the various 
sacrifices. 

" And Aaron and his sons iaid their hands upon the 
head of the bullock, the sin." 

This word "laid" has sometimes the thought of 
laying, or leaning the hand heavily — thus in Psa. lxxxviii. 
7, it is translated " thy wrath lieth hard upon me." 

The priestly house had to become acquainted with 
the sin-offering. They were the first portion of Israel 
that ever knew an offering for sin. Hitherto every 
sacrifice which had been presented to God from Abel 



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downwards, had been a burnt-offering ; and even when 
the covenant was confirmed by the shedding of blood, 
Exod. xxiv. that blood was procured from burnt-offerings 
and peace offerings. Thus an offering solely and 
peculiarly appropriated to sin, had never been known 
until the consecration of the priests. We must remember 
that this 8th chapter of Leviticus which we are consider- 
ing, in point of time, preceded the first seven chapters 
of that book, for the events therein related took place 
when the tabernacle was first set up. Exod. xl. 12 — 15. 

Aaron and his sons by laying their hands heavily upon 
the head of the victim, recognized their identification 
with it, typically transferring their sin from off themselves, 
to the bullock thus appointed to bear it. It was like the 
act of faith in a sinner when he first trusts in Jesus, and 
who believes that his sin has been borne by Christ ; like 
the verse of our well-known hymn, 

" By faith I lay my hand, 

On that dear head of thine, 
Whilst like a penitent I stand. 
And there confess my sin." 

Moses then slew the bullock. Death at once followed 
the transfer of sin upon its head — death by the hand of 
another. Throughout this scene Moses seems to take 
the place of God — Aaron and his sons are completely 
passive — he deals with them as God commands. 

The grand aspect of Christ's death is that He 
suffered at the hands of God. God provided the Lamb, 
" and it pleased the Lord to bruise him." God made 
" his soul an offering for aln." 

Moses next took the blood, putting it on the horns of 
the altar, (of burnt-offering) round about with his finger, 
thereby purifying the altar — and poured the blood at the 
bottom of the altar and sanctified it, to make reconcilia- 
tion upon it. 

This action of putting the blood with the finger on 
the horns of the brazen altar is confined to the blood of 
the sin-offering. Lev. iv. 24, 30, 34. 



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It is perhaps expressive of a knowledge of the value 
of the blood, as to its cleansing power — Moses the clean 
person handling it, and applying its value to the horns 
of the altar ; the horns representing the power, or the 
strength of the altar. The blood ot the sin-offering alone 
was poured at the bottom of the altar. Exod. xxix. 12 ; 
Lev. iv. 7, 18, 25, 30, 34. 

The altar was thus established upon blood — poured 
out blood was the very basis upon which it stood. It 
was Israel's place of access to God, where gifts also 
were presented. It was founded upon the blood shed. 
In Psa. xxii. 14, we have the blessed Lord on the cross 
uttering his deep sorrows in death to God, and saying, 
" I am poured out like water " — and again in Isa. liii. 12, 
" he hath poured out (or emptied) his soul unto death." 
To this also the Lord makes allusion when on the night 
of His betrayal, " He took the cup, and gave thanks, 
and gave it to them, (His disciples,) saying, drink ye all 
of it, for this is my blood of the new covenant, which is 
shed for many for the remission of sins." Matt. xxvi. 27, 
28 ; Mark xiv. 24. And again, "this cup is the new 
covenant in my blood, which is shed for you." Luke 
xxii. 20. 

The great canon of truth " without shedding of blood 
is no remission," is here typically declared. 

Three chief uses of the blood are emphatically declared 
in this 15th verse of Lev. viii. purificaticn, sanctification, 
and reconciliation. 

The word which we translate cleanse, or purify, is 
the same as is elsewhere translated " to sin " — only a 
little varied in its inflection. How remarkably the Spirit 
of God calls our attention (even by the use of words) to 
the fact that we can only be cleansed from our sins 9 by 
the blood of Him who was made sin. A serpent of 
brass raised up upon a pole, was presented to the eye of 
a dying Israelite, as the only object that could give him 
life, when' he was suffering from the bite of a fiery 
serpent. Num. xxi. 8. 



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The blood put with the finger, purified. The blood 
poured out, sanctified, and reconciled. So it is with the 
saved sinner. He is reconciled to God — atoned for by 
the shedding of the blood of Christ. Through that one 
offering also, he is sanctified ; and the blood applied to 
his heart purges him from an evil conscience. 

The priests had themselves first to realize the value 
of the blood ; its power to purify, sanctify and atone, 
constituting them worshippers of God. After this they 
could present a sin-offering for other Israelites, with some 
appreciation of its value. 

Portions of the bullock, all the fat that was upon the 
inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two 
kidneys and their fat, were next burned upon the altar by 
Moses — but the bullock itself and his hide, his flesh, and 
his dung he burnt with fire without the camp. 

Two distinct words are employed for these two 
burnings, and they are never interchanged. The one is 
always used when either the whole animal, or portions of 
it were burned upon the altar of burnt-offering ; the other,, 
when the victim was burnt for sin outside the camp. 
In the first the thought of a sweet savour going up to 
God is connected with the word. Incense is derived 
from it — we find it in the following cases. 

The burnt-offerings. Lev. i. 9, 13, 15, 17. 

Meat-offering. Lev. ii. 2, 9, 16. 

Parts of the peace sacrifice. Lev. iii. 5, II, 16. 

Parts of the sin-offering. Lev. iv. 10, 1 9, 26, 3 1, 35*- 

Incense. Exod. xxx. 7, 8 ; xl. 27. 

In the second the idea of fierce consuming fire is 
attached to it. It is generally connected with the word 
fire ; and is used for burning in wrath. For instance,, 
where Nadab and Abihu were burnt, Lev. x. 6 ; Koran's 
company, Num. xvi. 37. 

Its use is confined (amongst the sacrifices) to the 
consuming of the sin-offering outside the camp. Exod.. 
xxix. 14; Lev. iv. 12, 2 1 ; xvi. 27, 28 ; and the red 
heifer, Num. xix. 5, 



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In this beautiful type we have two thoughts inseparably 
connected together. The death of the Lord Jesus under 
the wrath of God on account of sin, consumed like the 
victim outside the camp, at the same time that death was 
the odour of a sweet savour to God ; like the portions 
burnt as incense on the altar of burnt-offering. 

The third portion of the chapter closes here, with the 
words again repeated, " as the Lord commanded Moses 



THE RAM FOR THE 

"Thou shalt also take one ram ; 
and Aaron and his sons shall put 
their hands upon the head of the 
ram. 

" And thou shalt slay the ran*, 
and thou shalt take his blood, and 
sprinkle it round about upon the 
altar. 

"And thou shalt cut the ram in 
pieces, and wash the inwards of 
him and his legs, and put them 
unto his pieces, and unto his head. 

"And thou shalt burn the 
whole ram upon the altar ; it is a 
burnt offering unto the Lord : it 
is a sweet savour, an offering made 
by fire unto the Lord." — Exod. 
xxix. 15 — 18. 



BURNT-OFFERING. 

"And he brought the ram for 
the burnt-offering : and Aaron 
and his sons laid their hands upon 
the head of the ram. 

"And he killed it; and Moses 
sprinkled the blood upon the altar 
round about. 

"And he cut the ram into 
pieces ; and Moses burnt the head, 
and the pieces, and the fat. 

"And he washed the inwards 
and the legs in water ; and Moses 
burnt the whole ram upon the 
altar : it was a burnt sacrifice for 
a sweet savour, and an offering 
made by fire unto the Lord; as 
the Lord commanded Moses." — 
Lev. viii. 18 — 21. 



Next "he brought the ram for the burnt-offering." 
The burnt-offering is the highest sacrifice in Scripture, 
for all of it ascended from off the fire of the altar as a 
sweet savour unto the Lord. The Hebrew word 
(bhlah) translated " burnt-offering" means in reality 
that which " ascends" or "goes up" It designates a 
sacrifice which entirely ascended in fragrance. Noah's 
offerings when he came out from the ark into the new 
world, were of this character. Gen. viii. 20, 22. " The 
Lord smelled a sweet savour," or as it is in the margin, 



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" a savour of rest," and said in His heart, I will not 
again curse the ground any more for man's sake ; for 
the imaginations of man's heart is evil from his youth : 
neither will I again smite any more every thing living 
as I have done. While the earth remaineth, seed time 
and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, 
and day and night shall not cease." Abraham was also 
directed to offer Isaac for a "burnt-offering." Gen. xxii. 



Whilst God's perfect rest, satisfaction and delight in 
this sacrifice were expressed by its all ascending as a 
sweet savour; the devotedness also, and perfect obedience 
of Him whom it pourtrayed, are implied in the words 
recorded of the offerer, Lev. i. 3, " he shall offer it of 



of Lev. the words "and he brought" ver. 14, 18, 22, 
express the readiness of the victim to draw near the 
altar, like the phrase, Isa. liii. 7, " he is brought as a 
lamb to the slaughter or as it is in Acts viii. 32, " he 
was led as a sheep to the slaughter." 

In the Gospel of John we have this Scripture 
remarkably fulfilled. "And they led him away to Annus 
first — then led they Jesus from Caiaphas." Chap, xviii. 
13, 28. " Then came Jesus forth wearing the crown of 
thorns. He brought Jesus forth. They took Jesus and 
led him away. And he, bearing his cross, went forth" 
xix. 5, 13, 16, 17. 

" And Aaron and his sons laid their heads upon the 
head of the ram, and killed it," ver. 18, 1 9. 

Again, they identified themselves with the victim. All 
their sins and failures in obedience being transferred 
from themselves to it. Immediately this was done, 
Moses killed the ram. Death instantly succeeded the 
laying of their hands upon its head. 

" And Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar 
round about." Thus the altar was completely conse- 
crated by blood. Blood had been put upon the horns 
of it round about ; had been poured at the bottom of it, 



2-13- 



his own voluntary wilV 



n 




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and now was sprinkled round about it. The top, base, 
and sides presented in every direction the records of 
death; for there can be no access to God, and no 
worship, save through death, the death of Christ. 

" And he cut the ram into pieces, and Moses burnt the 
head, and the pieces, and the fat, And he washed the 
inwards and the legs in water ; and Moses burnt the 
whole ram upon the altar," ver. 20, 21. 

Every portion of the ram came under the eye of 
Moses. The head, the seat of mind and intellect : the 
inwards, the seat of the will and affections : the legs, 
the tokens of the outward walk and conduct. All were 
scrutinized, and presented in perfect cleanness to God, 
upon the altar. The type this of the unblemished ways, 
and spotless intrinsic purity of Christ. 

" In Him is no sin." 1st John iii. 5. 

" He knew no sin." 2nd Cor. v. 2 1. 

" He did no sin," 1st Pet. ii. 22. 

And though tempted in all points like as we are, He 
was " without sin." Heb. iv. 15. A blessed fourfold 
testimony to the perfection of Christ. But this is not all. 
Not only sinless, so as to be personally ignorant of sin ; 
without it under every temptation ; and never doing it ; 
but actively devoting Himself to God throughout the 
whole course of His life on earth, and at last in perfect 
subjection and obedience, yielding up that life on the 
cross ; giving " Himself for us an offering and a sacrifice 
to God for a sweet smelling savour." Eph. v. 2. In all 
the full value of Him, who thus gave Himself, we are 
accepted. The same burnt-offering whose blood was 
poured out as an atonement for sin, was burnt as a 
sweet savour upon the altar. And the priests who laid 
their hands upon it, found remission of sin through the 
shedding of its blood, and at the same time perfect 
acceptance with God, according to the full value of the 
spotless victim consumed on the altar. 

Although the sin-offering presented most strongly and 
vividly the aspect of Christ's death under wrath, because 



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of sin, yet even in that case portions of the sacrifice were 
burnt as a sweet savour upon the altar. And the burnt- 
offering, which has regard more especially to the death 
of Christ as that through which we are perfectly justi- 
fied, and according to the value of which we are 
accepted of God ; still keeps in view the fact, that that 
death has also atoned for us as sinners. In the shedding 
of blood, sin, the cause of death, is always acknow- 
ledged. And as without shedding of blood there could 
be no remission ; so also, there can be no justification 
but by the blood. The song of (Rev. v. 9, 1 2 ) is, "Thou 

art worthy for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed 

us to God by thy blood." 

" Worthy is the Lamb that was slain," seems espe- 
cially to contemplate the death of the Lord Jesus, in all 
the value of the burnt-offering. We claim His worthi- 
ness, whilst we own our worthlessness. We are 
accepted in the Beloved, whilst in ourselves, " we were 
by nature the children of wrath, even as others." 

The fourth part of the chapter here concludes with 
the same words before repeated, " as the Lord commanded 
Moses? 



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THE RAM OF CONSECRATIONS. 



" And thou shalt take the other 
ram; and Aaron and his sons shall 
put their hands upon the head of 
the ram. 

"Then shalt thou kill the ram, 
and take of his blood, and put it 
upon the tip of the right ear of 
Aaron, and upon the tip of the 
right ear of his sons, and upon 
the thumb of their right hand, 
and upon the great toe of their 
right foot, and sprinkle the blood 
upon the altar round about." — 
Exod. xxix. 19, 20. 



"And he brought the other 
ram, the ram of consecration : and 
Aaron and his sons laid their 
hands upon the head of the ram. 

" And he slew it ; and Moses 
took of the blood of it, and put it 
upon the tip of Aaron's right ear, 
and upon the thumb of his right 
hand, and upon the great toe of 
his right foot. 

"And he brought Aaron's sons, 
and Moses put of the blood upon 
the tip of their right ear, and upon 
the thumbs of their right hands, 
and upon the great toes of their 
right feet: and Moses sprinkled 
the blood upon the altar round 
about'" — Lev. viii. 22 — 24. 



The last sacrifice offered was " the Ram of Consecra- 
tion." Two rams were brought, (v. 2 ,) one was offered 
for a burnt-offering, and the other is called " the ram of 
consecrations ;" or, of filling (the hands.) The word 
consecrations is in the plural, and is found in Exod. xxix. 
22, 26, 27 : "for it is a ram of consecrations" — " the 
ram of Aaron's consecrations" — " the ram of the conse- 
crations." Lev. viiii. 22, 29. In Exod. xxix. 34, the 
word occurs in the plural — " flesh of the consecra- 
tions," as it ought to be throughout. 

Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head 
of this ram, and Moses slew it, as in the two former 
cases. The death of the victim following immediately 
upon this act of identification. 

" And Moses took of the blood of it, and put it upon 
the tip of Aaron's right ear, and upon the thumb of his 
right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot. 
And he brought Aaron's sons, and Moses put of the 
blood upon the tip of their right ear, and upon the 
thumbs of their right hands, and upon the great toes of 
their right feet." Thus the ear, the right hand, and the 
right foot of Aaron and his so»s, were dedicated to God 



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by blood. From henceforth their ear was to listen to 
no sounds, but such as might be heard in connection 
with the blood of the sacrifice. 

So also the believer at the present time. His ear has 
been consecrated to God, through the death of Christ, 
that he might hearken to His voice ; inclining his ear to 
hear heavenly words ; and listening to the voice of the 
Good Shepherd. He is to allow no whispers of temp- 
tation, and no sound of human revelry or ambition, to 
enter his priestly ear : but to be deaf as his Lord was, 
opening the ears of others, whilst He Himself heard not 
the temptations of the enemy. Isa. xlii. 19, 20. That 
perfect servant of Jehovah was blind and deaf — blind 
to all fascinations of the world, and deaf to every 
suggestion of Satan. And when at last led to the 
slaughter, He was dumb, uttering no words of reviling 
or threatening when falsely accused ; not opening His 
mouth when bufFetted, spit upon, mocked, and crucified. 

May we set before ourselves the blessed example of 
our Lord, and remember that by His blood we have a 
priestly circumcised ear. 

The thumbs of the right hand were also touched 
with the blood. The right hand is in Scripture used to 
express power. " Thy right hand, O Lord, is become 
glorious in power ; thy right hand, O Lord, hath dashed 
in pieces the enemy." " Thou stretchedst out thy right 
hand, the earth swallowed them." Ex6d. xv. 6, 12. 

And also skill. " A wise man's heart is at his right 
hand, but a fool's heart, at his left." Eccl. x. 2. That is, 
he guides the activities of his hand with wisdom : he is 
prompt also to execute the counsels of his heart. 

" If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand 
forget (her cunning.) Psa. cxxxvii. 5. The psalmist 
finds it as impossible to forget Jerusalem, as it would 
be impossible for his right hand not to act with rapidity * 
and skill at the prompting of his will. 



the human hand from the* paw of those animals, which 



The thumb is that part which 




iliarly distinguishes 



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in appearance most resemble the human form. It is the 
most valuable finger of the hand; without it, this 
member of the body would be comparatively useless. 

The priestly hand touched with the blood was conse- 
crated to handle gifts and sacrifices for God. Its 
skilfulness was devoted to the Lord's service, and the 
priest was not to touch any unclean or dead thing. 
Another beautiful type of the occupations of the 
believer, whose business in life is to serve God in all 
that he undertakes. Even when handling the things 
of this world, he is to do so to God's glory. His 
faculties, his powers of mind and body, are for the 
Lord ; the precious blood has separated him off to God, 
and the most ordinary actions of life, which as an 
unbeliever he performed in self-will, and for mere self- 
pleasing, he is now to do " to the glory of God." 

In all things he is to " seek first the kingdom of God 
and his righteousness ; " and strange as it may seem, he 
is not to labour for the meat that perisheth, but for that 
meat which endureth unto everlasting life. This latter 
precept of the Lord Jesus has been softened down by some 
to mean, that " we are not to labour inordinately, or 
exclusively, for the meat which perisheth, and that if 
the text were taken without some qualification, it would 
encourage idleness." In answer to this, it may be said 
that we have no right to qualify the text. The words 
of the Lord are distinct and emphatic, " labour not for 
the meat which perisheth." The difficulty is easily 
solved. We are, even in the necessary occupations of 
fife, to make the Lord's glory our object, and not to be 
labouring for the meat which perisheth, as if that were 
our only purpose. We are to do all things in such a 
way, that we may be exhibiting ourselves as sons o 
God without rebuke, shining as lights in the worldf 
Phil. ii. 14, 15 ; and we are not to live as if we had. 
two existences, a secular, and a religious. 

Lastly, the blood was put upon the great toes of their 
right feet. The Hebrew word is the same for gr£kt 



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toe as for thumb. The principal finger of the most 
active hand, and the principal toe of the most active 
foot, were alike touched with the blood. No pathway 
was to be followed, in which the priest could not walk 
with the blood anointed foot. His feet being holy, he 
was ever to tread upon holy ground, passing his life 
in the precincts of the sanctuary. So the priests to God 
of the present time are to be careful in their walk and 
conduct, lest they be found treading unholy paths, 
mingling themselves in the world's follies and amuse- 
ments, forgetful of the blood whereby they have been 
sanctified. Our feet were naturally swift to shed 
blood — destruction and misery were in our ways — the 
way of peace we once knew not. Rom. iii. 15, 17. 
Now, our path is to be that of the righteous ; our feet 
aie to be beautiful, as messengers of glad tidings : our 
ways are to be ways of pleasantness and peace May 
we avoid all companies into which we cannot go with 
the blood sprinkled feet ; into which we cannot carry 
the good news of the blessed name of Jesus. The ear, 
the hand, and the foot are the Lord's. " Ye are not 
your own, for ye are bought with a price, therefore 
glorify God in your bixly." 1st Cor. vi. 19, 20. 

Moses next v sprinkled the blood upon the altar 
round about, vet. 24. The same blood which had 
been put upon the priests, was sprinkled on the altar. 
Thus the vessel at which they habitually ministered 
was alike separated off to God with themselves. The 
patterns of things in the heavens being purified with 
these typical sacrifices, whilst the heavenly things 
themselves with better sacrifices than these. Heb. ix. 23. 



"Also thou shalt take of the 
ram the fat and the rump, and 
the fat that covereth the inwards, 
and the caul above the liver, and 
the two kidneys, and the fat that 
is upon them, and the right 
shoulder ; for it is a ram of conse- 
cration : 



" And he took the fat, and the 
rump, and all the fat that was 
upon the inwards, and the caul 
above the liver, and the two 
kidneys, and their fat, and the 
right shoulder : 

"And out of the basket of 
unleavened bread, that was before 



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"And one loaf of bread, and 
one cake of oiled bread, and one 
wafer out of the basket of the 
unleavened bread that is before 
the Lord. 

"And thou shalt put all in the 
hands of Aaron, and in the hands 
of his sons ; and thou shalt wave 
them for a wave offering before 
the Lord. 

"And thou shalt receive them 
of their hands, and burn them 
upon the altar for a burnt offering, 
for a sweet savour before the 
Lord ; it is an offering made by 
fire unto the Lord. 

"And thou shalt take the 
breast of the ram of Aaron's 
consecration, and wave it for a 
wave offering before the Lord : 
and it shai 1 be thy part. 

"And thou shalt sanctify the 
breast of the wave offering, and 
the shoulder of the heave ottering, 
which is waved, and which is 
heaved up, of the ram of the 
consecration, even of that which 
is for Aaron, and of that which 
19 for his sons : 

" And it shall be Aaron's and 
his sons' by a statute for ever from 
the children of Israel ; for it is an 
heave offering : and it shall be an 
heave offering from the children 
of Israel of the sacrifice of their 
peace offerings, even their heave 
offering unto the Lord. — Exod. 
xxix. 22 — 28. 



the Lord, he took one unleavened 
cake, and a cake of oiled bread, 
and one wafer, and put them 
on the fat, and upon the right 
shoulder : 

" And he put all upon Aaron's 
hands, and upon his sons' hands, 
and waved them for a wave 
offering before the Lord. 

" And Moses took them from 
off their hands, and burnt them 
on the altar upon the burnt 
offering : they were consecrations 
for a sweet savour: it is an 
offering made by fire unto the 
Lord. 

" And Moses took the breast, 
and waved it for a wave offering 
before the Lord : for oi the ram 
of consecration it was Moses' 
part; as the Lord commanded 
Moses. — Lev. viii. 25 — 29. 



Seven portions of the ram were thus taken by Moses : 
the fat, and the rump, and all the fat that was upon 
the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the two 
kidneys, and their fat, and the right shoulder. 

The word for "fat" has especial reference to the inside 
fat of the victim, and is in the margin of Lev. ill. 
3, translated "suet." Three portions of fat were 
taken ; the fat, all the fat that was upon the inwards, 
and the fat of the kidneys. This proved the healthiness, 



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the inward vigour of the animal. No human eye could 
perceive this development of life, until the victim had 
been slain. Beautiful figure this of the complete 
devotedness of Christ, as to all His inward affections, 
and will, and desires, to please God ; He could say, 
" I delight to do thy will O my God — yea thy law is 
within my heart." Psa. xl. 8. The truth of this 
wonderful inner life, in all its richness and fulness 
dedicated to God, was made manifest when the Lord 
hung upon the tree, "obedient unto death, even the 
death of the cross." We can now look back upon the 
life and ways of the blessed Lord, and see in them that 
humbling of Himself ; that dedication to God ; that 
one object of pursuit, to glorify God ; the one motive 
of His heart, which He finally so marvellously displayed 
in laying down His life at the commandment of His 
Father. He that discerneth the thoughts and intents 
of the heart, could be appealed to by Christ in the 
words of Psa. cxxxix. 23, " search me, O God, and 
know my heart ; try me, and know my thoughts ; and 
see if there be any wicked way in me," or (margin) "way 
of pain or grief." He could challenge the eyes of Hira 
to whom all things are naked and opened, to search His. 
inmost soul, well knowing that there was not a thought 
within, which would grieve His Father, but that He? 
would have the ready response, " my beloved Son in* 
whom I am well pleased." — " mine elect in whom mj 
soul delighteth." Love to God being the pure motive 
from which all His actions took their rise, He could 
with truth say, " I do always those things that please 
him." John viii. 29. Blessed perfectness, sinless purity, 
unswerving obedience ! How contrasted with the mixed! 
motives, the unclean desires, the constant unbelief and 
disobedience which meet the eye of our heavenly Father,, 
as He marks our thoughts and intents, as He 
searches our purposes and our ways. 

" The caul above the liver." It will be perceived on 
referring to the margin of the Bible, that " midriff "* 



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is substituted for " caul." Exod. xxix. 1 3 ; Lev. iii. 4. 
And this probably is the right translation, midriff, or 
diaphragm, being the portion here specified. This is a 
muscular membrane, dividing the body into two parts, 
and is the great organ by means of which the breath 
is inhaled. It is in the type always mentioned in 
close connection with the liver. 

The word "above," or upon the liver is used in 
Exod. xxix. Ig ; Lev. iii. 4, 10, 15 ; iv. 9 ; vii. 4 ; ix, 10. 
This word "above" is omitted in Exod. xxix. 22; 
Lev. viii. 1 6, 25 ; ix. 1 9, in which passages, the caul 
would almost seem to be identified with the liver. 

Thus the organ by which the victim breathed, (the 
midriff,) and which was closely connected with that 
(the liver) wherein gall and bitterness were naturally 
secreted,* was wholly presented to God. In the 
Antitype the whole power of His inner life, every breath 
He drew was altogether for God — and there was no 
gall or bitterness in Him ; no envy or malice to taint 
the inward feelings of His soul. He was " meek and 
lowly in heart." 

Two other portions, "the rump, and the two 
kidneys," were also selected. The kidneys are else- 
where translated, reins. God is said to try, to search, 
and to see the heart and reins. Psa. vii. 9 ; Jer. xi. 20 ; 
xvii. 10 ; xx. 12. He searches the inward motive, and 
the secret affection. The hidden desire is known to 
Him. The Lord Jesus could appeal to the judgment 
of God, and say, " Judge me, O Lord, for I have 
walked in mine integrity: I have trusted also in the 
Lord : I shall not slide. Examine me, O Lord, and 
prove me 5 try my reins and my heart." Psa. xxvi. I, 2. 
He was the only one who could claim an integrity of 
His own. And this word integrity is interesting, 
because it is almost the same as the Thummim ; the 

* Pliny says of the bile -or gall secreted by the liver, " of all those things 
which are generally to be found in every living creature, the gall is that which 
is of greatest efficacy in operation ; for power it hath naturally to heat, bite, 
draw, discuss, and resolve.''— Richardson's Diet, under " gall," 



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perfections, the uprightnesses, placed in the breastplate. 
His inward perfections were the power of His outward 
walk — like -die upper and hinder part of the victim's 
legs, presented with the kidneys. So also He could 
say, " I shall not slide." His own integrity, and His 
ceaseless trust in Jehovah preserved His foot in an even 
place. And not only so, but when proved and tried, 
yea, and scorched with the refining fire of God's 
holiness, His reins and His heart were fit for the altar, 
and yielded nothing but the sweetest savour to God. 

The word, try my reins and my heart, is that used for 
the refining of metals in the furnace. This blessed one 
could also say, " I will bless the Lord who hath given 
me counsel ; my reins also instruct me in the right 
seasons." Psa. xvi. 7. The counsel He received from 
Jehovah found an immediate response from His own will. 
And in that one night of fearful sorrow, that unnatural 
night — when the sun was darkened at noon-day, His 
own desire to accomplish the commandment of God, 
instructed Him to lay down His life of Himself, even 
though in so doing He had to bear sin and shame, and 
curse and wrath. 

Wondrous perfection, when the inward will and 
strength of the Son of Man, answered completely the 
mind and purpose and counsel of God. 

The right shoulder completed these precious portions of 
the ram of consecrations, expressive of the power 
patiently to endure, all that might be laid upon the victim 
by the hands of another. 

There was strength in Jesus adequate to the heavy 
burden laid upon Him by God — in nothing did He fail. 
He bore the weight of our sins upon the tree, till He 
knew that the stripes of God upon His soul had reached 
the appointed number, and till the bruising of Jehovah 
ended in His yielding up the ghost. God could, 
according to the infinite measure of His own holiness, 
and His infinite judgment upon sin, say, " it is enough." 
The burden had been borne — the chastisement of our 



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peace was completed. The strength of the blessed 
victim had sufficed, and the body of the Lord laid in the 
tomb in the helplessness of death, witnessed that sin was 
put away, and remitted — and that the great object which 
from all eternity had been in the counsels of God, was 
completed. The way of access for the sinner to the 
glory was made — the way into the holiest was laid open. 

Moses next took out of the basket three sorts of 
bread — one unleavened cake— one unleavened cake 
mingled with oil — and one wafer, unleavened, anointed 
with oil. 

Leaven is universally used in Scripture, as a type of sin 
spreading its corrupting influence. A secret working of 
evil, which may not be outwardly manifest, but which 
arises from a corrupt nature within. All types therefore 
of the blessed Lord, which refer to Him as the bread 
from heaven, are without leaven. No leaven could be 
burnt on the altar in any offering of the Lord made by 
fire ; because God could not accept a sacrifice in which 
there was the slightest taint or corruption. 

Three aspects of Christ as the bread of life are 
presented to us in these three portions selected from the 
basket of unleavened bread : — 

First, His sinless purity, the unleavened cake. Next, 
as the Christ of God — from His birth filled with the 
Holy Ghost, the unleavened cake mingled with oil ; and 
thirdly, as anointed by the Holy Ghost with power to 
accomplish the most minute precept of God, the 
unleavened wafer, anointed with oil. He is the un- 
leavened bread of sincerity and truth — the true bread 
from heaven — the bread of life — the living bread — the 
bread of God — the bread which God has provided. 
The sixth chapter of John seems to be the Lord's expo- 
sition of the manna, and the meat-offerings. And we 
find in that chapter, He mingles the thought of flesh and 
blood with bread. " The bread that I will give is my 
flesh." — " whoso eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood 
hath eternal life." — " for my flesh is true meat, and my 



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380 

blood is true drink." — " he that eateth me even he shall 
live by me." — "this is that bread which came down 
from heaven — he that eateth of this bread shall live 
for ever," verses 51, 54, 55, 57, 58. Thus the Lord 
closely connects the fact of His death, with His being 
the bread of life. Indeed there is no feeding on Christ 
except in close connection with His death on the cross. 
The contemplation of His life of perfect obedience, will 
not avail us, or strengthen our souls to follow His 
example, unless we connect such meditations with the 
sacrifice of Himself upon the tree. These cakes there- 
fore were presented to God, already baken in the oven — 
a type of Christ contemplated in His death. 

Filling the hands. Moses put these unleavened cakes 
" on the fat, and on the right shoulder, and put all upon 
Aaron's hands, and upon his sons' hands, and waved 
them for a wave offering before the Lord," verses 26, 27. 

Here we have an explanation of the word "consecrations" 
which in the Hebrew literally means "filings" (of the 
hand.) 

The word is used in the following connections : 

" The ram of consecrations." Exod. xxix. 22, 26, 27 ; 
Lev. viii. 22, 29. 

" The flesh of the consecrations." Exod. xxix: 34. 

" Basket of consecrations." Lev. viii. 31. 

"Days of consecrations." Lev. viii. 33. 

" Consecrations for a sweet savour.' Lev. viii. 28. 

The peculiar meat-offering recorded in Lev. vi. 19— 
23, which was offered by Aaron and his sons on the 
day when he was anointed, is also called consecrations." 
Lev. vii. 37. 

Aaron's hands and his sons' hands were filled with 
parts of the ram, and the unleavened cakes. They 
handled the most precious portions of the sacrifice — thus 
appreciating their value ; their hands had previously 
been laid upon the heads of the victims, and thereby they 
had in figure transferred their own sin, guilt, and need 
to those victims. So these hands thus emptied of their 



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own guiltiness, were then filled with peculiarly choice 
parts of the slain ram, and with unleavened cakes of fine 
wheat flour — wondrous transfer ! May we behold by 
faith, all our sin and misery laid on Jesus crucified, 
and may we have our hearts filled with contemplations 
of His predousness. 

We may be assured that our hands and hearts will be 
occupied with one thing, or another. Either the world 
with its vanities, and the flesh with its lusts will take their 
place within — or Christ and His comeliness, His beauty, 
His perfections, will fill our souls. 

It seems as if the priests were waved with their hands 
thus filled, as a wave-offering before God. The attention 
of Jehovah was called to contemplate them. His eyes 
might be invited to search them, because their hands 
were filled with the costly consecrations. They were 
identified with, and became one with the hallowed 
things which they handled. This was one peculiar and 
especial part of priestly consecration. The priests had 
to estimate for themselves the value of the sacrifices, and 
to handle various portions thereof, that they might know 
how to approach and worship God, and might stand in 
the place of intercession for others. 

The apostle John opens his epistle with a declaration 
of somewhat of this priestly experience, "that which 
was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we 
have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, 
and our hands have handled of the word of life. For 
the life was manifested, and we have seen it, and bear 
witness, and shew unto you that eternal life which was 
with the Father, and was manifested unto us — that 
which we have seen and heard declare we unto you.'* 
1st John i. I — 3. 

We have first to know for ourselves, and to see for 
ourselves, and as it were to touch and handle for 
ourselves the sacrifice, in its sweet savour and accept- 
ableness to God ; before we can testify to others of its 
value, or can worship God in spirit and in truth. A 



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witness must not ground his testimony upon mere hearsay 
reports which he has received from others ; but must 
himself know and comprehend the facts to which he 
testifies. The Lord Himself in speaking to Nicodemus 
says, " verily, verily I say unto thee, we speak that we do 
know, and testify that we have seen, and ye receive 
not our witness." John ill. 1 1. He speaks in the plural 
number, including all true witnesses with Himself, 
the faithful and true witness. 

Are our hands so filled with Christ, are our hearts so 
occupied with Him, that we have no desire to meddle 
with the things of the world, and that out of the 
abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh ? 

All these parts of the sacrifice, and the unleavened 
bread, which had filled the hands of the priests were 
taken by Moses " from off their hands and burnt on the 
altar, upon the burnt offering : they were consecrations 
for a sweet savour, it is an offering made by fire unto the 
Lord," v. 28. 

The priests were by this act identified before the Lord 
with the burnt-offering, and accepted according to its 
sweet savour. They had been cleansed, atoned for, 
personally dedicated, had their hands filled, and were 
accepted, in the full value of the offerings which had been 
presented on their behalf to God, and according to the 
preciousness of the blood shed for them. One portion of 
the ram of consecration was especially reserved for 
Moses : he " waved the breast before the Lord, for of 
the ram of consecration it was Moses' part," v. 29. 

Throughout this scene Moses acted on the part of 
Jehovah — as a substitute accurately fulfilling His com- 
mands. And the breast of the ram of consecrations 
became his portion on that account. He was to enter 
with something like the estimate of God, into the love 
of Him, who was portrayed in these sacrifices. The 
breast is a type of the seat of the affections. To God 
alone primarily belong the affections of Christ. To the 
Son of God alone primarily belong the affections of God. 



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383 

Who can estimate, save the Father, the love of His Son; 
and who can enter, save the Son, into the full under- 
standing of the love of the Father ? 

And yet, wondrous grace ! we hear the Lord saying, 
" thou hast loved them as thou hast loved me " — and it 
is said by the Holy Spirit of Him, " He loved us and 
gave Himself for us." God has given to us to know the 
love of Jesus towards us. He has given us His own 
heart's affections, and the affections of His Son. And Jesus 
has revealed to us the deep secret of the cross, viz., that it 
was love for the Father, and love for us because we are 
loved of the Father, that led Him to lay down His life. 
O mystery of love ! the subject for our everlasting 
contemplation, and for our eternal fellowship and joy. 

Here closes the fifth portion of the chapter with the 
words again repeated, " as the Lord commanded Moses' 9 



"And thou shalt take of the 
blood that is upon the altar, and 
of the anointing oil, and sprinkle 
it upon Aaron, and upon his gar- 
ments, and upon his sons, and 
upon the garments of his sons 
with him: and he shall be hal- 
lowed, and his garments, and his 
sons, and his sons' garments with 
him." — Exod, xxix. 21. 



"And Moses took of the 
anointing oil, and of the blood 
which was upon the altar, and 
sprinkled it upon Aaron, and 
upon his garments, and upon his 
sons, and upon his sons' garments 
with him ; and sanctified Aaron, 
and his garments, and his sons, 
and his sons' garments with him," 
— Lev. viii. 30. 



If we compare the parallel passage in Exod. xxix. 2 1, we 
shall find a remarkable alteration both in the arrangement 
of the verses, and in the order in which the blood stands. 
It will be observed in the passage in Exodus, that this 
sprinkling upon Aaron and his garments, is placed imme- 
diately after the blood is put upon Aaron's right ear, etc. ; 
and the filling of the hands of Aaron and his sons comes 
afterwards. 

In this chapter of Leviticus which we are contem- 
plating, the hands of the priests are filled before the 
sprinkling takes place ; and immediately after their 
ears, etc., are touched with the blood. In Exodus also 
the blood is mentioned before the oil. In Leviticus the 
anointing oil precedes the blood. 



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There may be a purpose in this variation, to link so 
closely together the anointing oil and the blood, and the 
blood and the anointing oil, that we may not either sever 
the one from the other, or give precedence to one before 
the other. 

There has been a thought expressed by some of the 
Lord's people, that there may be an interval of time,, 
between the salvation of a sinner through the application 
of the precious blood of Christ to his heart and con- 
science, and the anointing of the Holy Ghost. There 
has also been a tendency in writers on the work of the 
Holy Spirit, to attribute redemption to Christ, and 
sanctifiation to the Holy Spirit exclusively. The type 
we are contemplating negatives both these suppositions. 

Immediately the sinner believes on the Lord Jesus he 
is born again ; the power of the Holy Ghost communi- 
cating to him life and faith in Jesus Christ, and Him. 
crucified. The same Spirit baptizes him at the same 
moment into the one body, and he receives the Holy- 
Ghost as the indwelling Spirit of God, because he is a 
child of God, and is united to the living Christ, the Son. 
of God, a member of His body, of His flesh, and of 
His bones. But besides this establishing of the believer 
in Christ, he is also anointed with the Spirit of God, 
He is united to a Christ, an anointed one, and therefore 
has the Spirit of God. And he also receives a special 
anointing of the Spirit, enabling him to fulfil his duties 
as a member of the body, and giving him a gift in 
accordance with that membership. 

The Spirit of God is also the seal, or stamp of God, 
upon the believer, proving by His very presence with, 
and in the believer, that he is a child of God — that he 
is a new creation of God— a deed executed by God- 1 — 
a fiat of God's love and power. The Spirit also is the 
earnest in the believers heart of the future glory — a 
pledge from the right hand of the throne of God — from 
the risen Christ, of the glorious resurrection which shall 
be his when Christ returns. An earnest of the bright 

2 DE64 



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inheritance which awaits him, and which will be his in 
possession when Jesus comes. 

The anointing oil and the blood go together. Re- 
demption through the blood of Christ, and the anointing 
of the Spirit, are simultaneous. " Now he which 
stablisheth us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, 
is God ; who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest 
of the Spirit in our hearts." 2nd Cor. i. 21, 22. 

" In whom (Christ) ye also trusted after that ye heard 
the word of truth, the Gospel of your salvation, in whom 
also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that Holy 
Spirit of promise, which is the earnest of our inheritance, 
until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto 
the praise of his glory." Eph. i, 13, 14. 

In this passage the words " after ye believed," do not 
imply any interval of time : they might better be rendered, 
** in whom having believed, ye were sealed ;" or, ac- 
cording to our English idiom, we should insert the word, , 
and ; ' "in whom ye believed and were sealed." Here 
the presence of the Holy Ghost with, and in the believer 
as God's seal, and as the earnest of the glory, is imme- 
diate upon faith. 

We have a striking illustration of this in the case of 
Cornelius and his household, recorded in Acts x. An 
interval had elapsed between the conversion of the Jewish 
believers, and the descent of the Holy Ghost upon them 
at Pentecost. But there was no such interval in the 
case of these first Gentile converts. Immediately Peter 
in his discourse had reached the point where he declared 
that " through his name whosoever believeth in him shall 
receive remission of sins ; while he yet spake these words, 
the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word.* 
Or as Peter himself declares, when subsequently relating 
the circumstance — " And as I began to speak the Holy 
Ghost fell on them, as on us at the beginning." Acts xL 
15. The word of faith was, heard and believed, and 
the Spirit of God at once attested the fact by His 



presence and angi^ti 




k is also interesting to remark, 



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that Peter made use of the words " whosoever believeth in 
him," the very words of the Lord Jesus Himself, when 
preaching the Gospel to Nicodemus. 

Sanctified. — Let us tujn now to the subject of sanctifi- 
cation. It may be observed that the object of the whole 
ritual described in Exod. xxix. and Lev. viii. was to 
sanctify Aaron and his sons, in order that they might 
be priests. " And this is the thing that thou shalt do 
to hallow (or sanctify) them." And this sanctification is 
expressly repeated in connection with the blood and the 
oil : " And he shall be hallowed, (sanctified,) and his 
garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with 
him." Exod. xxix. 21. "And sanctified Aaron and 
his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments, with 
him." Lev. viii. 30. The sacrifices, the blood, and the 
oil, were the means employed in this sanctification. 

Sanctification implies separation "from," and separa- 
tion " tor Separation from sin and sinners, unto a holy 
God. A very concise and yet full definition of this 
occurs in Lev. xx. 26. " And ye shall be holy unto me ; 
for I the Lord am holy, and have severed you from 
other people, that ye should be mine." Israel had been 
severed from Egypt, and set apart to God in distinctness 
from all other nations of the earth. This separation 
had been effected through judgment. They had been 
redeemed from wrath, through the blood of the Paschal 
Lamb ; and had been redeemed out of Egypt and from 
Pharaoh's power, through the waters of the Red Sea. 

Thus they had been sanctified to God. The family 
of the priests were still further sanctified; being sepa- 
rated from the rest of Israel, and brought peculiarly 
nigh to God. The believer is by the blood of the 
Lamb, separated from the flesh, from sin, from the 
world, to be a child of God, a king, and priest ; quick- 
ened together with Christ, risen with Christ, one with 
Christ, and therefore holy unto God his Father. 

The Word of God speaks of sanctification as effected 
either by the will of God ; by the Holy Spirit as the 



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.agent ; by the offering of Christ as the means ; or, by 
the Word of God, as the instrument. 

By the will of God — " by the which will we are 
sanctified, through the offering of the body of Jesus 
Christ once for all." Heb. x. io. 

This passage attributes sanctification to the eternal 
purpose of God, whose will it was to separate to Him- 
self a family of priests ; and the way in which He was 
able to accomplish His will was through Christ coming 
to do it, and offering up Himself as a sacrifice for sin. 

Paul, when relating before Agrippa the history of his 
wonderful conversion, gives a striking summary of the 
•commission he then received from the Lord, to preach 
the Gospel to the Gentiles : " To open their eyes, to 
turn them from darkness to light, and from the power 
•of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness 
of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanc- 
tified by faith that is in me." Acts xxvi. 1 8. 

Faith in Christ is here declared, by the Lord Jesus 
Himself, to be the sanctifying power ; separating off the 
Gentile to be holy to the Lord, and to an inheritance 
with the saints in light. It is a " most holy faith 
through which we Gentile sinners have been severed 
from the world around us, to be God's holy ones ; and 
it is a "most holy faith" upon which we, thus sanc- 
tified, are to be constantly building ourselves. Jude 20. 

In Jude ver. I, we have sanctification attributed to 
God the Father, or rather, the passage may be rendered, 

sanctified in God the Father;" the security of the " 
believer is contemplated, for he is looked at as holy, 
because of his union with the Father and the Son. 

We find the phrase u called saints" occurring more 
than once in the epistles. In our version the worrf 
"to be" are unhappily inserted ; they tend to impair the 
real force of the expression. We are actually made 
*' saints," or holy ones by God's call ; for we are 
*' Holy brethren, partakers of a heavenly calling." 

Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, ' 

o 2 



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388 

not according to our works, but according to His own 
purpose and grace/which was given us in Christ Jestis 
before the world began." 2nd Tim. i. 9. "Ye also 
are the called of Jesus Christ, beloved of God, called 
saints? Rom. i. 6, 7. " All things work together for 
good, to them that love God, to them who are the called 
according to his purpose." Rom. viii. 28. "To them 
that are sanctined in Christ Jesus, called saints* 
1st Cor. i. 2. "Preserved in Jesus Christ, called? 
Jude I. From all these passages it is clear God's call 
is not an exhortation from Him to us, requiring us to 
accomplish a holiness of our own, but that His calling 
is His own effectual act, separating us as holy ones to 
Himself. We are partakers of His calling; we are 
saints, made so by His calling* The voice of His 
power sounding effectually in our hearts, has trans- 
formed us from sinners to saints, has created us anew 
in Christ Jesus. We cannot be too particular as to 
this truth — for on the one hand there is a kind of 
inherent notion that in some way or other death purifies 
the sinner and makes him holy; and on die other 
hand there is a common belief even amongst the children 
of God, that the work of the Holy Ghost in the believer 
gradually renders him more holy, and more fit for 
heaven. Both these very current opinions are contrary 
to God's truth. A believer in Jesus is not sanctified by 
death, but he is sanctified in Christ Jesus. Neither is 
it any gradual operation of the Holy Ghost in us that 
makes us holy, so as to render us fit for God and His 
glory. The song in the glory will be " Worthy is the 
Lamb that was slain," and has " redeemed us to God 
by His blood." 

The sinner is already saved through faith in the Lord 
Jesus, and has to give thanks to the Father that already 
"He hath made him meet to be a partaker of the 
inheritance of the saints in light ;" that already " He hath 
delivered him from the power of darkness, and hath 
translated him into the kingdom of his dear Son ;" " la 



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whom 99 (His Son) already " he hath redemption through 
his blood, the forgiveness of sin." Col. i. 12 — 14. 

Sanctificadon attributed to the Holy Spirit — "that 
the offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, 1 
bring sanctified by the Holy Ghost." Rom. xv. 16. 
The apostle speaks of himself as a priest presenting to 
God a meat-offering of the Gentiles ; like the new 
meat-offering on the day of Pentecost, when two wave 
loaves were waved before God as bread of first-fruits. 

This type of first-fruits was fulfilled as regards the 
Jews on die day of Pentecost. There were no Gentiles 
present when the Holy Ghost was poured out. Paul 
being especially the apostle to the Gentiles, and writing 
liis epistle to believers dwelling in the ruling Gentile 
city of the world, speaks of the presentation to God of 
Gentiles converted through his preaching, as a similar 
meat-offering ; sanctified by the Holy Ghost ; manifested 
as holy, by the presence and indwelling of that blessed 
Spirit. like the oil poured upon a meat-offering* 

Again, " God hath from the beginning chosen you 
to salvation through sanctificadon of the Spirit and 
belief of the truth. 2nd Thess. ii. 13. 

And, "Elect according to the foreknowledge of 
God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, 
unto obedience, and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus 
Christ." 1st Peter i. 2. 

In both these texts, the Spirit is presented as 
separating off in holiness the believer through belief in 
the truth in the first case and in the latter, separating 
"him off unto the obedience of faith, and unto the 
sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ. The Holy Spirit 
"being the agent employed by God the Father to accom- 
plish His will, in communicating faith in the precious 
Wood of Christ to the sinner, in order to his salvation. 

Santification is attributed to Christ. " Christ loved 
the Church and gave himself for it ; that he might 
sanctify and cleanse it, with the washing of water by 
she word." Eph. v. 25, 26. 



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• The Lord's death is presented to us in this passage 
as accomplished by Himself, that He might thereby 
sanctify and cleanse the Church. The cleansing, 
power of the blood being applied by the word of God. 

• The Lord Jesus is also called the Sanctifier, " both 
he that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified are all of 
one — for which cause he is not ashamed to call them 
brethren." Heb. ii. II. And the means whereby He- 
accomplishes this is His own precious blood — " Jesus 
also that he might sanctify the people with his own blood 
suffered without the gate." Heb. xiii. 12. 

And believers are of God, " in Christ Jesus, who of 
God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and 
$anctification, and redemption." A very blessed passage* 
tracing our new creation up to God, in union with Christ,, 
and telling us that Christ is made to us the full and 
blessed treasury of all wisdom, righteousness, holiness, 
and redemption. If we lack wisdom, God has given us 
all wisdom in Jesus. If we are conscious of unrighteous- 
ness, Christ is our righteousness. If we are conscious 
of our unholiness, He is our sanctification. If we look 
around us upon the world and find ourselves differing 
but little from the unredeemed, He is our redemption. 
We are in God's sight severed as far from this world,, 
and as distinct from it, as the Lord Jesus Himself is at 
the right hand of God. 

The Lord Jesus Himself was separated off as God's 
elect and sent into the world — that holy one, the Sow 
of God. John x. 36. And He sanctified Himself for 
our sakes — separating Himself unto God through the* 
death of the cross, that we might be sanctified through 
die truth. His prayer to the Father was, " sanctify them 
through thy truth, thy word is truth." John xvii. 17. 

The Holy Spirit uses the word of God, first to 
communicate life in separation to God; and next, to 
cleanse us practically from the defilements and unclean- 
nesses constantly attaching to us through the flesh, and' 
the world. Practical holiness in our walk and conver- 



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sation is only to be obtained through the word of God 
under the power of the Spirit of God. We are saints, 
we are holy, we are washed, we are sanctified, we are 
justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit 
of our God. "We have to be practically clean, and 
practically holy — and that through the same power and 
means by which we have been already saved. The 
word of God, testifying to the precious blood of Christ, 
applied by the Spirit of God. Thus the oil and the 
blood are inseparable. The Holy Ghost testifies to 
Jesus and His Cross. 

We should aim to be what we really are. Our 
struggles, our conflicts should result from the fact that 
we are children of God, that we are seated in heavenly 
places in Christ, that we are alive in the Spirit, that we 
are God's holy ones. If we turn the eye within, we 
have no power ; we shall only discover unworthiness, 
weakness, and sin; and this will give us no strength for 
conflict. We must keep our eye fixed on Jesus. 
Looking away from all other objects unto Him, the 
Author and Finisher of faith. And as we contemplate 
Him, we gain strength, we become practically more 
holy ; we are changed into His likeness, we grow up 
into Him. 

This was the last act of Moses, sprinkling the oil and 
the blood upon Aaron and his sons, and upon their 
garments. They and their garments were sanctified. 
It is to be observed that Aaron's sons, and his sons' 
garments are closely linked in this sprinkling with Aaron 
himself — " upon his sons, and upon his sons' garments 
with him." — This is four times repeated. Exod. xxix. 
21 ; Lev. viii. 30. 

Their persons were first sanctified, then their garments. 
And thus they stood a hallowed family in connection 
with Aaron their head. 

May we not see in this a little figure of the truths 
expressed in the epistle to the Hebrews, though at the 
same time there is a contrast. 



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Aaron and his garments had to be sanctified. Christ 
sanctified Himself for our sakes. Aaron's sons derived 
no sanctification from any act of Aaron. Christ's house 
derive all their sanctification from Christ their Head, 
and High Priest. 

Thus far there is a contrast — but we read, " he who 
sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified are all of one, 
for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren*" 
and, " holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, 
consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, 
Christ Jesus." Heb. ii. II; iii. I. Here is the fulfilment 
of those little words " with tim" we are all of one with 
Him that sanctifieth us. We are partakers of that 
wondrous calling of which He is the High Priest. We 
are " holy brethren," and " He is not ashamed to call 
us brethren" — a priestly family — a spiritual house, 
builded by God, belonging to die Son of God, over 
which He is the Head. 

Wondrous calling ! accomplished by a wondrous God, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. A family, named of the 
Father ; children and heirs of God, and joint-heirs 
with Christ : brethren whom Jesus is not ashamed to 
own as His brethren. An assembly in the midst of 
which He will sing praise to God — a congregation of 
priests anointed with the Holy Ghost — an holy priesthood, 
a royal priesthood, "to offer up spiritual sacrifices, accept- 
able to God by Jesus Christ," and "to shew forth the 
praises (virtues) of him who hath called us out of 
darkness into his marvellous light." 1st Pet. ii. 5, 9. 



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393 

THE FOOD OF THE PRIESTS. 



" And thou shalt take the ram 
of the consecration, and seethe 
his flesh in the holy place. 

" And Aaron and his sons shall 
eat the flesh of the ram, and the 
bread that is in the basket, by the 
door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

"And they shall eat those things 
■wherewith the atonement was 
made, to consecrate and to sanctify 
them : but a stranger shall not eat 
thereof, because they are holy. 

" And if ought of the flesh of 
the consecrations, or of the bread, 
remain unto the morning, then 
thou shalt burn the remainder 
with fire : it shall not be eaten, 
because it is holy. 

" And thus shalt thou do unto 
Aaron, and to his sons, according 
to all things which I have com- 
manded thee: seven days shalt 
thou consecrate them. 

"And thou shalt offer every 
day a bullock for a sin offering 
for atonement: and thou shalt 
cleanse the altar, when thou hast 
made an atonement for it, and 
thou shalt anoint it, to sanctify it. 

"Seven days thou shalt make 
an atonement for the altar, and 
sanctify it ; and it shall be an 
altar most holy: whatsoever 
toucheth the altar shall be holy." 
— Exod. xxix. 31 — 37. 



" And Moses said unto Aaron 
and to his sons, boil the flesh at 
the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation : and there eat it 
with the bread that is in the 
basket of consecrations, as I com- 
manded, saying, Aaron and his 
sons shall eat it. 

"And that which remaineth of 
the flesh and of the bread shall ye 
burn with fire. 

"And ye shall not go out of 
the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation seven days, until 
the days of your consecration be 
at an end : for seven days shall he 
consecrate you. 

" As he hath done this day, so 
the Lord hath commanded to do, 
to make an atonement for you. 

"Therefore shall ye abide at 
the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation day and night seven 
days, and keep the charge of the 
Lord, that ye die not : for so I am 
commanded. 

" So Aaron and his sons did all 
things which the Lord com- 
manded by the hand of Moses*" 
— Lev. viii. 31 — 36. 



Hitherto Aaron and his sons had been comparatively 
passive; the only action on their part was the laying 
their hands upon the head of the various sacrifices. 
They were now however commanded to eat the flesh of 
the ram of consecration, (the ram with which their hands 
had been filled,) and the remainder of the bread of 
consecrations, (with which also their hands had been 
filled.) They were to be strengthened for the Lord's 



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service by feeding on "those things wherewith the 
atonement was made, to fill their hand, to sanctify them." 
Exod. xxix. 33. Atonement, consecration, and sanctifi- 
cation were all included under the one sacrifice of the 
xam, and the bread which now became their food, or as 
it were the source of life to them. 

So it is also with the believer. He recognizes Christ 
as having in His death made a full atonement for his 
sin, and as having thereby consecrated and sanctified him 
as a king and priest to God ; and the very act of thus 
contemplating Christ by faith, is life, is Christ within him. 
Paul as Saul of Tarsus had a revelation of Christ from 
heaven to him, and this was by the operation of God the 
revelation of Christ in him. Gal. i. 15, 16. If Jesus be 
the object to which as sinners we turn, then we receive 
him by faith, and " Christ is in us the hope of glory." 
Col. i. 27. Faith and life go together. They are 
synchronous, we cannot place one before or after the 
other. Christ as our object, becomes Christ in us. 
And so also as to the nourishment of that life afterwards. 
We grow, and are strengthened, exactly in the same 
way in which life was originally communicated to us ; 
that is by contemplating the same object, Jesus Christ, 
and Him crucified. /Looking at Him as an external object, 
moulds and fashions us within into His likeness. "We all, 
with unveiled face beholding as in a glass the glory of 
the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory 
to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord." 2nd Cor. 
Hi. 18. Moses wist not that his face shone, when he 
came down from the mount. He had been in converse 
with God, and had unconsciously to himself, caught 
some of the glory of the Lord upon his countenance. 
We shall as surely, though perhaps imperceptibly to 
ourselves, be transformed into the image of Christ if we 
keep him constantly before us. Looking within ourselves 
will not advance us in spiritual growth ; neither will 
mental efforts of our own advantage us ; looking off 
ourselves unto Jesus, will have a transforming power. 



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The eating of those things wherewith the atonement 
"was made, may have this truth in type. The Lord in 
John vL, to which reference has already been made, 
identifies His flesh and blood with bread ; and identifies 
faith \ and coming to Him, with eating. " I am the bread 
of life ; he that cometh to me shall never hunger ; and he 
that believetb on me shall never thirst" John vi. 35. 
" That he that seeth the Son and believeth on Him may 
have everlasting life," 40. " Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, he that believeth on me hath everlasting life," 47. 
" I am that bread of lif e " — " that a man may eat 
thereof, and not die " — " if any man eat of this bread he 
shall live for ever," "Whoso eateth my flesh, and 
drinketh my blood, hath eternal life." " He that eateth 
of this bread shall live for ever," ver. 48, 50, 51, 54, 
58.* Thus the appropriation of Christ to oneself by 
faith, believing on Him, is eating His flesh and drinking 
His blood. It is " to taste that the Lord is gracious. 
1st. Pet. ii. 3. 

Eating is also a type of communion, or fellowship. 
It is so used in 1st Cor. x. 18 — 21. " Behold Israel 
after the flesh : are not they which eat of the sacrifices 
partakers of the altar ?" They typically partook of the 
same sacrifices of which God had partaken from off the 
altar. There can be no partaking with another of the 
same food, unless there be peace and friendship between 
the two. 

* An interesting question occurs in reading this chapter. Why does the Lord 
suddenly make use of another Greek word not commonly employed, when He 
speaks of eatUg His flesh? The word trogo. v. 54. 44 Whoso eateth my flesh." 
36. "He that eateth my flesh," 57. "80 he that eateth me," 58. "He that 
ea'eih of this bread." The Lord has all through this chapter previously 
employed another word, phago; and once only uses this latter word when 
speaking of eating His flesh. 53. "Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man." 
The word trogo in Liddell and Scott's Greek Dictionary, is translated to gnaw or 
chew, especially of herbivorous animals; and when used "of men, to eat raw 
vegetables, opposed to eating dressed food." Is this word selected by the Lord* 
In order to connect more intimately His flesh and blood with the word Bread,. 
and with the manna? 

It may be profitable to observe the use of the participles in the Greek, 
throughout this chapter. " He that believeth on me," ver. 35, 40, 47. "He that 
eateth," ver. 54, 56, 57, 58. "He that drinketh," ver. 54, 56. In all which 
instances the present active participle is used to express a continuous action. 
Not a mere eating and drinking once for all, but a habit. Faith is an active, 
continous habit of the soul ; it is the constant expression of life— and life is eternaL 



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Atonement having been made, and perfect reconcilia- 
tion established, the priests could eat of the sacrifices it* 
the presence of God ; could have fellowship with Him 
in those very things With which that atonement had been 
effected. In like manner the Lord's table becomes to the 
believer a place of fellowship with the Father and the 
Son. As a saved sinner he takes a place at that table, to 
remember Christ in God's presence, to worship and bless 
God for the gift of His Son, and in some measure to enter 
into God's joy and God's thoughts respecting that Great 
Salvation effected by Christ. What a wondrous invita- 
ation is that given by the Father in Luke xv. 23 : " Let us 
eat and be merry." And again, " It was meet that we 
should make merry, and be glad ; for this thy brother 
was dead, and is alive again ; and was lost, and is 
found," ver. 32. 

Do we as we might, and as we ought, enter even 
now into the joy of our Lord ? Do we believe that 
God has greater delight in saving us, than we have in. 
being saved ? Do we gather round the Lord's table 
that we may rejoice with God in the death of His Son r 
and delight ourselves in Christ ? 

Peter in the vision of the sheet let down, had 
instruction conveyed to him respecting intercourse and 
fellowship with the Gentiles, under the type of eating. 
He said to Cornelius and those assembled, " Ye know 
how that it is an unlawful thing for a man that is a Jew 
to keep company, or come unto one of another nation ; 
but God hath shewed me that I should not call any 
man common or unclean." Act x. 28. And he subse- 
quently related the vision to the saints at Jerusalem, in 
answer to their objection to his having gone to ment 
uncircumcised and having eaten with them. Acts xi. 
Here again eating is employed as a type of intercourse. 

We have also a very distinct reference to the same- 
truth in Heb. xiii. 10 — 14. "We have an altar, 
whereof they have no right to eat which serve the- 
tabernacle. For the bodies of those beasts, whose- 



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blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest 
for sin, are burned without the camp. Wherefore 
Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his 
own blood, suffered without the gate. Let us go forth \ 
therefore unto him without the camp, bearing his re* 
proach. For here we have no continuing city, but we 
seek one to come." 

A very full and remarkable passage, to' which refer- 
ence has already been made in page 322, but which it 
may be well to enter into more fully. We are first told 
that we have an altar, in contrast with those who serve 
the tabernacle, and who have no right to eat of our 
altar. The altar here seems to be identical with the 
cross — the cross (if we may so say) transferred to the 
glory. We have a right to eat of the flesh and blood 
of the Son of Man, slain upon the tree. That flesh and 
blood was first eternal life to us, and next becomes the 
sustainment of that life, and enables us to abide in 
Christ. " He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my 
blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him." John vi. 56. 
The word here translated dwelleth is the same that is 
elsewhere translated abideth. See John xv. throughout. 

The secret of abiding in Christ is to be feeding on 
Christ* especially as crucified for us. Some of the 
Lords own people, it may be, desire to abide in Him, 
and yet know not how to arrive at that blessing. Two 
things were apparently in the mind of the Lord in 
John xv. First, that we should abide in Him ; and 
*next, that His words should abide in us, so that we 
anight keep them. John xv. 4, 7, 10. The former is 
practically attained by constantly eating His flesh, and 
drinking His blood ; the latter will result from a fre- 
quent meditation on His life and words. Ever remem- 
bering that we have the words of the Lord expanded, if 
we may so say, in the Epistles. 

They who serve the tabernacle have no right to eat 
of our altar. They have no right nor power to eat of 
the flesh and blood of Christ. And who, it may be 



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asked, answer at the present day to those to whom the 
apostle thus alludes in his day ? As a matter of fact 
there were none, even in Paul's day, who were serving, 
the tabernacle ; for the tabernacle had for some centuries 
been superseded by the temple. But the Spirit of God 
writes, throughout the Epistle to the Hebrews, as if the 
tabernacle were still in existence ; because the principles, 
to be maintained were such as had their more correct 
types during the tabernacle dispensation, and the sins to* 
be avoided had been brought out in Israel's history 
during their sojourn in the wilderness, whilst the taber- 
nacle was standing. 

So at this present time, although both tabernacle and* 
temple are gone, yet we as believers are looked upon as* 
in the wilderness on our way to our rest ; and the' same- 
errors are continued, the same false principles op«nly 
advocated, as if the tabernacle and temple were still 
standing. Any that proclaim efficacy in sacraments 
any that uphold an order of priesthood distinct from all. 
who are truly believers ; any that arrogate to themselves 
or on behalf of others, the power to convey the Holy 
Ghost, or to qualify others for spiritual offices in the 
Church of God ; are still serving the tabernacle. They 
have no right to eat of our altar. And for this reason,, 
they have not owned a sacrifice sufficient to sanctify 
the people. They contend that something more thans 
" Christ and Him crucified " is needful. They seem to 
think that the anointing of the Holy Ghost is not solely 
the consequence of a believer being at his conversion 
baptized into the body of Christ. They practically deny 
that " Christ hath loved us, and washed us from our 
sins in His own blood, and hath made us kings and 
priests to God and his Father." And they think that 

* priests are to be made after a tabernacle fashion ; a 
human consecration. 

' The apostle enforces his argument upon the ground 
that in the tabernacle service, "the bodies of those 
beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary for 



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sin, are burned without the camp." When a sin- 
offering was slain of such a high character that its 
blood was carried either into the holy or most holy 
places, then the body of the victim was burned outside 
the camp — no portion was eaten by the priests — all 
was consumed. In the Antitype, " Jesus that he might 
sanctify the people with his own blood suffered without 
the gate." He was the true offering for sin. He 
suffered outside the gate of Jerusalem ; outside that 
city of solemnities, in reproach and dishonour — outside 
all ceremonial religion, all observances of fleshly 
religiousness ; outside all formalities. A wondrous 
reality ; not a type or shadow ; but the substance of all 
type and shadow. A true Christ ; a true sacrifice ; the 
true " Lamb of God." No human priest had to do 
with that sacrifice — no fleshly ceremonial was connected 
with it. Man in all his true-hearted hatred to God 
was there, an ajctive agent in the work of slaughter. 
The serpent was present to bruise the heel of the 
woman's seed ; the " sword of Jehovah of hosts smote 
the man that was his fellow." The marvellous reality 
made all rituals of priestly service, all sacrifices of old, 
all type and shadow fade away into insignificance. 

The victim on that tree of curse, who shed His 
own blood of such unspeakable value, made the blood 
of bulls and of goats utterly worthless. "Lebanon 
was not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof 
sufficient for a burnt-oflering." The offerer who 
" offered up himself," for ever set aside the Aaronic 
high priest with all his outward glory and beauty, and 
all his offerings. The stripes upon the soul of Jesus, 
which extracted healing virtue for us poor sinners, for 
ever made of none effect, even " ten thousand rivers of 
oil." The precious blood was borne into heaven itself 
by the great High Priest in resurrection, and all holy 
places made with hands were set aside. Henceforth 
the true worshipper enters with confidence through the 
blood into the holiest of all, the very presence of the 



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living God, and finds the only Priest he needs already 
there for him. Sanctified once for all by that one 
offering, and perfected for ever by it, the believer, a 
true priest himself to God, feeds on the flesh and blood 
of Him who is the sin-offering ; setting aside by that act, 
even the very form of the Jewish ritual. He needs no 
outward dress to make him holy *, no imposition of human 
hands to separate him to God ; no license from man " to 
serve the living God." He claims his sancrification, his 
separation, his consecration, his priesthood, his salvation 
from Him who suffered without the gate ; the Son of God 
Himself— who has shed His own blood * and he boldly 
says to all mere human pretenders, to ail who trust 
in carnal ordinances, " you have no right to eat off our 
altar."* 

But what follows this simple dependence upon Christ, 
this full reliance on His death, and on His death alone 
as all sufficient ? " Let us go forth therefore unto 
him without the camp, bearing his reproach." Outside 
the gate of Jerusalem where the blessed Lord suffered 
is again exchanged for "outside the camp." The church 
is looked upon like the camp of Israel of old, with the 
golden calf in the midst. A worldly religion, suited ta 
the flesh, and adapted to keep the consciences of 
unregenerate sinners lulled in the sleep of death, has 
been universally adopted. The people can " sit down* 
to eat and drink, and rise up to play," and have their 
religious ceremonies, and prayers, and ordinances, and 

;riesthood, at the same time ; and with the name of 
esus mixed with it all. What then is to be the course 
pursued by the true-hearted worshipper ? " To go to 
Jesus without the camp bearing his reproach." We 
have been brought nigh to God by His blood within 
the vail ; our path here below is to be outside all human 

* The attention of the reader is requested to the fact, that the word " atonement '» 
is used in Lev. via. 34, to include the whole of consecration for the priesthood; 
as the word " to hwiuto " is also employed in Exod. xxix. 1. So that a person 
atoned for is a consecrated priest; so also is a person nanrititit. Thus we find the 
word saucti/itd used in Heb. x. 10, 14, as including priestly consecration. 



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order, all mixed worship, all priestly ceremonial. But 
it is to Him ; it is to Jesus the crucified, the risen one, 
that we go ; to walk with Him in holy, happy fellow- 
ship ; to learn from Him the ever deep mysteries of 
His cross ; to glory in that cross, whereby " the world 
has been crucified to us, and we to the world to 
lean on Him for support and strength, and to bear His 
reproach. 

From whence did that reproach come upon Him ? 
Not only from the openly profane; Herod and his 
men of war did indeed set Him at nought ; but chiefly 
from the temple worshippers, from the established 
priests and religious sects of the day. They cast Him 
out ; they crucified Him in a place to which they 
would on no account themselves go, lest it should 
defile them — " the place of a skull." They preferred 
to keep the shadow, to trusting the substance. They 
were careful not to enter the hall of judgment lest they 
should defile themselves, " but that they might eat the 
passover," whilst the Lamb of God was in reality 
suffering on the tree outside the gate. A solemn 
thought this. The shadow may and does at this very 
day in ten thousand cases supersede the substance. 
Men will earnestly contend for a form, a ceremony, a 
shadow, whilst they utterly reject Him to whom the 
shadow points. We are exhorted " earnestly to contend 
for the faith ;" " to hold fast the common salvation," the 
"great salvation." Common alike s to all the Lords 
people ; alike great to all that receive it. Men will be 
valiant on behalf of a sacrament, or of a * holy day, 
when they trample at the same time, on the precious 
blood of Christ, and shrink in every respect from 
4i His reproach." 

When superstition is exposed, or when the believer 
ceases to consent to belong to a worldly church, he 
will suffer the reproach of Christ. Let but a trifle be 
added to the truth, and the reproach of Christ will 
cease. If Paul would only have added an ordinance to 



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justification by faith, the offence of the cross would have 
been at an end, and he would no longer have suffered 
persecution. Gal. v. 1 1.. 

Oh may we be ever m the holiest true worshippers 
of the Father, and feeding on the Lamb ; and know the 
companionship of Jesus here with us outside the camp - T 
and have the honour and glory of bearing somewhat 
of His reproach. 

" For here have we no continuing city, but we seek 
one to come." When the worship of Israel became 
mixed with idolatry, they made the wilderness their 
home. " They sat down to eat and drink, and rose 
up to play." A religion of form and ceremony, which 
is in truth a religion mixed with idolatry, will always 
consist well with worldliness. But we have no- 
continuing city here ; this is not our rest ; the 
wilderness is no place for pastime 5 we are strangers 
and pilgrims. The blood of the Lamb has separated 
U3 to God and to glory. May it be so in truth t 
May our lives not belie our words ! Let us remember 
the beautiful order of these truths. Eat of the altar in 
the holiest first ; go outside to Christ next, and we shalL 
have His reproach ; lastly, seek the future city ; look 
earnestly onwards to the coming of the Lord, when 
that glorious heavenly city will be revealed. 

Aaron and his sons were finally directed to abide 
seven days, day and night, at the door of the tabernacle^ 
and to keep the charge of the Lord. During all this 
time, a bullock for sin was daily offered upon the altar 
for atonement. Exod. xxix. 36. They were to be 
habituated to abide before the Lord ; and they were to 
realize the value of the sin-offering, as thus enabling 
them so to abide there. The seven days of their week 
of consecration, may in type prefigure the whole of our 
earthly life. Our whole week of service. We are to» 
accustom ourselves to be in the presence of our God. 
Our life is to be spent there; cnly we have the privilege 
of abiding, not at the door, but in the very holiest of all. 



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May we rejoice to use this wondrous liberty of access, 
and not only " draw near," but " abide under the shadow 
of the Almighty " trusting under his wings." And 
what will be our help and power for this ? The 
sin-offering of atonement constantly realized, by the 
help of the Holy Spirit. The precious blood recognized 
as upon the mercy-seat, and before the mercy-seat, 
carried into the holy of holies. 

The chapter concludes with a change of the oft- 
repeated sentence, " as the Lord commanded Moses" to 
"& Aaron and his sons did all things which the Lord 
commanded by the hand of Moses? They had themselves, 
through their consecration and the feeding on the 
sacrifice, power to fulfil God's commands, and to act 
independently of Moses. The power and intelligence 
of priests. 



THE EIGHTH DAY SERVICE. 

The next chapter of Levidcus, the 9th, opens with 
49 the eighth day" This is a singular expression, because 
it is an additional day to a week already ended. And 
this eighth day would necessarily be the first day of a. 
new week. Thus we have a type of resurrection- 
For resurrection could not be unless there had been 
a preceding creation, which had failed, having been 
ruined by sin. Resurrection is something entirely new, 
and yet it comes in upon that which is old. 

The only feast which had an eighth day was the- 
feast of Tabernacles. Lev. xxiii. 36, 39 ; Num. xxix.. 
35. (See page 55 of this work.) Circumcision was on 
the eighth day. Lev. xii. 3. In this rite there was 
evidently a shadow of what resurrection effects. The- 
true circumcision; "the putting off the body of the 



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sins of the flesh." Col. ii. IT — 13. "We are the 
circumcision, which worship God in the Spirit, and 
rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the 
flesh." Phil. iii. 3. As the man-child was on the 
eighth day circumcised, so on that day the firstling of 
oxen and sheep were given to God. Exod. xxii. 30 ; 
Lev. xxii. 27. Another shadow of death and resurrec- 
tion. It is also deeply interesting to observe that the 
leper, when healed of his disease of leprosy, and ful- 
filling the ritual appointed for his ceremonial cleansing, 
had an eighth day service, which in many respects 
approached very nearly to the ritual appointed for 
the consecration of the priests. Blood and oil were 
put upon the leper's right ear, and thumb, and great 
toe. Oil also was put upon his head. See also the 
sacrifices offered, Lev. xiv. 10 — 20, 23-^-31. A 
cleansed leper obtained that to which no ordinary 
Israelite, who had never suffered under the fearful 
disease of leprosy, was entitled. A saved sinner is 
raised by the grace of God to an infinitely higher 
position, and is a far higher being in the scale of 
existence, than was Adam before his fall . 

A man or woman who might have suffered under 
an issue, and been healed, presented sacrifices to the 
Lord on the eighth day. Lev. xv. 14, 29. In both 
these types we have evidently allusions to the great 
fact, brought out in all distinctness at length in the 
teaching and death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus ; 
namely, that there can be no real cleanness before God, 
except through being born again. Put to death with 
Christ upon the tree, and quickened together with Him 
into life eternal. 

There is one more remarkable instance of an eighth 
day. The Nazarite was to bring his offering on that 
day under certain circumstances. Num. vi. 10. The 
Nazarite, the cleansed leper, and the priest, had each 
an eighth day, and had certain ceremonies remarkably 
in common. The saved sinner, a priest to God, 



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separated off to God, combines all the three types 5 and 
stands ever able to serve God, because he is "risen 
with Christ." Col.iii. I— 5. 

The priests at the close of their seven days conse- 
cration were in an anomalous state. They were priests 
for themselves, but not for others. They had no 
power to offer on behalf of Israel. On the eighth day 
they were enabled to present sacrifices not only for 
themselves, but for the people. All our power to 
serve God ; all our power to intercede for others ; all 
our ability to walk here as strangers and pilgrims, is 
the result of resurrection. We are priests, because 
" partakers of a heavenly calling." Christ is " not 
ashamed to call us brethren," because we are " risen 
together with him." We can worship God, because 
we are "not in the flesh." We can intercede for 
others, because we are ourselves saved, and have life in 
common with the risen Lord. We can present to God 
the precious blood of His Son on our own behalf as 
worshippers already saved, and plead it on behalf of 
the unsaved, because we have ourselves trusted in its 
value, and are accepted and justified, and risen as the 
evidence of its preciousness. 

Let us trace from the Scriptures some of our 
responsibilities and power as priests to God. 

First. — Our food for life and abiding fellowship with 
Christ is priestly ; it is His flesh and blood. Heb. xiii. 
10 ; John vi. 54 — 58. 

Next. — We have access into the holiest by His blood, 
and can worship God in Spirit and in truth. Heb. x. 
19 — 22 ; John iv. 21—23 ; 1st Peter ii. 5, 9. 

Again. — We are to assemble ourselves together, and 
to exhort one another, and so much the more because 
the day of the Lord's coming is approaching. Heb. 
x. 25. 

Then we are "to present our bodies a living sacrifice, 
holy, acceptable to God, our reasonable (priestly) 
serviced Rom. xii. I. 



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We are to discern, and "put a difference between holy 
and unholy, and between unclean and clean." Lev. x. 
io ; xi. 47. To separate the predous from the vile. 
Jer. xv. 19 5 2nd Cor. vi. 14 — 18. 

The real knowledge of sin and estimate of its fearful 
evil in the sight of God, is a priestly knowledge ; to be 
deepened and increased by daily communings with God 
respecting the sacrifice of His dear Son. The priest 
alone could decide in days of old as to the fearful 
plague of leprosy and all its manifested tokens. 

The priests have also to instruct others in God's 
word, and God's thoughts, gathered from His word. 
Deut. xxxift. 10 ; Lev. x. II. See also Neh. viii. 1 8, 
as an example. 

Wisdom should be kept in their lips. Mai. H. 7. 
" Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, in all 
wisdom." Col. iii. 1 6. " Let no corrupt communication 
proceed out of your mouth, but that which is good to 
the use of edifying, that it may minister grace unto the 
hearers." Eph. iv. 29, " Let your speech be alway 
with grace, seasoned with salt, that ye may know how 
ye ought to answer every man." Col. iv. 6. 

Praise to God is a priestly service. " By him (Christ) 
therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God con- 
tinually, that is, the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to 
his name ; " or, as the margin has it, " confessing to his 
name." Heb. xiii. 15. 

Let us remark the therefore of this verse. Praise must 
result from a heart fully confident of the entire and 
eternal salvation and sanctificarion, accomplished by the 
sufferings of the Lord Jesus on the cross. The word 
therefore is inserted because of this fact having been 
stated before- Also the word continually. All through 
our life, all through our circumstances, continuous 
praise. Also in intercourse with other priests, " teach- 
ing and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns 
and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to 
the Lord." Col. iii. 16. " Speaking to yourselves in 



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psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and 
making melody in your hearts to the Lord." Eph. 
v, 19.* 

To give is a priestly action. " But to do good, and 
to communicate, forget not ; for with such sacrifices 
God is well pleased." Heb. xiii. 16. The gifts of the 
Philippians to Paul, assisting him thereby to continue in 
his work of preaching the Gospel, were priestly offer- 
ings to God "an odour of a sweet smell, a sacrifice 
acceptable, well pleasing to God." Phil. iv. 15—18. 

Prayer and intercession mingled ever with thanks- 
giving are true priestly exercises of soul. See Rev. v. 8. 

These are some of the chief services of priests to 
God, who have been washed in the blood of the Lamb. 
In this 9th chap, of Lev. we find Aaron and his sons 
•exercising on this eighth day their priestly calling ; 
killing the sacrifices, handling the blood, selecting the 
pieces for the altar ; in short, going through the whole 
routine with the necessary accuracy, and according to 
the precise directions given by God, in the power of the 
•eighth day. 

One sacrifice is added to the list, which had not been 
offered in their consecration ; " a bullock and a ram for 
peace-offerings." It is worthy of remark that the word 
"sacrifice" in the Hebrew is confined to this peace- 
offering, or as it should be called "peace-sacrifice" So 
in Psalm xl. 6, ("where all the four offerings of the first 
four chapters of Leviticus are enumerated, as set aside 
by being fulfilled in Christ Himself,) the word " sacrifice" 
stands for />«w*-sacrifice. The word "peace 9 ' is in the 
plural number, as if to betoken peace of every kind — 
" perfect peace." Peace that shall answer every question 
of doubt or uncertainty ; every opposing thought ; 

* The text, 41 that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you 
out of darkness into his marvellous light," (ist Pet. ii. 9,) may be read *• virtues" 
instead of vais «," as in the margin; and this may be the better rendering, as "a 
royal priesthood," " a peculiar people," purchased to God by the blood of His 
Son, born of God as our Father, we are to shew forth the character and ways of 
God in our lives; "imitators of God as dear children;" following the example of 
Jesus. A priestly walk will be a Christ-like walk. 



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whether of sin in the nature, sins committed, unworthi* 
ness, weakness, helplessness, infirmity. It was peculiarly 
a sacrifice of fellowship : the offerer eating the greater 
part of it in his own dwelling. A kind of celebration 
of peace made between two parties, before opposed to 
one another. 

As the word "peace 19 was the friendly salutation 
between persons greeting one another ; so this sacrifice 
was like a salutation of peace between God and the 
offerer. A striking type of Christ as the one through 
whom God is able to salute us with the blessed word 
peace. " He is our peace." Eph. ii. 14. " We have 
peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ." 
Rom. v. I. " And you that were sometime alienated,, 
and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now 
hath he reconciled in the body of his flesh through 
death." Col. i. 21, 22. "God hath reconciled us to 
himself by Jesus Christ." 2nd Cor. v. 18. 

This was the concluding sacrifice. " And Aaror* 
lifted up his hand toward the people and blessed them.^ 
Lev. ix. 22. He wafted towards them and upon them,, 
the rich mercies procured by the sacrifices. Sin atoned 
for by the sin-offering. Acceptance with God in the- 
sweet savour of the burnt-offering. Life through the- 
bread of life, the meat-offering. And full reconciliation 
peace and fellowship with God, through the peace- 
sacrifice. And he uttered the priestly blessing . 

" The Lord bless thee, and keep thee ; 

" The Lord make his face shine upon thee, and be* 
gracious unto thee ; 

" The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and 
give thee peace. 

" And they shall put my name upon the children of 
Israel ; and I will bless them." Num. vi. 24 — 27. 

Or, as it might be rendered — 

Jehovah bless thee, and keep thee ; 

Jehovah cause His face to shine upon thee, and be- 
gracious unto thee ; 



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Jehovah lift up His face upon thee, and place upon 
thee peace. 

It is remarkahle that the last sacrifice was that which 
was for peace : and the conclusion of the priestly bless* 
ing fc» " Jehovah place upon thee peace." 

What a precious thing is peace with God, derived 
from God. Perfect reconciliation with Him. Unhin- 
dered intercourse with Him. No reserves— no reason 
for having any concealment with Him. A " spirit in 
which there is no guile" — no hypocrisy — no false pre- 
tences; because every defect, every sin, every evil 
corruption within and without, has been fully met, 
atoned for, and set aside in the death of the Lord 
Jesus. 

But the priestly blessing goes further than this. 
" Jehovah lift up his face upon thee, and place upon 
thee peace." Great as is the blessing, and beyond all 
price of having peace with God ; yet there is a peace 
even beyond this — " the peace of God." The peace which 
God Himself enjoys z the peace which Christ can call 

my peace." Undisturbed by opposing powers of evil ; 
unruffled by the violence and seeming triumphs of 
Satan, the peace of God like the calm crystal sea 
before the throne, remains firm and unshaken in the 
soul of the believer. " It passeth all understanding ;" 
for the very opposing elements that would seem to have 
the power to disturb it, only in fact confirm it. God 
sees the end from the beginning : He makes all things 
work out the counsels ot His own will. The believer 
knows this ; he sees also the end that must in due time 
come, when all things shall terminate to the glory of 
God; thus the peace of God rules or garrisons his 
heart and mind through Jesus Christ. Phil. iv. 7. " If 
the foundations be destroyed, what can the righteous 
do ? The Lord is in his holy temple, the Lord's throne 
is in heaven." Psa. xi. 2, 4. Perfect peace is there, and 
the dwelling-place ot the righteous is there, The 
promise, " thou wilt keep him in perfect peace whose 



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mind is stayed on thee, because he trusteth in thee," (Isa. 
xxvi. 3,) seems to allude to the plural of the peace* 
sacrifice, the word peace being doubled, (see margin,) 
" abundance of peace," " peace always by all means." 

There are two portions of this priestly blessing which 
especially demand our attention. 

" Jehovah cause his face to shine upon thee ; " Jeho- 
vah lift up his face upon thee." So deeply important is 
it for the soul to realize the unclouded countenance of 
the Lord, that this portion of the blessing is twice 
repeated. One great object of the priesthood of the 
blessed Lord is, that we may at all times enjoy free 
unhindered access to God : that we may never have ta 
say He hides His face from us. 

The fearfulness of that time when God was, we may 
say compelled, to withdraw the light of His countenance 
from His blessed Son ,was to Christ the great ingredient 
of woe in the cup He had to drink for us. In some of 
the Psalms we find that terrible time of darkness antici- 
pated by Him. 

" Hide not thy face from me in the day when I am 
In trouble ; incline thine ear unto me : in the day when 
I call answer me speedily." Psa. cii.. 2. 

" Hide not thy face from me ; put not thy servant 
away in anger : thou hast been my help ; leave me not, 
neither forsake me, O God of my Salvation." Psa.xxvii.<^ 

" Lord, why castest thou off my soul ? why hidest 
thou thy face from me ? " Psa. lxxxviii. 14. 

" Hear me speedily, O Lord : my spirit faileth : hide 
not thy face from me, lest I be like unto them that go 
down into the pit." Psa. cxliii. 7. 

" Hide not thy face from thy servant ; for I am in 
trouble : hear me speedily." Psa. lxix. 17. 

And who but the Lord Jesus could really estimate 
what it was to be forsaken of God ? He who was the 
only begotten Son in the bosom of the Father, and who 
had walked all His days on earth in the unclouded light 
of the blessed countenance of God : He who had known 



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4 i i 



and dwelt in the fulness of joy which is in God's presence,, 
(in Gods countenance.) In the same Psalm, which 
begins with His deepest cry of agony, " my God, my 
God, why hast thou forsaken me, He still looked for- 
ward to the restoration of the light of God's countenance- 
as His great joy — " for he hath not despised nor abhorred 
the affliction of the afflicted, neither hath he hid his face* 
from him, but when he cried unto him he heard." Psa. 
xxii. 24. And in the prospect of resurrection, He says,. 
" as for me I will behold thy face in righteousness." Psa. 
xvn. 15. " Thou hast made him exceeding glad with 
thy countenance." Psa. xxi. 6. 

Clouds of darkness and unbelief may come up in our 
souls, but the face of our God is unclouded. Satan 
may suggest that there is a hindrance to our approaching 
Him ; but the precious blood and the High Priest over 
the House are complete answers to Satan's lie. We may- 
be conscious of some allowed failure — or may be over- 
taken in some fault — the adversary will then tempt the 
soul, suggesting that our unfaithfulness has closed the 
door of entrance into the Holiest. But in truth, the place 
of confession is the mercy-seat. In the presence of God 
alone can we really pour out our hearts in self-abasement, 
and it is the assurance of His unabated love, and that 
the way into the holiest is still open, that will really 
melt the heart into contrition. 

Aaron having blessed the people, went with Moses into 
the tabernacle. There may be in this a little shadow of 
the Lord's action as related in the end of the Gospel by 
Luke. " And he led them out as far as to Bethany, 
and he lifted up his hands and blessed them. And it 
came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from 
them, and carried up into heaven." chap. xxiv. 50, 5 1- 
Our great High Priest with uplifted hands, blessing His 
people with all the full results of His wondrous sacrifice, 
was parted from them, and still perpetuates the same- 
streams of blessing, pouring them down upon them from 
heaven. For a little while He is concealed from our 



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4 I2 



view. For a little time Moses and Aaron were together 
in the tabernacle, hidden from the eyes of the people. 
But they soon came out and together blessed the people, 
"and the glory of the Lord appeared unto all the 
people." Lev. be. 23. This was a second blessing 
direct from the holy places, and in this blessing Moses 
took the lead, combining with Aaron. "Moses was 
king in Jeshurun." Deut. xxxiii. 5. Thus a kingly as 
well as priestly blessing flowed from the two, a kind ot 
Melchizedeck blessing. Gen. xiy. 1 8 — 24. 

This " king of righteousness and king of peace," 
combining in his own person king and priest, brought 
forth bread and wine to Abraham, after the latter had 
gained the first victory recorded in Scripture over five 
confederate kings. The whole scene of this remarkable 
meeting between the priest of the Most High God, and 
the father of many nations, is surrounded with emblems 
of royalty. The king of Sodom was there — it took 
place in the king's dale — the spoils won from the 
vanquished kings lay in profusion all around — and the 
first king who had a royal title from the Most High was 
present. He was also the priest of the Most High God 
— and four times is the remarkable title " the Most High 
God " repeated. God is acknowledged by this priest to 
be " the Most High, possessor of heaven and earth," 
and the blessing he bestows is Jrom " the Most High 
God, possessor of heaven and earth." A striking 
anticipation this of the time when the Lord Jesus shall 
come from heaven in all " His own glory, and in the 
glory of the Father, and in the glory of the holy angels," 
to bless with resurrection glory, His own victorious 
saints, and to claim the kingdoms of the world on behalf 
of the Most High God, who will then be manifestly 
" possessor of heaven and earth." 

" And there came a fire out from before the Lord, 
and consumed upon the altar the burnt-offering and the 
fat: which when all the people saw, they shouted and 
fell on their faces." Lev. ix. 24. 



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4*3 

They did not shout at the sight of the glory, nor fall 
on their faces in worship, although that sight must have 
been an unlooked for manifestation of the presence of 
God — but God's acceptance of the burnt-offering and 
die fat upon the altar, witnessed by the fire from before 
Him consuming them, raised a shout of gratitude and 
thanksgiving from their hearts, and bowed them down 
in reverence before Him. 

It will not be " the appearing of the glory of the great 
God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, which will raise 
our shout of joy and our song of worship and of praise, 
but it will be the sight of Himself, " the Lamb as it had 
been slain," which will be the great cause of our joy and 
thanksgiving. It is that beautiful word " Himself" which 
is so comforting, and which so gladdens the heart, " the 
Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout," 
our hope is in Him, to see Him as He is : (1st John iii. 3.) 
and then shall we realize the value of that sacrifice, of 
that gift of God which is unspeakable. Then will true 
unhindered worship begin. Then shall we be truly 
humbled when we reach the exceeding height of glory.* 

* In concluding this portion of the subject it may be well to notice a mistake 
which often occurs both in writing and speaking of it. 

Aaron the high priest is frequently alluded to, as coming out and blessing the 
people at the close of the day of atonement— as also he is represented as going in 
to make atonement, clothed m the blue robe, with the bells sounding on hts going 
in and coming out Neither of these statements is correct— Aaron did no* bless 
the people at the conclusion of the day of atonement, neither did he enter the 
holiest on that occasion with the bells upon his vesture. He blessed the people as 
above related on the day of his consecration, and there is no other occasion 
recorded of hit doing so. On thw occasion he was clothed in his garments for 
glory and beauty, with the golden bells, &c. 

On the day of atonement he went into the holiest, and came out, clothed in a 
distinct dress used only'for that occasion, to which reference will be made hereafter. 



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4H 



THE LAW OF THE BURNT-OFFERING. 

u And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 

" Command Aaron and his sons, saying, this is the law of the burnt- 
offering : it is the burnt-offering, because of the burning upon the altar 
all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall be burning 
in it. 

"And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen 
.breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which the 
fire hath consumed with the burnt-offering on the altar, and he shall 
put them beside the altar. 

"And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and 
carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place. 

"And the fire upon tbe altar shall be burning in it; it shall not be 
put out : and the priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay 
the burnt-offering in order upon it : and he shall burn thereon the fat 
of the peace-offerings. 

" The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar ; it shall never go 
<out." — Lev. vi. 8— 13. 

The law of the burnt-offering is introduced here be- 
cause there are peculiar directions given to the priest 
respecting the removing of the ashes ; and a peculiar dress 
worn by him on that occasion. The burnt-offering, 
or, " ascending-offering," is here defined to be such, 
because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the 
- morning, and the fire of the altar shall be burning in it." - 
An unusual word is here used for burnings (Heb. yahkad,) 
and found only in this chapter, verses 9, 12, 13, with 
respect to sacrifice. It is elsewhere used in Scripture, 
but always in connection with the thought of burning in 
judgment. SeeDeut. xxxii. 22 Isa. x. 16 ; Jer. xv. 14 5 
xvii. 4. It may be, that the reason of its being intro- 
duced in connection with the altar of burnt-offering, is 
to include the thought of that altar being a place of 
judgment with respect to the victims consumed on it ; 
although the great thought connected with this altar, is 
that it was an altar from which a sweet savour ascended 
to God. As to the other words used in the Hebrew 
for burning, see page 366 of this work. The Spirit of 
God would have us ever remember the solemn fact, 



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4*5 



that the death of our blessed Lord was a death under 
judgment, although at the same time it was the perfec- 
tion of obedience/ and most acceptable as a sweet savour 
to God. 

Twice are the words repeated, " the fire of the altar 
shall be burning in it," ver. 9 and 1 2. This apparently 
refers to the victim : the fire of the altar shall always be 
burning in the burnt-offering ; all night unto the morning. 
The camp of Israel rested securely all night under the 
shelter of the evening lamb upon the altar. They could 
repose without fear, for there was a sweet savour on 
their behalf ever ascending to God. There was a beacon 
fire kept burning for the eye of God to rest upon, and 
no enemy could prevail — no power of darkness could 
harm them, because of the protection afforded them 
through that sacrifice. 

Throughout the night of this world until the morning 
of the resurrection dawns, our shelter, our protection is 
the sweet savour of the sacrifice of Christ. Our 
watchful High Priest ever perpetuates the fragrance of 
His death in the glory for us. And thus we securely 
rest under the shadow of the Almighty. 

The priest had a peculiar linen garment which he put 
on, and his linen breeches upon his flesh when he took 
up the ashes which the fire had consumed, the ashes of 
the burnt-offering. This garment was of linen, (bad) 
the same material as was used for the linen breeches — 
see page 304 of this work. What the difference was 
between the linen (shesh) used in the curtains, etc., of 
the tabernacle, and also in the high priest's dress for 
glory and beauty and the linen (bad) of which this 
.garment and the garments for atonement (Lev. xvi.) 
were made, cannot now be satisfactorily ascertained. 
It may be that the " sbesh," was a fine cotton, like the 
muslin of modern days — whilst the "bad" was fine 
flax, the linen of our time. 

But whatever may have been the material, it would 
seem that a special, fine white garment was required 



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4 16 

when the priest was brought into close contact with the 
death of the victim. The ashes removed from the altar 
were evidence of death having wrought its utmost. 
The fire from God had consumed to ashes the lamb, 
and nothing remained of the sacrifice but that which 
manifested that the whole of it had been fed upon by the 
fire, and all had ascended to God as a sweet savour.* 
The priest in this especial white linen dress carefully 
removed the ashes from the altar, and put them beside 
the altar. This expression, " beside the altar " occurs 
also in Leviticus i. 1 6 ; andx. 12. In the 1st chap.ver. 1(5, 
" the place of ashes " is said to be " beside the altar 
on the east part." The rising sun would cast its light 
upon "the place of ashes/ where the priest was 
pouring out the fresh ashes just taken from the 
altar. 

Does not this type allude to the death of Christ,, 
evidenced by His lifeless body being taken down from, 
the cross. If we read the Giospels on the subject, we 
shall find how carefully the Spirit of God marks the 
complete extinction of lrfe in the blessed Lord. Joseph 
of Arimathea came to Filate and begged the body 
of Jesus. " Pilate marvelled, if he were already dead s 
and calling unto him the Centurion, he asked him. 
whether he had been anywhile dead." This Centu- 
rion was evidently the one in command at the cru- 
cifixion of the Lord, who had witnessed all the 
circumstances of the Lord's death ; and who had heard 
His expiring cry, and had been led thereby to exclaim,. 
" truly this man was the Son of God." He had also* 

* The word for ashes (dehshen) Is used only for the ashes of the burnt-offering 
It is derived from a, verb signifying to be fat, or, to make fat. 

In Psa, xx. 3, "remember all tny offerings, and accept thy burnt sacrifice*'— • 
the margin has it, "turn to mh*$, or moit fat, the burnt sacrifice," In Psa. 
xxiii. 5, "thou anointest my head with oil "—margin, "thou makett fat my 
head with oil," the same verb occurs. May not this word, to make fat, be used 
in this latter Psalm in connexion with the oil poured on the head, by way or 
contrast with the sackcloth and ashes put upon the head of the mourner? The 
word for ath** In such case being quite different 

The burnt-offering ashes were fat, because they were the result of the fire 
feeding especially on the inwards and fat of the burnt-offering and peace- 
sacrifice. 

5 



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seen the fact of the death of Jesus doubly confirmed by 
the act of one of the soldiers piercing the side of the 
Lord, so that he could give full evidence to Pilate as to 

, the death of Christ. 

" And when he knew it of . the Centurion he gave the 

■ body to Joseph." 

The early morning light of the rising sun shining on 
the ashes, made it manifest that the Lamb had been 
entirely consumed. The sun arose as usual upon the 
morning of the sabbath which succeeded the day of 
Christ's crucifixion, and shone upon a cross, from 
which the slain Lamb of God had been taken away ; 
and upon a sepulchre, wherein lay the body of Jesus. 
The sun in the heavens is witness to the death of its 
Creator. 

The priest having laid the ashes beside the altar, 
in the place of ashes on the east part, then put off his 
linen garments and put on other garments, and carried 
forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place. 

This clean place outside the camp is the same as that 
in which the sin-offerings were burnt. "The whole 
bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a 
clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn him 
on the wood with fire : where the ashes are poured out 
shall he be burnt." Lev. iv. 12. 

The word poured with respect to the ashes, is the 
substantive of the verb used for the pouring all the 
blood of the sin-offerings at the bottom of the altar. 
Exod. xxix. 12 ; Lev. iv. 7, 18, 25, 30, 34. Thus 
the pouring out of the ashes outside the camp would be 
connected with the pouring out of the blood at the 
bottom of the altar, and the burning of the sin-offering 
outside the camp. It would be another mode of 
expressing the entire pouring out of the life of the 
blessed Lord ; the shedding of His blood as the atoning 
sacrifice ; the sin-offering outside the camp. 




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418 



the burial of the Lord. His burial was the fullest 
evidence of His death. The place where He was 
buried was a garden, in the place where He was 
crucified. In the. garden there was a new sepulchre 
hewn out of a rock, " hewn in stone, wherein never 
man before was laid." " "Wherein was never man yet 
laid." Luke xxiii. 53 ; John xix. 41. 

The sepulchre wherein the Lord lay answered the 
requirements of a clean place. No corrupt body of 
fallen man had ever lain there. And such being the 
case, the resurrection of the Lord could not be 
blasphemously attributed to the resurrection of another 
person. 

The burial of the Lord Jesus is part of the Gospel. 
" Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel 
which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, 
and wherein ye stand ; by which also ye are saved, if 
ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless 
ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you 
first of all that which I also received, how that 
Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures ; 
and that he was buried, and that he rose again the third 
day according to the scriptures. I Cor. xv. I — 4. 

It was foretold by Isaiah, "and he made his grave 
with the wicked, and with the rich in his death." liii. 9. 
His grave was in a garden which was close to, and 
seems to have formed part of Golgotha, the place 
where He was crucified, so described in John xix. 41 ; 
it is also added, "the sepulchre was nigh at hand." 
ver. 42, so that His body could be interred quickly. 

This will account for the portion of the verse where 
it is said " he made his grave with the wicked ? the 
word wicked being in the plural number. The graves 
of the malefactors who suffered on Golgotha being 
probably dug close to the place of their execution, and 
therefore near the garden in which was Joseph's new 
tomb. It is added, " and with the rich." And here 
we may observe the accuracy of prophetic Scripture. 



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4 i9 



The word rich is in the singular — " the rich one " — 
-whereas the word wicked is in the plural — " wicked 
ones." It was in the sepulchre of a rich man — (" when 
the even was come there came a rich man of Arimathaea 
named Joseph," Matt, xxvii. 57,) — that the Lord made 
His grave. 

"Li His death,"or as the margin has it, "in His deaths? 
the only place in the Scripture where the word death 
occurs in the plural. Is it not so expressed because the 
Lord Jesus suffered death according to all the fearful 
variety of pain and judgment which can be inflicted by 
the King of Terrors ? 

The only direct allusions to the burial of the Lord 
uttered by Himself during His lifetime are, when 
speaking of Jonah as a sign. He said " As Jonah 
was three days and three nights in the whale's belly ; 
so shall the Son of Man be three days and three 
nights in the heart of the earth." Matt. xii. 40. And 
when anointed in Bethany, recorded in three of the 
Gospels, Matt. xxvi. 6 — 13 ; Mark xiv. 3 — 9; John 
xii. I — 8 ; He speaks of it, as for His burial. On 
comparing the Gospels which relate the circumstances 
of the Lord being anointed, according to Matthew and 
Mark, the woman anointed His head. According to. 
the account in John, Mary anointed His feet. In the 
two former Gospels the Lord speaks of the ointment as 
having been poured on His body. " For in that she 
hath poured this ointment on my body, she did it for 
my burial." " She hath done what she could, she is 
come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying." 
And in John, " Then said Jesus, let her alone, against 
the day of my burying hath she kept this." This was 
the only anointing for the tomb which the Lord had ; 
for although we read in John xix that Nicodemus 
brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, and that the 
body of Jesus was wound in linen clothes with the 
spices, yet this was not anointing the body. And we 
find that the women from Galilee prepared spices and 

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ointments, and brought them to anoint Him on the first 
day of the week, but found the sepulchre empty, and 
were told that He was risen. 

May there not have been in this act of anointing the 
Lords head and feet, (and in so doing His body,) a 
foreshadowing of the costly value and sweet savour of 
His death which belongs to every member of the body 
of Christ in resurrection. The odour of that very 
precious sacrifice fills the house of God ; and each 
member of Christ's body, of His flesh and of Hi& 
bones, from the foot to the head, is accepted and loved 
by God according to the unspeakable value of Him 
" who gave Himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice- 
to God for a sweet smelling savour." 

How we see the old things of the law rapidly coming 
to their close as the death of the Lord Jesus, the Lamb 
of God, drew nigh ; as the new eternal things were 
about to be established. Caiaphas breathes out a last 
utterance of wondrous import, in which all prophetic 
power of the Aaronic priesthood finally ceased. *' Ye 
know nothing at all, nor consider that it is expedient 
for us, that one man should die for the people, and that 
the whole nation perish not." John xi. 49, 50. 
* Subsequently it would Seem that the high priest 
committed a breach of the very law that constituted him 
priest so that he not only made void his priesthood, 
but even exposed himself to the sentence of death. He 
rent his priestly clothes in the act of condemning 
Him, who through that very death to which he con- 
demned Him, was to be raised up a High Priest for 
ever, after a new and eternal order. 

" And the high priest answered and said unto hinv 
I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether 
thou be the Christ, the Son of God. 

" Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said : nevertheless 
I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man 
sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the 
clouds of heaven. 



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" Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, He 
faath spoken blasphemy what further need have we of 
witnesses ? behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy. 

" What think ye ? They answered and said, He is 
guilty of death." — Matt. xxvi. 63 — 66. 

" Again the high priest aSked him, and said unto him, 
Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed ? 

" And Jesus said, I am : and ye shall see the Son of 
man sitting pn the right hand of power, and coming in 
the clouds of heaven. 

" Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, 
What need we any further witnesses ? 

" Ye have heard the blasphemy : what think ye ? 
And they all condemned him to be guilty of death." — 
Mark xiv. 61 — 64. 

This rending of the high priest's clothes was forbidden : 
first, in Lev. x. 6, " uncover not your head^neither rend 
your clothes, lest ye die," and subsequently a distinct 
precept was given to that effect — *• the high priest among 
his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil was 
poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, 
shall not uncover his head, nor rend his clothes." — 
Lev. xxi. 10. 

Although in both these cases the prohibition is made 
an connexion with mourning for the dead, yet the very 
fact of such being the case, would seem to imply that he 
must not do so on any other occasion. If in the first 
natural outburst of grief, because of a deep domestic 
sorrow, he was threatened with , death if he rent his 
♦clothes, surely such an act could not be permitted under 
.any other circumstances. 

Whilst the Lord lay in the tomb, the last Sabbath 
day under the law was observed. We read no more of 
the keeping of that day in the Acts or in the Epistles. 
It is emphatically said in Luke xxiii. 56, "that the 
women returned (from the sepulchre) and prepared 
spices and ointments ; and rested the Sabbath day, 
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Pharisees on the other hand broke the Sabbath by 
sealing the stone and setting the watch over the sepulchre- 
of Jesus. It is distinctly said that they came to Pilate the 
day that followed the day of preparation, the day of 
preparation being the day before the Sabbath. Matt, xxvii. 
62 — 66; Mark xv. 42. What a strange rest was this 
last Sabbath ! The last day of a creation week, when 
originally the morning stars had sung together, and the 
Sons of God had shouted for joy, at beholding the* 
handy work of the Son of God. But how still, how 
silent all song and shout, whether in heaven or in earth. 
What a strange pause, ( an interval between the passing 
away of the old things and the beginning of the new r 
not a real Sabbath of rest and joy.* Truly old things 
have now passed away : the Lord is risen indeed, and 
the law which made nothing perfect has been changed. 
A better hope has b^en brought in, established upon ant 
entire change of priesthood. We have an everlasting 
, High Priest, an everlasting righteousness, an everlasting 
salvation, an everlasting covenant, an everlasting redemp- 
tion, everlasting life. We are dwelt in by an eternal 
Spirit, and we are entering into God's eternal rest. 

* The words, and they rested (Luke xxiii. 56) has in the Greek, rather the sense 
of silence and stillness, than the thought of rest from labour, or work. A partici- 
ple of the same verb is used for 44 the dead of night." It was indeed a time of 
stillness like the dead of night, and yet what a mighty victory was won, "through 
death he (Jesus) destroyed him that had the power of death, that is the devil." — 
Heb. ii. 14. 

Twice only in Scripture is it said, 44 they rested on the seventh," or 44 sabbath, 
day." F.xod. xvi. 30, when the manna was given; and the above verse, in. 
Luke xxiii. 



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THE DAT OF ATONEMENT. 

"And the Lord spake unto Moses after the death of the two sons of 
Aaron, when they offered before the Lord, and died : 

"And the Lord said unto Moses, Speak unto Aaron thy brother, 
that he come not at all times into the holy place within the vail before 
the mercy-seat, which is upon the ark ; that he die not : for I will 
appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat. 

" Thus shall Aaron come into the holy place : with a young bullock 
for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt offering." — Lev. xvi, i — 3. 

The book of Leviticus seems jto change its character and 
mode of teaching, after the loth chapter. The sacrifices 
and consecration of the priesthood, which we have been 
considering occupy the first nine chapters. But when, 
as in the case of Nadab and Abihu, the priesthood had 
proved itself an utter failure, another course of instruction 
is pursued by the Lord, and we have first, descriptions 
of unclean animals, and next, chapter upon chapter 
detailing various uncleannesses — leprosy, issues, and the 
like. It is as if the higher mode of instruction had been 
first adopted by God, namely, to teach His holiness and 
hatred to sin, through the purity, and preciousness, and 
value of the sacrifices : and the priests having failed thus 
to learn that they had to deal with a Holy God, a lower 
course of instruction is adopted, teaching what man is, 
and what the world is ; filled with iniquity and unclean- 
ness. Then follows this grand chapter of the book. 

In each of the first four books of the Word of God, 
there occurs one striking chapter to which we instinc- 
tively turn for typical instruction, respecting the great 
truths of salvation. The 22nd chapter of Genesis, 
Abraham offering up "his only begotten son," directs our 
thoughts to the Lamb of God. God's blessed Son, 
revealed to us in the Gospel by John. 

The 1 2th of Exodus, is a foundation chapter from 
whence we gather the great truth of redemption by the 
blood, there for the first time prefigured. 

This 1 6th of Leviticus which we are about to consider 



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is the great chapter depicting atonement and its results. 
It is frequently referred to in the Epistle to the Hebrews. 
Whilst in the book of Numbers we have the ashes of 
the red heifer and the water of purification in the 19th 
chapter, which affords us deep lessons respecting the 
constant defilements we incur, and the constant need of 
the blood of cleansing. 

God gave the directions contained in this chapter of 
Lev. respecting the day of atonement, after the death of 
Nadab and Abihu. On the very day* of their consecra- 
tion (elated perhaps by the high position into which they 
had been brought) they " took either of them his censer, 
and put fire therein, and put incense thereon, and offered 
strange fire before the Lord." chap. x. i. 

Fire had come out from before the Lord and had 
consumed the sacrifices upon the altar. These two 
eldest sons of Aaron should have taken coals of burning 
fire from off that altar fire which had come from the 
Lord. But instead of this, they put fire in their censers 
which was common to them, but strange to the Lord. 
May we not regard this as another form of Cain worship ? 
Another warning against the unitarianism, or sociniaAism 
of the day ? Cain offered an offering without the 
shedding of blood. His was a religion of works, though 
the name of the Lord was in it. His was not the 
worship of a false God — but it was false worship of the 
true God, worship which was not preceded by salvation. 

Nadab and Abihu were quite correct as to censer, 

incense, and the holy place : but they did not recognize 

that it was the fire from God which had fed upon the 

sacrifices, and that no fragrance could come up to God 

from the hands even of His priests, unless through the 

sacrifice consumed in judgment on the altar. Christ 

may be owned as a true Christ. He may even be 
• 

* This, it would seem, was the case, from Lev* x. 19. "Aaron said, Behold 
this dap have they offered their sin-offering and their burnt-offering before the 
Lord, and such things have befallen me." The sin-offering and burnt-offering to 
which Aaron here alludes, are those mentioned in Lev. ix. 2, 8 — 14, which were 
therefore offered on the same day that Nadab and Abihu perished 



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confessed with the lip as the Son of God. Prayer and 
worship may be conducted in His name — but unless His 
death be acknowledged and trusted in, as a death in the 
way of atonement, a death not meritorious only because 
of His fortitude and meekness and grace, but of 
unspeakable value because God laid iniquity upon Him, 
and he suffered at the hands of God who made His soul 
an offering for sin — unless this be owned, the worshipper 
whoever he be is offering strange fire, mingled though 
it be with the name of Christ. 

This sin of Nadab and Abihu is stamped upon them. 
See Numbers iii. 4 ; xxvi. 61. 

" Our God is a consuming fire." Heb. xii. 29. Some 
believers are wont to say that " God out of Christ is a 
consuming fire" — but the word says, " our God." God 
known in Christ is a consuming fire. We read the 
consuming fire of His holiness nowhere so plainly and 
forcibly as in the death of His own Son upon the cross. 
We reverence Him and serve Him with godly fear 
because we know His solemn judgment of sin and of 
ourselves as sinners, in the sacrifice of the Lamb of God 
upon the tree. Nadab and Abihu were devoured by 
the fire from the Lord, and died before the Lord, instead 
of living before Him, because they had neglected to 
observe and use the fire from before the Lord which had 
consumed the victim on the altar. The judgment of 
God must be seen poured out upon Christ as the sinner's 
substitute in death ; or, the sinner himself will have to 
know and realize the fearfulness of it throughout eternity. 

The words " before the Lord,' often repeated in the 
chapters we have been considering, and in this 1 6th 
chapter, are solemn words. Solemn and blessed if we 
have everlasting life, and live and serve before Him now 
and for ever. Solemn and terrible if we look at the 
judgment upon the sinner who has neglected or mis- 
used the great salvation presented in Christ, and who 
will receive his judgment from " before the Lord* 
and will be " punished with everlasting destruction 



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from the presence of the Lord, and the glory of his 
power." 2nd Thess. i. 8, 9. 

" Speak unto Aaron thy brother." This is the only 
occasion on which Moses was directed to speak to 
Aaron his brother. The Lord does not say, Aaron the 
high priest : indeed throughout the whole ceremony of 
the day of atonement the word priest does not occur. 
It is only mentioned at the close of the chapter, ver. 32, 
33. The death of Nadab and Abihu had made manifest 
the insufficiency of the whole family of Levi to perpetuate 
any real lasting blessing. This day of atonement was 
the establishment of an entirely new ritual, botH as 
regarded Aaron and his house, and the people Israel. 
Aaron sinks back to the mere brother of Moses. God 
had before spoken of him in the same way when giving 
directions for separating him and his sons off for the 
priests' office ; and also for making the garments for 
glory and beauty in which they were to be consecrated. 
Exod. xxviii. I, 2, 4. Subsequently to this day of 
atonement the same expression is significantly used by 
the Lord when He directed Moses and Aaron to speak 
to the rock, (Num. xx. 8 ;) and when by their joint 
failure, they proved indeed that they were brethren. 
Also God calls Aaron the brother of Moses, when He 
tells Moses that he shall die. Numb, xxvii. 13 ; Deut. 
xxxii. 50. It was altogether a failing family. Like the 
law itself, those who had to carry it out were weak and 
unprofitable. Heb. vii. 18. And this very addition to 
the law of another day, only the more evidenced the 
necessity that another priest should rise after another 
order, and not after the order of Aaron. Heb. vii. 1 1. 

<l That he come not at all tiines into the holy place 
within the vail, before the mercy-seat, which is upon 
the ark ; that he die not : for I will appear in the cloud 
upon the mercy-seat." Before this, it would appear that 
Aaron as the high priest was to have unrestricted access 
into the holy of holies. But from henceforth he could 
not enter there except " once every year, and then not 



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without blood, which he offered for himself and for the 
errors of the people " This we are told in Heb. ix. 8, 
is an intimation by the Holy Ghost that the way into 
the holiest was not made manifest. No one had access 
there save the high priest, and he was forbidden to 
• enter, save once a year ; and even then his service there 
was of a very limited character. He could have no 
constant intercourse with God concerning his own 
necessities or those of others. 

" Within the vail" (an expression thrice repeated in 
this chapter, is a sentence which raises in our hearts 
thoughts of blessed nearness, and happy confidence and 
fellowship with God our Father. To the high priest of 
those .days, "within the vail," must have sounded some- 
what fearfully upon the ear, since " that he die not" is 
twice connected with them, (ver. 2, 12, 

Aaron is next directed to come into the holy place 
with a bullock for a sin-offering and a ram for a burnt- 
offering. A dress also worn only on this occasion is for 
*the first time mentioned. 



THE HOLY LINEN GARMENTS. 

"He shall put on the holy linen coat, and he shall have the linen 
^breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with a linen girdle, and 
•with the linen mitre shall he be attired : these are holy garments • 
therefore shall he wash his flesh in water, and so put them on."— 
Lev. xvi. 4. 

These garments are all of the same materials (badj 
"before referred to pp. 304, 415. No directions are give* 
-as to their being made : they are rather abruptly intro- 
duced, as if the high priest had understanding respecting 
them. They are also peculiarly specified as holy gar- 
ments : and the coat is called a holy linen coat,or tunic 
Ter. 4, 32. Therefore the high priest was to wash his 
flesh in water before he put them on. 



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These holy linen garments, seem to prefigure the 
perfectly holy and righteous standing of the high priest 
before God — clean and spotless from head to foot — a 
foreshadowing of Him, whom God raised from the 
dead, and who would enter the holiest as the justified 
and righteous One, standing in His own intrinsic 
holiness before God, in order to make atonement for 
the sins of others. These garments for atonement were 
not of a representative character. The names of Israel 
were not upon the shoulders or breast of the High 
Priest graven in precious stones ; and no golden plate on 
behalf of others adorned His forehead. It was like the 
commencement of a new order of priesthood in which 
the High Priest should first accomplish full atonement, 
and afterwards take a representative standing for glory 
and beauty on behalf of others. 



THE OFFERINGS FOR SIN. 

"And he shall take of the congregation of the children of Israel two 
kids of the goats for a sin offering, and one ram for a burnt offering. 

"And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sin offering, which is for 
himself, and make an atonement for himself, and for his house. 

"And he shall take the two goats, and present them before the Lord 
at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 

"And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats ; one lot for the 
Lord, and the other lot for the scapegoat, 

"And Aaron shall bring the goat upon which the Lord's lot fell, 
and offer him for a sin offering. 

" But the goat, on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat, shall be 
presented alive before the Lord, to make an atonement with him, and 
to let him go for a scapegoat into the wilderness." Lev. xvi. 5 — 10. 

After being thus clothed, Aaron was to " take of the 
congregation of the children of Israel two kids of the 
goats tor a sin-offering, and one ram for a burnt- 
offering." These two goats he presented before the 
Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, 
and cast lots upon them ; one lot for the Lord, and the 



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other lot for the scapegoat. The goat upon which the 
Lord's lot fell, was to be offered for a sin-offering, but 
the scapegoat was to be presented alive before the Lord 
to make an atonement, to send him for a scapegoat into 
the wilderness. It is important here to remark that the 
two goats were one sin-offering, and the apparent object 
of having two was, to present two aspects of the same 
offering for sin. An atonement accomplished for the 
Lord to satisfy Him ; and this atonement made manifest 
to the people in the scapegoat sent into the wilderness. 
So that the one goat is directed to be offered for sin, 
viz : that upon which Jehovah's lot fell ; and the other 
is spoken of as making atonement by being let go as a 
scapegoat into the wilderness. And here on consulting 
the Hebrew, we shall find a remarkable and important 
expression. If the 9th verse were literally translated, 
it would read thus, "and Aaron shall bring the goat 
upon which Jehovah's lot went up, and. shall make 
it sin.* 

Do we not find here the source from which that 
blessed sentence in the New Testament is derived, " he 
hath made him sin for us who knew no sin, that we 
anight be made the righteousness of God in him." 
.2nd Cor. v. 2 1. 

The goat on which the Lord's lot fell, and which 
/therefore peculiarly belonged to the Lord, was killed 
-as bearing the sin of the people, see vef. 15. No 
audible voice of the high priest laid the sin of the 
people upon its head ; but in the act of killing the goat, 
he laid the judgment of death upon it because it 
represented the people's sin. 

* In some versions of the Sept. this Hebrew word is translated "mate" (poiesei) 
in this passage. Lev. xvi. o. See Trommius, voL I, page 336, under the word 
proiphero. Montanus in his Latin translation of the Bible, renders the passage 
thus, "etfacieteumpeccatum;" " and shall make him sin almost word for word 
the same rendering as the vulgate adopts for 1st Cor. v. 21, "eum pro nobis 
peccatum fecit," " He made him sin for us." 

In the other passages of the Bible where this. Hebrew word (ahsah) occurs in 
connection with sacrifices, (which are not many,) it is translated "o/frr;" 
although it is not the usual word for offer. These occurrences are Lev. xiv. 19, 30 ; 
xv. 15, 30; xvi. 9,24; xxiii 12, 19; Num. vi. n, 16, 17; xv. 14, 24; xxix. 2; 
Deut. xii. 27. In all which passages we might substitute the word "make" 
for "offer." 



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When the Lamb of God was nailed to the tree, He- 
fell under the whole weight of God's judgment upon 
sin. God made Him who knew no sin, to be sin oa 
our behalf — dealing with Him according to His own 
holy and just indignation against sin. Christ became a 
curse for us — according to the solemn words of Deut. 
xxi. 23, "he that is hanged is the curse of God."" 
Jesus was then our substitute — for what are we by 
nature but children of wrath ? Jehovah's lot had 
fallen upon Him. God had selected Him in His own 
eternal counsels as the only one who could (because 
without sin) be the substitute for the sinner; and 
because He was the Son of man, the Son of God, the 
mighty God, He alone could endure the fearful penalty 
due to sin. 

And what a wonderful result is deduced in that verse- 
in the epistle to the Corinthians, from the fact of the 
Lord Jesus- having been made sin — "that we might be 
made the righteousness of God in Him." A different 
word is here used for made, that we might become the 
righteousness of God in Him. The righteousness of 
God — what a glorious manifestation will the church be 
hereafter as a whole, and every living member of it, of 
the righteousness of God — the full expression of His 
perfect righteousness, because one in life, in glory with 
Christ — "in Him" — deriving all from Him, and united to 
Him. Receiving out of His fulness ; and manifesting^ 
His fulness. 







43i 



SPRINKLING THE BLOOD UPON THE 
MERCY-SEAT. 

"And Aaron shall bring the bullock of the sin offering, which is 
lor himself, and shall make an atonement for himself, and for his 
house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin offering which is for himself. 
- "And he shall take a censer full of burning coals of fire from off the 
altar before the Lord, and hit hands full of sweet incense beaten small, 
and bring it within the vail : 

"And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the Lord, that 
the cloud of the incense may cover the mercy seat that is upon the 
testimony, that he die not : 

"And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with 
his finger upon the mercy seat eastward ; and before the mercy-seat 
shall he sprinkle of the blood with his ringer seven times. 

"Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for the 
people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood 
as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the 
mercy seat, and before the mercy seat : 

"And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of 
the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgres- 
sions in all their sins : and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the 
congregation, that remaineth among them in the midst of their 
uncleanness. 

"And there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the congregation 
when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he 
come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for his 
household, and for all the congregation ot Israel. Lev. xvi. n — 17 . 

In the order of the sacrifices Aaron first killed the 
bullock, the sin offering which was for himself to make 
atonement for himself and for his house. This bullock 
is three times recorded as the sin-offering for himself, 
ver. 6, II ; and wherever the atonement made by it is 
mentioned it is said to be for himself and his house, 
ver. 6, IT, 17. So closely are the high priest and his 
house linked on together ; doubtless to draw our atten- 
tion to the oneness between Christ and His house — 
only with a striking contrast also — Aaron's bullock for 
sin suffered for himself and his house — he being himself 
a sinner, and his house composed of sinners like himself* 

* Throughout the Epistle to the Hebrews, the high priest and the people are 
alone alluded to; there is no mention made 44 of kit house." Heb. v. 3; vii. 27; 
ix. 7. The hovu when spoken of is God's house, and Moses, not Aaron, the head 
over it; the whole assembly of Israel being included in "the house*" Heb. iii. %. 







43* 



Our High Priest knew no sin, and offered up Himself 
solely therefore on behalf of others. 

Aaron next took the censer full of coals of fire from 
off the altar before the Lord, and his hands full of 
^weet incense beaten small, and brought all within the 
vail, and put the incense upon the fire before the Lord, 
that the cloud of the incense might cover the mercy- 
seat upon the testimony, that he might not die. 

The censer was apparently a golden censer. If we 
refer to the Epistle to the Hebrews, chap. ix. a descrip- 
tion of the tabernacle is given us on this day of atone- 
ment. No incense altar is mentioned standing in the 
holy place ; but the golden censer in the holiest. The 
cherubim also, shadowing the mercy-seat are called 
' " cherubim of glory" On this day of atonement the 
coals of fire were moved from off the incense altar, and 
the golden censer being filled with them was carried 
within the vail. For the time therefore, the incense 
altar was inactive, and is not alluded to probably on 
that account in the 9th chapter of Hebrews. Jehovah 
appeared in the cloud upon the metcy-seat — the cloud 
of glory — and this may be the reason why the cheru- 
bim are called " cherubim of glory" Aaron notwith- 
standing the washing of his flesh, and the linen garments 
with which he was clothed, could not enter the holiest 
with the blood of atonement unless he could personally 
shelter himself under a cloud of incense. A perfume, 
not his own, but provided according to minute directions 
given by God. 

Two epithets are especially attached to the incense, 
"pure" and " holy" — and it was to be holy for the Lord. 



ingredient of the incense, betokened purity. The word 
"pure" is connected with it. Exod. xxx. 24; Lev. 
xxiv. 7 ; and the Hebrew word " Levohnah 9 has the 
appropriate signification of whiteness. One of the He- 
brew words for the moon is almost the same as that for 
frankincense — "fair as the moon." Cant. vi. 10. There 




The frankincense, which was one 



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is one of whom it is truly said, " Thou art fairer than 
the children of men ; " whose unsullied purity formed a 
wondrous contrast with every other human being. A 
purity, a righteousness so made manifest upon the cross 
that even a Roman Centurion exclaimed, " Certainly 
this was a righteous man." Luke xxiii. 47. The cloud 
of incense beaten small, as it wafted itself up to God, 
attracted with its singular perfume that Gentile soldier. 
Purity and holiness are not to be found here except 
in one whose graces were fully displayed before God. 

The incense was compounded of three sweet spices 
besides the frankincense, "stacte, onycha, and galba- 
num." The two last are not known ; but the stacte is 
manifestly derived from a word signifying "to drop? 
both in the Hebrew, and in the Greek translation. A 
sweet spice that spontaneously dropped from the tree 
which produced it. Another emblem of the grace of 
the Lord Jesus, the Son of Man. Grace and truth came 
by Jesus Christ. His paths dropped fatness ; wherever 
He went, true love, sympathy, and pity flowed from His 
heart towards the weak, the weary, and the afflicted. 
He was the true Man in the midst of falsehood and 
deceit in human beings all around Him. True in His 
affection ; true in His words ; true in His sympathies ; 
true in His rebukes of evil as well as in His forgiveness 
of sin. It is blessed to turn from the hypocrisies of our 
own hearts, and of men around us, and contemplate 
Him J* who did qo violence," " neither was guile found 
in his mouth." Isa. liii. 9 ; 1st Pet. ii. 22. There was no 
effort in Him ; He simply lived, manifesting life in all 
He did and said. There was no affectation of spiritu- 
ality ; He was what He appeared to be. Thus His 
words and ways were not forced. His sanctity was 
oiot assumed. He had nothing to lay aside when He 
jcame into the presence of others. He put on nothing 
to gain their admiration. He was always Himself, 
living in the presence of God, ever pleasing God. 
Blessed contrast with men who have to assume religi- 



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ousness to hide their own evil, who think that rough- 
ness is sincerity, and who are unnatural oft-times even in* 
the very presence of God. 

The incense " tempered together pure and holy" may 
have reference to the sweet fragrance which the Man 
Christ Jesus ever presented to God. The Israelites 
were forbidden to make a perfume like it, c< to smell 
thereto." Christ is not to be imitated by a false hu- 
mility to gratify one's own self-conceit. There may be 
a shew of wisdom and humility by which men satisfy 
their own flesh, but this is like an imitation of the holy 
perfume to smell thereto. If we are imitators indeed 
of Him we must first have been washed in His precious 
blood, and be born of God. To follow Him would 
involve self-crucifixion instead of self-admiration. 

The golden censer was filled with burning coals, and 
Aaron's hands were filled with incense. The vessel that 
held the fire — type of the holiness of God — was full. 
The altar from which that fire had originally been 
taken was a place where the holiness of God was. 
exhibited in no scanty measure; and the censer was 
also filled, that in the very holiest itself that consuming 
fire might again be presented according to the divine 
estimate. 

The high priest's hands were also full of sweet 
incense. He had to grasp that holy compound to the 
full extent of his ability, that his filled hands might 
answer to the filled censer. He then put the incense on. 
the fire before the Lord, and the cloud of the incense 
covered the mercy-seat, and mingled with the cloud of 
glory upon the mercy-seat, in which Jehovah appeared- 

We must here draw a contrast betwixt Aaron and 
Christ. The Lord Jesus presented Himself to God on* 
the morning of His resurrection— called of God an High 
Priest, after the order of Melchizedek. His entrance 
into heaven itself was like the bringing in of fresh 
incense before God ; for He entered on the ground of 
His perfect obedience unto death, even the death of the 



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cross. God had been glorified in Him, on that very 
earth where God had been so dishonoured by man ; and 
when for the first time a Man stood in the presence of the 
glory of God before " the throne of the Majesty in the 
heavens," a cloud of human fragrance (may we not say ?) 
mingled itself with the cloud of Divine glory. What a 
wondrous addition to the heaven of heavens ! What an 
added glory was the entrance of the risen Man there for 
the first time as the risen man — a man able to stand before 
God on the ground of His own righteousness, His own 
obedience, His own purity, His own holiness ; and also* 
able to say to God, " I have glorified thee on the 
earth, I have finished the work which thou gavest me 
to do." 

May we not with reverence contemplate this resurrec- 
tion of Jesus, and His thus presenting Himself before God 
in heaven itself, as a marvellous change in the economy of 
the heavens. One who bore the likeness of the creature, 
standing in the midst of the throne of the Most High in 
such nearness to God ? What indeed has God wrought ! 
What marvels has He accomplished through His blessed 
Son! 

Aaron next took of the blood of the bullock and 
sprinkled it with his finger upon the mercy-seat, and 
before the mercy-seat, seven times. So also he did 
with the blood of the goat, the sin-offering for the 
people. Having sheltered himself under the cloud of 
incense, he was able to bring this record of death, the 
blood, and sprinkle h under the glory of God upon the 
mercy-seat, and upon the ground before the mercy- 
seat ; first by way of atonement for himself and his 
house ; and next on behalf of the people. 

What a singular ritual this. The emblem of death 
placed where God in His glory manifested Himself. 
What a wondrous coming together of things in them- 
selves opposed to one another. A record of life poured 
out on account of sin, brought into the holy of holies- 
And yet how this shadowy ritual pourtrays to us the 



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truth in which our souls rejoice. The great enigma of 
truth solved to faith in the death of God s Son. 

It was said of the Aaronic high priest that "he entereth 
into the holy place every year with blood of others? 
(Heb. ix. 25 ;) or, as it might be rendered, strange or 
foreign blood, (alotrto,) seeing there was no affinity 
between the blood of a bullock, and a goat, and himself, 
a human being. It is written of Christ that " he by his 
own (idiou) blood entered in once into the holy places,** 
Heb. ix. 12; and, the word "his own 9 is again 
repeated, Heb. xiii. 12. 

Aaron had to make atonement for himself as well as 
for his house. His own blood would have been of no 
avail for others, or for himself, for he was a sinner. 
Our High Priest is " holy, harmless, undefiled, separate 
from sinners, and made higher than the heavens ;" and 
what He is now in the glory that He was when on 
earth, as far as regards holiness and harmlessness. 
Free from all human infirmity — the Son — who offered 
up Himself. 

Aaron had to sprinkle the mercy-seat eastward, be- 
cause his approach into the holiest was from the east, 
And he had to sprinkle before the mercy-seat, to establish 
a footing for himself before God ; for his own feet 
would have defiled the ground before the mercy-seat. 
The Lord Jesus, has His own rightful place — the Lamb 
as it had been slain in the midst of the throne — and He 
enables us sinners by nature, to enter into the holiest by 
JHis blood, "by a new and living way, which he hath new 
made for us, through the vail, that is to say, His flesh." 

We have no threat of " lest he die" held out to us in 
our approaches to God ; but our very way is a living 
way, made new in contrast to all other ways of old, and 
^ver new with the fresh sprinkled blood, in contrast 
with the blood only sprinkled once a year. The 
.sacrifice of Christ is as fresh in all its life-giving value, 
and in all its cleansing power to-day, as it was on the 
•very day it was first offered. The blood of Christ has 



437 



ever its full, and fresh, and living value, in contrast with 
the blood of victims which had to be renewed daily and 
yearly.* 

Aaron had to make atonement for the holy place, and 
for himself, his household, and tHe congregation of 
Israel. " The holy place" throughout this chapter where 
the word "place 9 is in italics, signifies the "most holy, 9 * 
ver. 2, 16, 17, 20, 23, 27. Called "the holy sanc- 
tuary'' in verse 33. No one was to be with him, 
or enter the tabernacle until he had completed that 
important work of atonement. Atonement properly 
speaking is all Godward ; and is accomplished by one 
alone. The sinner who is atoned for has no part in the 
work. It is accomplished entirely by another. He is 

Eassive, and ignorant of the fact, until God reveals it to 
im by His Spirit through the Word. It is most 
important for the peace of the soul that this should be 
fully understood. And this type makes it very plain. 
Not one of the congregation, nor one of Aaron's house 
was with him whilst he thus acted for them before 
God. . They could not be aware whether even he was 
alive in the sanctuary, or what he had accomplished 
there. They were not in any attitude of prayer or 
supplication outside ; but they silently waited in suspense 
till he came out; then they knew he had fulfilled 
all God's requirements ; this being proved by the fact 
that he was alive. 

The whole work of atonement, from beginning to 
end, has been accomplished by Christ alone ; whether 
we look at the commencement of the work in the 
shedding of His blood on the cross, or at its completion 
in His resurrection as the great High Priest, and entering 
ig, "once for all, by His own blood into the holy places, 

* The word translated " coniteratrf," is as the margin of the Bible has it, "new 
made." The word "new" is a remarkable one, literally meaning "fresh slain," 
(prosphiton,) and is used by the Spirit of God apparently to mark the contrast 
between the way on the day of atonement of old, when the blood must have at 
once ceased to keep its value, because it became stale, and had to be renewed 
every year ; and the constant fresh value of the precious blood of Christ, as of a 
lamb just slain. 



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having obtained eternal redemption." Heb. ix. 12. This 
Is emphatically stated in the Epistle to the Hebrews : 
" when he had by himself purged our sins," i. 3 ; 
" this he did once when he offered up himself" vii. 27. 
*' he hath appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of - 
himself" ix. 26. Alone upon the cross, the Lamb of 
God slain on account of sin. Alone in resurrection, 
the first-fruits of them that slept. Alone in the holiest .. 
with God, the great High Priest. He has offered one ' 
sacrifice for sins for ever, and has by Himself perfected 
the whole work of reconciliation which God committed 
to Him. 

The sinner troubled in conscience on account of his 
sins, is not called upon by efforts of his own to reconcile 
God to himself. Every attempt of his own of this kind is 
the expression of an unbelieving heart, calling in question 
the full eternal redemption which Christ has obtained for 
us. He has to believe in a reconciliation accomplished. 
An atonement completed. A salvation finished. And 
that by the Lord Jesus Himself alone. 

The " atonement for the holy place was because of 
the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because 
of all their transgressions in all their sins ;" or it might 
perhaps be rendered, " he shall make atonement upon 
the holy place, from the uncleanness of the children of 
Israel, and from their transgressions in respect to, or on 
account of all their sins." * 

Throughout this chapter uncleanness is in die plural. 
(Heb. tumoth.) Uncleannesses twice in ver. 1 6, and once 
in ver. 19. It seems especially to refer to personal 
defilements originating from man's very nature, the 
constitution of his body, or from disease. Transgres- 
sions are also mentioned. Sin is that evil thing in which 
we are conceived, which renders us utterly unclean from 
our very birth ; children of wrath by nature. The 
corrupt body is an outward evidence of the evil taint 

* Thi* would appear to be the meaning of the Hebrew preposition " Lamed,** 
placed before " all their sins." It is frequently used in this sense in other parts 
of Scripture. 



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which pervades us. Our mortal flesh, mortal as to 
•every part ; without a spot of it free from death and 
corruption, is a proof of what we are by nature as 
regards our whole being, unclean perishing sinners. 

Transgressions are sins made manifest in direct acts 
contrary to the revealed mind of God. Atonement had 
to be made with reference to the uncleannesses of Israel, 
and their transgressions. These two manifestations of 
evil indicating their sins. 

The law had no full type of the entire corruption of 
man. One of the objects for which it was given, was 
to develope that corruption in overt acts : "wherefore 
then the law? It was added because of transgressions/* 
Gal. ill. 19. 

" Moreover the law entered that the offence might 
abound." Rom. v. 20. It was "the strength of sin." 
1st Cor. xv. 56. In the types therefore which form 
part of the law, we do not discover that great truth, 
that a man is so irremediably a sinner by nature as to 
need new birth, a new existence. 

Perhaps leprosy affords the nearest type of the entire 
uncleanness of the human being. But even here the 
priest could only deal with the manifestations of the 
disease. In interpreting these shadows therefore we 
have to go deeper than the types themselves. The 
atonement made by Christ does not only answer to 
God for us as regards our uncleannesses, but also in 
respect to the unclean nature itself, in which we entered 
this world as children of the first Adam. Our unclean 
selves ; and here we must be careful to distinguish between 
ourselves and our corrupt nature. The atonement made 
by Christ has not in any way cleansed, improved, or 
reconciled our flesh, our evil nature ; for that is so 
irremediably bad, that all that God could do with it 
was utterly to condemn it. In the death of Christ for 
sin, God has " condemned (damned) sin in the flesh." 
Rom. viii. 3. " Our old man is crucified with him that 
rthe body of sin might be destroyed," vi. 6. The body 



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of the sins of the flesh have been put off from us as- 
regards all judgment and wrath of God. We (not our 
evil nature) have been reconciled to God. 2nd Cor. 
v. 18; CoL i. 21. 

This is the great aspect of atonement. For what 
troubles us most, is the constant presence of an evit 
heart, an evil nature ; an inclination for sin, which wilt 
make itself to be felt notwithstanding all our efforts 
towards practical holiness, and notwithstanding we 
are new creatures in Christ, and notwithstanding the 
presence of the Holy Spirit dwelling in us. As believers 
we have a right to look at this, the old man, and say, 
it has been crucified ; it has been condemned once for 
all ; it has been judged under the full wrath of God, 
poured out upon His own Son for us. And there is 
" now no condemnation " of any kind to us— no con- 
demnation on account of this evil nature which we still 
know to exist — no condemnation on account of weakness,, 
failures, ignorances, sins. The uncleannesses and trans- 
gressions of the people entered the sanctuary of God, 
and had to be met by the blood of atonement, or 
otherwise wrath must have burst forth from before the 1 
Lord upon the people, or God mtst remove His dwelling- 
place from the midst of them. 

" The patterns of things in the heavens were purified* 
with these," (sacrifices) but the heavenly things them- 
selves with better sacrifices* than these, for Christ is 
not entered into the holy places made with hands, the- 
figures of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear 
in the presence of God for us." Heb. ix. 23, 24. 

Notwithstanding our manifest sins and uncleannesses, 
of which ro a great extent we are unconscious, Christ 
has opened the way for us into the very glory of God — 
He has preceded us there with His own most precious- 
blood — and now we can draw near with confidence, 

* This Is the only place where the word tacrifktt occurs in the plural, when 
the death of the Lord Tesus is spoken of. In all probability it is used to express 
the fact of His one sacrifice embracing every varied aspect of the many laai/ka. 
offered under the law. 



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without defiling with our presence the holiest of all. 
We can confess our sins before the mercy-seat itself. 
We can bring our deep necessities, and find mercy and 
grace to, help us. We can offer thanksgiving, praise 
and worship which God can accept because of the 
sweet savour of that precious blood. We can say, 
without fear, " thou hast set our iniquities before thee, 
our secret (sins) in the light of thy countenance," 
(Psa. xc. 8.) because we know Christ is in the presence 
of God for us ; His precious blood is in the very light 
of the glory of God on our behalf. The sins which 
have reached to heaven have been covered ; blotted out 
by that sprinkled blood. " We have come to God, the 
judge of all." We have heard His sentence pronounced 
upon us as guilty and defiled sinners. We have seen 
that sentence executed in the death of His own Son. 
We have been justified from sin through that death, 
" justified by his blood." Rom. v. 9; vi. 7. 

We have come " to Jesus the mediator of the new 
covenant *,'\the High Priest in the presence of God for 
us, ministering to us all the blessings of that new 
covenant. We have come " to the blood of sprinkling 
that speaketh better things than that of Abel;" the 
blood of sprinkling upon the mercy-seat, and before the 
mercy-seat. God said to Cain respecting the blood of 
Abel, " the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me 
from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to 
receive thy brother's blood from thy hand." Gen. iv. 
10, II. The blood cried for vengeance. The blood 
of sprinkling to which we have come, speaketh inces- 
santly mercy and grace ; answers every accusation ; calls 
down ceaseless blessings ; cleanseth from all sin ; utters 
a voice which delights the ear of God; and which 
-enables Him to open His hand and fill us with good. 
The word "speaketh" is a blessed word, in contrast 
not only with the blood of Abel which cried for 
•vengeance, but with the blood of bulls and of goats, 
which spoke but for a moment, and effected nothing in 



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reality. Whereas this blood speaketh on and on with 
a ceaseless still small voice of power, until the day of 
full redemption, when the resurrection of the Church 
in glory will manifest for ever its mighty efficacy : and 
the voice of the precious blood will continue to sound 
until Israel, Gods chosen nation, and others redeemed out 
of the world during the iooo years reign of Christy 
are clothed with immortality. 



SPRINKLING THE INCENSE ALTAR. 

"And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the Lord, and" 
make an atonement for it ; and shall take of the blood of the bullock,, 
and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar 
round about. 

"And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven 
times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the 
children of Israel. — Lev. xvi. 18, 19. 

The words "until he come out and have made an 
atonement," see ver. 17, seem at first to be violated by 
the beginning of the above passage, " and he shall go 
out unto the altar that is before the Lord" 

"The altar before the Lord" is not the altar of 
burnt-offering in the court of the tabernacle, but the 
altar of incense in the holy place • so that Aaron did 
not go out of the tabernacle itself, he only went out 
from the holy of holies where the ark stood into the 
holy place. He did not go out into the court of the 
tabernacle until he had finished the work of atonement 
towards God, for himself, and the people; and also- 
had cleansed the holy places. 

The blood of the bullock, the sin-offering for 
himself, and for his house ; and the blood of the goat, 
the sin-offering for the people, was put upon the horns, 
and sprinkled seven times upon the altar of incense, as the 
blood of the same sin-offerings had been before sprinkled 



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on the mercy-seat and ark. By this means the altar 
was cleansed and hallowed from the uncleannesses of the 
children of Israel. In Exod. xxx. io, this atonement 
is anticipated. "Aaron shall make an atonement upon 
the horns of it once in a year with the blood of the sin 
offering of atonements : once in the year shall he make 
atonement upon it throughout your generations : it is 
most holy unto the Lord." 

The mercy-seat was the throne of glory where God 
manifested His presence — He dwelt between the Cheru- 
bim. The incense altar was the holy vessel from which, 
day and night, the holy perfume ascended from burning 
coals of fire, filling the tabernacle with fragrance. It 
was, we may say, the active vessel of the tabernacle. 
The blood of atonement accomplished a double purpose : 
the uncleannesses, transgressions, and sins of Israel were 
purged away from before God in the holiest ; and the 
altar of incense was cleansed from all defilement attach- 
ing to it through their uncleannesses, and was made ready 
to receive the burning coals and incense as if it had been 
for the first time made and hallowed for that purpose. 

We see in this type a figure of the atonement com- 
pleted by the Lord Jesus with regard to the purging of 
our sins, and the consequent exercise of His priesthood 
in ceaseless intercession, like the golden altar before the 
Lord, continually sending up its cloud of sweet incense. 
In the Epistle to the Hebrews, these two blessed services 
of our great High Priest are clearly distinguished from 
one another. If we regard the question of atonement 
for sin, the Lord Jesus has sat down, having completed 
that work. Four times in this Epistle are the words 
"sat down" repeated. 

" When he had by himself purged our sins, sat down 
on the right hand of the majesty on high," i. 3. 

" We have such an high priest who is set on the right 
hand of the throne of the majesty in the heavens," viii. I* 

" Every priest standeth daily ministering and offering 
oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take 



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away sins : but this one, after he had offered one sacri- 
fice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of 
God," x. II, 12. 

" Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of faith, 
who, for the joy that was set before him, endured the 
cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right 
hand of the throne of God," xii. 2. 

The expressions are remarkably varied in these four 
passages as to where the Lord has sat down. 

" On the right hand of the Majesty on high." 

" On the right hand of God." 

" On the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the 
heavens" 

" On the right hand of the throne of God" 
We may gather some instruction from these changes 
of expression. In the first quotation there seems to be 
a striking contrast between purging sins f and the Majesty 
on high. Who could have expected that one who had 
been engaged in such a work as cleansing away sins, 
with all their guilt and defilements, would have imme- 
diately taken His place at the right hand of the highest 
glory ? Yet such is the dignity of His person, and such 
was the greatness of His work — such the lowliness 
of His obedience, that He was exalted to the highest 
place of glory, from the lowest place of suffering and 
humiliation. 

A cross of curse and shame where He purged our 
sins, followed by a grave in which His body lay in the 
helplessness of death, was the pathway taken by the 
Lord Jesus to reach His place of super-exaltation. 

In the second quotation we have Jesus as the High 
Priest sat down on the right hand of God, after He had 
offered one sacrifice for sins for ever. In many of our 
Bibles the stopping of this verse is different, reading 
thus — " when he had offered one sacrifice for sins, for 
ever sat down." And this perhaps is the more correct 
punctuation. The purport of the passage being to tell 
us that Christ has sat down in perpetuity, or for ever, in 



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respect to the fact of His having offered one sacrifice for 
sins. He has officially taken His seat at the right hand 
of God with regard to a work that is finished. He will 
never rise from that seat about sacrifice for sins, for 
that is accomplished once for all. Other priests had to 
stand daily and yearly. No seat was provided for them 
in the tabernacle, or in the court of the tabernacle, for 
their work was never finished. Sins were never put 
away — the worshippers were never purged. God was 
never satisfied. Atonement was never perfected. But 
our High Priest has sat down on the right hand of God, 
for atonement has been made to God. Gods will has 
been accomplished — Gods holiness has been for ever 
satisfied. God's indignation against sin has been for 
ever appeased. And He has received His Son, and has 
said to Him, " sit Thou at my right hand " in token of His 
delight in Him, and in His completed work, and as an 
evidence to us, that all wrath and judgment against sin 
has been completely poured out and «nded in the death 
of Jesus. 

Thus the fact that Christ is seated at the right hand 
of God is the sure ground of peace to the soul of the 
believer. Salvation is accomplished, and Christ can 
henceforth expect " that his enemies shall be made his 
footstool," when He rises from the right hand of God, 
and comes to take vengeance on them. His heart is at 
rest respecting those who believe in Him, for " by 
one offering He hath perfected for ever them that are 
sanctified." 

In the third quotation the Lord is looked upon in the 
greatness and glory of His priesthood. " We have 
, such an High Priest." A glory and excellency which 
are His own. A priesthood which derives all its dignity 
and power from Him who is the great High Priest. His 
being seated " on the right hand of the throne of the 
Majesty in the heavens" witnesses to the power as well 
as the dignity of the High Priest. He can exercise the 
might of that throne on behalf of His people. He can 



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bring us, and keep us nigh to that throne of Majesty in 
the heavens. 

In the last passage, " Jesus the author and finisher of 
faith," is presented to us as the great example to whom 
we are to look in running our race. He " endured the 
cross despising the shame." And where is He now ? 
What is the gpal which He has reached ? What is the 
joy which was set before Him, and which He has 
attained ? He is " set down at the right hand of the 
throne of God.' 1 Rejected, and despised, and crucified by 
man ; God has received Him, God has counted Him 
worthy of the highest place of glory on His throne. 

He has fought the fight for us. He is the " Captain 
of our salvation." He is the " forerunner" who has 
entered in for us. And if we keep our eye on Him we 
shall find grace and faith ministered to follow Him ; and 
He will come again and receive us to Himself, and will 
" grant us to sit with him in his throne, even as he 
also hath overcome, and is set down with his Father in 
his throne." Rev. Hi. 21. 

Thus by Himself He hath purged our sins — by one 
offering He hath perfected us for ever as holy ones to 
God. He has also made a way for us into the very 
presence of God, to the throne of glory, the throne erf* 
grace in the holiest where He Himself has entered. So 
far He has " sat down" having " put away sin by the 
sacrifice of Himself." All obstructions, all hindrances 
are put away, and we can have confidence of access into 
the holiest. 

But there is another ministration of our High Priest 
which is perpetual, and in respect of which the words 
"sat down" do not apply. That is, His ministry of 
intercession • of which it is said, " this one because he 
continueth ever hath an unchangeable priesthood : 
wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost 
that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to 
make intercession for them," vii. 24, 2 5. And " Christ 
is not entered into the holy places made with hands, 



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the figures of the true-, but into heaven itself, now 
to appear in the presence of God for us," ix. 24. 
And, "Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that 
died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the 
dght hand of God, who also maketh intercession for , 
us." Rom. viii. 34. 3 

This incessant service of intercession is the result of, 
and is grounded upon, the shedding of His blood. It 
is the perpetuating the voice of that precious blood in 
God's presence ; and it shelters those who have been 
atoned for by that blood under the full fragrance of 
Him that shed it. As the incense altar was established 
on the ground of the sprinkled blood on the day of 
atonement, so the Lord Jesus takes His place as the 
interceding High Priest, because He has fully answered 
for sin by the sacrifice of Himself. His death has met 
the wrath of God, and saved His people from all 
condemnation, whether due to them "as children of 
wrath by nature," or on account of their sins. His 
intercession covers every failure of which they may be 
guilty as the children God, and continues on their great 
salvation in all its completeness until the very end — the 
day of their redemption ; when they will stand in 
resurrection glory around the Lamb, and when their 
salvation in the fullest sense of the word will be 
perfected. 

We have in the passage above quoted from the 
Romans a fourfold answer to all condemnation. The 
Apostle having answered the question, " Who shall lay 
any thing to the charge of Gods elect," by the declara- 
tion that " it is GOD that justifieth ;" next asks " Who 
is he that condemneth?" Who can condemn us as 
sinners ? Christ has died. He has answered in His 
death entirely for our sins. Yea, rather He is risen 
again : a full proof that His death was all sufficient. 
He has paid the penalty of which His resurrection is 
the evidence. He is even at the right of God. God 
therefore has been fully satisfied — God is well pleased 



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with what His blessed Son has accomplished ; and has 
raised Him in consequence to the highest place of 
dignity and power. 

And who shall condemn us as saints? We are 
indeed most weak, most feeble ; poor specimens of 
saved sinners ; and but indifferent followers of the 
Lamb ; and very distant imitators of God as His 
children. But who can condemn? for Christ is not 
only in the presence of God for us, but " also maketh 
intercession for us." " We have an advocate with the 
Father Jesus Christ the righteous," who has identified 
Himself with our cause, who will maintain our cause to 
the end. And "he is the propitiation for our sins.'* 
Not only has been in His death, but is Himself by 
virtue of that death, the one who can answer for all 
our sins, According to another passage in the Epistle 
to the Romans, " God commendeth his love toward 
us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for 
us ; much more then, being now justified by his blood, 
we shall be saved from wrath through him. For if 
when we were enemies we were reconciled to God by 
the death of his son, much more being reconciled, we 
shall be saved in his life," v. 8, io. 

Herfe we have Christ dying for us as sinners, and 
complete justification through that death, and all wrath 
which might break forth against us, (because of our 
disobedience even as justified persons,) averted througa 
Him in resurrection : for if when we were enemies r 
the death of God's Son for us reconciled us to God — 
much more now that we have been reconciled, and are 
friends and children of God, shall we have salvation 
continued to the end* and perfected in the life of Christ 
for us at the right hand of God, in Him who ever 
liveth. to make intercession for us. 

The intercession of Christ also covers over all defects 
of our worship and prayers, like the incense which was 
added to the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar 
before the throne, and the smoke of which mingling 

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449 



with the prayers of the saints ascended up before 



the propitiation For our sins, and the sweet odour 
of His obedience in death render our worship acceptable 
to God. 

Two great objects were accomplished by Aaron on 
the day of atonement : blood was sprinkled on the 
mercy-seat, and before the mercy-seat in the holiest. 
Thus atonement was made for himself and the sins of 
the people before God. And the incense altar was 
also established in the holy place in fresh purity, through 
the blood, so that a perpetual incense could thenceforth 
ascend from it to God. At that time the vail separated 
the holy place from the most holy. The vail is now 
tent; the holy places are thereby thrown into one: 
The intercession of Christ is therefore in the holiest of 
all, and we as priests have access into the holiest. 

This work of Aaron in the holy places being accom- 
plished by himself alone; he then came out; and we 
have next the service of Aaron in the court of the 
tabernacle where the people were assembled* 




So the full value of Christ, 




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45° 



THE SCAPEGOAT. 

"And when he hath made an end of reconciling the holy place, and 
the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar, he shall bring the 
live goat : 

" And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live 
goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, 
and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the 
head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man 
into the wilderness : ' 

"And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land 
not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness. 

"And he that let go the goat for the scapegoat shall wash his 
clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward come into the 
camp. — Lev. xvi. 20 — 22, 26. 

Three times is the word "alive" connected with this 
goat, ver. Io, 20, 21, probably to convey to our minds 
the thought that the blessed Lord was in the full vigour 
of life when He presented Himself to God, to make 
atonement for our sins on the cross, according to His 
own words, "I lay down my life." "I lay it down of 
myself." John x. 17, 18. 

Aaron having presented the scapegoat alive before the 
Lord to make an atonement with him, ver. 10, 20, next 
laid both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and 
confessed over him all the iniquities of the children of 
Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, 
putting them upon the head of the goat. 

This was done in the presence and hearing of the 
congregation of Israel ; the congregation for which he 
had previously made atonement in the holiest.* The 

* In this Chapter the Hebrew word lah-hal, (sometimes translated congregation, 
sometimes assembly,) occurs twice. "And have made atonement . . . for all the 
congregation of Israel; and "for all the people of the congregation," ver. 17, 33. 
In the last passage the word "of" is not in the original, so that it should be, "for 
all the people, the congregation." All the people being thus denned as the 
congregation, or assembly. 

This word is translated ecclestia (church) in the Sept., and is so quoted in the New 
Testament. " In the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee." Heb. ii. 12. 
See also Psa. xxii. 22; lxxxix. 5; cvii. 32; cxlix. 1. The word kah-hal, assembly, 
occurs first in the blessing of Jacob ; that thou mayest be a multitude (margin, 
assembly) of nations ;" and again, "a nation and an assembly of nations shall be 
of thee ;" and "I will make of thee an assembly of nations." Gen. xxviii. 3; 



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45i 



"high priest's hands, both hands, which had previously 
been rilled with sweet incense, were now, as it were, 
filled with sins, which he transferred to the head of the 
goat, whilst the assembly heard him confess over the 
goat all their iniquities and transgressions, and saw him 
"give " them upon the head of the goat. 

No mere man like Aaron has put our sins upon the 
Victim's head. Jehovah Himself " has laid upon him 
^(Jesus) the iniquity of us all." No human high priest 
has confessed our iniquities, transgressions, and sins 
over a scapegoat ; but the Lord Himself whilst hanging 
on the cross, made full confession of our iniquities, our 
folly, and our guilt ; suffering under the judgment of 
them as if they had been His own. " Innumerable evils 
have compassed me about : mine iniquities have taken 
hold upon me, so that I am not able to look up, they 
are more than the hairs of mine head ; therefore my 
heart faileth me." Psa. xl. 12. " O God thou knowest 
my foolishness, and my sins (margin, guiltiness) are not 
hid from thee." lxix. 5. 

Israel was constituted one assembly in redemption 
through the blood of the Paschal Lamb in Egypt. 
Though many lambs were slain, ("a lamb for an house,") 
yet they were considered as one lamb : " the whole 
assembly of the congregation shall kill it in the evening." 
Exod. xii. 6. Israel subsequently met as sinners alike 
before the Lord on this day of atonement, and heard 
their various sins confessed over, and laid upon the 
head of the one victim. 

" All we (in like manner) as sheep have gone astray : 
we have turned every one to his own way." Each of 
us has had his own path of self-willed sin and depar- 
ture from God. Some of us have taken a religious way 

xxxv. 1 1 ; xlviii. 4. May not these passages look forward to the " great assembly " 
again prophesied of in the Psalms xxii. 25 ; xxxv. 18 ; cix. 3a 

The first occurrence of the word in respect to Israel as a nation, is when the 
Passover was established : " the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall 
kill it in the evening." Exod. xii. 6. ISrael then for the first time was recognized 
by God as having a corporate, and'national existence. 

Thus the passover lamb, and the goat for the sin-offering were for the whole 
asssmbly as a corporate body., 

Q2 



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of our own in wandering from the Lord. Others of us- 
have trodden paths of more open uncleanness and sin ; 
but in either case iniquity, lawlessness, independence of 
God and His Word have marked our ways ; and 
Jehovah has made these our varied iniquities to meet 
on Christ.* We have each of us seen ourselves fully 
estimated by God as sinners, condemned and put to 
death in our substitute on that cross. Wonderful 
meeting place of our iniquities, and of wrath and judg- 
ment, which ever forbids one saying to another, " stand 
by, I am holier than thou." Each having been under 
" the same condemnation," and each therefore owning 
a " common salvation." 

The assembly of Israel having thus heard their sins 
confessed, and having seen them transferred by Aaron 
to the head of the goat, next saw that goat sent away by 
the hand of a fit man into the wilderness. The victim 
with its load of iniquities disappeared from their sight. 
They knew that " a fit man, 9 ' " a man of opportunity," 
had been selecte